Skip to main content

Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (July-Dec. 1887)"

See other formats


T O R 

T^Acn. from whom, anit kow ihw volume was oblniucd, 
with the price piijd, if ant/, mm/ be foum/ ojipoiite 
the above viimhcr in the Jx'ci/in/cr of Books, 
which ii always open to inxpeclion. 

Extract from the Political Code. 

Skction 229fi. Books may be taken from the Library 
by tlie MKMBKris of thk Lkgisi.atukk, di'iiino thk skssio.ns 
TiiKRKiiF, bv olber State c flirers at anv time. 

Pkc. 22»8. ilie Contn.ller, if iiotifieil by the Librarian 
tliiit any oflioer has failed to return books taken by him 
within the time jii e.«eribe<l liy the Kiiles, ami after rle- 
niniul made, mnst not draw his warrant for the salary of 
suph odieer until the return is made, or tliree times the 
value of the hooks, or of any injuries thereto, has been 
[laid to tin' Librarian. 

Sir. 229",l. Every person who injures or fails to return 
any book taken is liable to the Librarian in tluee times 
the value theieof. 

No jierson shall lake or detain from the General Library 
more than two volumes at any one time, or for a longer 
]ieriod than I wo weeks. Books of itn kkknck sham, not 


the Kules.] 

*S-The Foregoing Regulations will be strictly enforced,"»:* 





Vol, XXXTV.— No. 1.] 


SATURDAY, JULY 2, 1887. 

J $3 a Year. In Advanc* 

I SiNOLK Ool'IKH, 10 OTH. 

California Raisins. 

The good time coming seems to be right at 
hand in the matter of California raisios, and in 
view of the rapid increase of the product it is 
a matter for congratulation. We have been 
contending for years for two things : first, to 
make our product both as good and as stylish 
as the European article, and, second, to con- 
vince Eastern consumers of the fact. It seems 
both these things are, in a measure at least, 
accomplished. One of the largest firms of deal- 
ers in New York, in a circular dated June 1st, 
aays : 

The larger receipts of California raisins the 
past year has resulted in so scattering them 
that acquaintance with them has been multi- 
plied in all directions. So greatly improved 
have been moBt of the lots sent that compara- 
tively little remains to suggest, while the uni- 
formity of quality in the bux and general uui- 
formity of entire invoices exceeds that of simi- 
lar foreign raisins. In a word, we find them 
received with general favor, and in many cases 
preferred to foreign. 

Though this indicates great accomplishment 
on the part of our producers, it should not sug- 
gest the slightest relaxation of the effort for 
uniformity and excellence which has secured it. 
The experience of our cannera a few years ago 
in canning trash because the California product 
was selling upon its name, should be a warning 
to all producers that a good name may be lost 
as well as gained, and generally lost in a frac- 
tion of the time required to gain it. There is 
still room for great improvement in our raisins. 
If all were as good as the best, what a vast in- 
crease of money our State would gain from its 
raisia product. This state of affairs will never 
be attained in the very nature of things, but if 
the effort for excellence continues as it has for 
the last 10 years, our best will be the fancy 
article of the world, and our average will stand 
far in advance of the imported product. Let 
the effort then still be for the most careful selec- 
tion of fruit, for the most excellent curing and 
packing, and for honest uniformity throughout 
the package, and full weight above all things. 
Our product can be hurt now only by careless- 
ness or cupidity. These two things have 
wrought such sorry results in the history of 
productive enterprises, that California, having 
all this experience to profit by, should learn 
a lesson for her lasting good. 

Wheat Crop of the World. — In a country 
like England, where so much at'tention is given 
to manufacturing and where the produce of the 
soil does not support the inhabitants, a close 
watch is kept upon the food supply to be ob- 
tained from other nations. Accordingly the 
supply is forecasted by economists and grain- 
brokers with a great deal of precision. So far 
the impression on the British mind is that the 
world's supply of grain this year will be short. 
Naturally the first attention would be given to 
home prospects, and next to India. In England 
the harvest this year will be late, and its prod- 
uct will depend on favorable weather, not to 
be relied on. At best, it will be far short of 
the needs of the population. The crop in In- 
dia is short. The American crop is set down 
below the average, although the lands sown to 
spring wheat promise well. The Russian crop 
looks fair. Australia will yield a small surplus, 
and the wheat regions of South America will 
yield well. The chances for good rates for 
cereals are better than usual, and farmers who 
have grain may reasonably expect good prices. 

George Washington. 

For a century or more the average patriot's 
idea of Washington has been that of a petrified 
soldier standing erect or sitting upon a perpet- 
ual horse, clad in continental regimentals, with 
the winter at Valley Forge, the march across 
Jersey, Trenton, Princeton, Monmouth Court- 
house and Yorktown stamped in durable rig- 
idity upon his face. That grave, sedate counte- 
nance has become rooted in the mental -photo- 
graph of every man, woman and child. To 
draw any other picture of the " Father of his 

Washington certainly ate and chewed victuals 
like the rest of us; slept, perhaps snored, and 
had the toothache. And to tell the truth, we 
have always liked Washington better ever 
since we read how he gave Gen. Lee, at Mon- 
mouth, a little cursing for his cowardice or vil- 
lainy in disobeying orders; not that we approve 
of swearing; for we do not, but we catch at 
everything that makes Washington a real man. 
The age of demi-gods has passed. 

The Wkathbr and Ceop Bulletin of the 
Signal Service reports the weather during the 

WA8HIN3TON IN 1772. 

Country " may seem to some, even in this 
iconoclastic age, as downright blasphemy. 

But now comes the Rev. Ed. Everett Hale 
of Boston, and says that our Washington was 
human, that he traded horses sharply, liked 
pretty girls, would sometimes use a cuss-word, 
get angry and throw a pitchfork at a negro. 
These Boston preachers have no reverence. 
The next thing we know some of them will be as- 
serting of their own knowledge that our George 
cheated at marbles when a boy, stole water- 
melons, ran after dog-fights, and several times 
got into the watch-house. That he whistled 
negro melodies, danced hoe-downs on the cor- 
ner of the street while some one patted 
juba. Pour it all out at once while you 
are at it. When you commence to tar and 
smut a sacred name, smear it on thick, and don't 
do it half-way. 

Bat when we come to think of it, why not ? 

week ending June 2.5th as generally favorable 
for the principal crops. The rains in the South 
Atlantic States have doubtless improved the 
condition of the staple crop in that region. 
More rain is needed in the cotton districts. The 
weather has been favorable for harvesting in 
the wheat region, there having been an ex- 
ceaa of sunshine and very little rain: In the 
corn region, the weather has been generally 
favorable, although in some localities more 
rain is needed, and the cool weather of the past 
week must have slightly retarded the growth 
of the corn crop. 

Dr. Alfred R. Wallace, the eminent 
English scientest, returned a few days ago 
from a trip through Sonoma county, and hon 
ored our sanctum with a call. 

Los AMOELE.S is to make a frnit show at St. 
Louis during the Grand Army P'ncampment. 

The Land of Booms. 

" And they sailed away to the land of booing." 
The above might be made the refrain of many 
a melody at this time, for we are having booms all 
along the line. In the East we have oil booms 
and railroad booms and booms of almost every 
kind and character. There has been no period 
in the world's history when there was such a 
marked activity in large industrial operations 
as just now — when there were such wonderful 
developments in every essential of the world's 
progress. Never before was the opportunity 
presented for the rapid amassing of large for- 
tunes. Millionaires and multiple millionairen 
are as plenty now as were those 30 years ago 
who counted their wealth only by a few hun- 
dred thousand. Monopolies, corners and specu- 
lations of every kind are of daily occurrence at 
every important commercial center. Great 
works of engineering in the damming of streams, 
building of bridges, digging canals, building rail- 
roads to far-off and what were formerly consid- 
ered unapproachable places, are now events of 
every-day undertaking. Huge leviathan ships 
of several thousand tons burden have t<iken the 
place of those of 500 or 600, which were consid- 
ered large ships a few years ago. 'I'iny cockle- 
shell yachts of a few tons burden are now built 
to move through the water at what was for- 
merly considered an unattainable speed. 

Gold, silver, copper and lead are now raised 
in quantities which would have been regarded 
as fabulous 40 and .TO years ago. Largo sec- 
tions of country are lighted up with furnace 
fires fed by the products of our iron and coal 
mines, which are now yielding their output 
in such immense rjuantities as to tax the skill 
and capital of both railroad and steamer to 
move them from pita to furnace. There is a 
veritable boom in every class of mining. . " A 
New South " is just being opened up to the in- 
dustry and capital of the country. That gen- 
ial portion of th^ Union was never so alive to 
the sound of the ax, the hammer, the saw and 
the mill-wheel as now; the boom there is 
genuine and unprecedented. A great empire 
has grown up within the life of a generation in 
the great Northwest, and another has made 
almost pqual progress on the Pacific Slope. 

Pig Iron Bessemer said two years ago that 
1887 was to witness the beginning of the big- 
gest boom the world ever saw — his prediction 
is being more than verified. 

California was never so active as now in all 
the essentials of real progress. The whole 
State is alive and stirring as if of one accord. 
The boom which first made its appearance in 
Southern California about one year ago is 
spreading throughout the State — from Mexico 
to the Oregon line. The only question is: 
Will it last ? We believe it will. The boom 
has not yet struck the middlemen and labor- 
ing community with its full force. But it is 
surely coming to them also, and in time will 
reacl\all, if the great mass of the people are 
only true to themselves; for this is emphatic- 
ally a producing nation, and the people, as a 
whole, can be depended upon to do their duty 
to both themselves and the public by each one 
doing something, creating something, produc- 
ing something, to swell the grand aggregate of 
labor and effort out from which genuine booms 
always come. 

About 76,000 sheep are being driven from 
various points in Oregon to Nebraska this year. 



[July 2, 1887 


The Care of Tender Plants. 

[Written for the Rural Prkbs Gardenrr.] 
By tender I do not mean those wbicli are 
difficult to grow, bat such plants as roses, pel- 
argoniums, heliotropes, fachsias, carnations and 
the like, which, in order to give fine blooms, 
need cultivation and care, in opposition to 
those which bloom well without it. Indeed, I 
think no one who expects to have a garden 
raised on the principle by which Topsy "just 
growed " ought to plant any of these I have 

It is trne that, even when miserably neg- 
lected, such plants will sprawl through an un- 
sightly exietence, and one or more of them are oft- 
entimes seen doing nicely in an otherwise utterly 
neglected garden; but, as a general rule, it will 
be found either that extra care was given them 
while young, securing a vigorous start and a 
constitution able to withstand after neglect, or 
else that they receive semi-occasionally a little 
extra attention in the shape of water or dig- 

It is difhcalt to believe, till yon have seen, the 
difference between the blooms from a sickly, 
stunted plant and those from one under good 
cultivation and doing its best. I know of no 
rosebush which, if sickly, gives more unsatis- 
factory or poorer blooms than the Marechal 
Niel or the Arch Duke Charles, yet the first is 
the tinest yellow tea-rose grown, and the sec- 
ond, when perfect, one of the most lovely im- 

Frequently, flowers which ordinarily you 
would pass by without a second glance will, 
when carefully attended, be the most exquisite; 
therefore a few hints on the care of such may 
not be amiss. 

Attention to Cultivation and Pruning. 

The first thing to be attended to, then, is the 
soil. Try to keep it at least reasonably soft 
around them, although it is not necessary to 
have it like meal, merely digging it deeply and 
loose enough so that their little rootlets may 
find a way. 

Next to digging — almost, I was going to say, 
here in California, more necessary — is frequent 
trimming and pruning. 

In parts of the country where the ground 
freezes solid all winter and the heat burns them 
all summer, so that they have but a short time 
for growing each year, this rule will, of course, 
not hold good; but in California, where, with 
reasonable care, a plant will grow steadily, in- 
creasing in size the year round, it is a different 

A great many here still follow the old East- 
ern plan of doing all their pruning of plants in 
the fall; but it seems to me that where plants 
grow and act so differently there may be differ- 
ence in treatment also, and in a climate so mild 
that we may gather carnations and heliotropes 
to deck our Christmas-trees, we need scarcely 
be governed by the same rules which apply in 
a climate where all plants must be taken up 
and carefully prepared to withstand the winter's 
cold, and force them for blooming in the spring. 

Not only with roses, but with any of the 
plants I have named, frequent and severe clip- 
ping is a great aid to their health and subse- 
quent growth, not to mention size and beauty 
of the blooms. 


I was once advised by a friend, himself very 
skillful with flowers and extremely fond of 
them, never to bother with carnations. Said 
he: " They always grow straggling and sprawl- 
ing, and never look well unless you are forever 
tying them up, and you will get no satisfaction 
from them." I mentally resolved that I would 
have carnations, and moreover that I would not 
have them either straggling or sprawling. I 
reasoned that the same general treatment 
ought to hold good with all plants to some ex- 
tent, abd therefore, inatea^l of allowing mine 
to grow from year to year at the tips, as is usu- 
ally done, presenting a lot of dry, unsightly 
stalks with a patch of green at the end, dragged 
down by the weight of the flower-buds, 1 pro- 
ceeded to take my shears and cut them back to 
" bedrock," which meant that nothing but the 
bare brown stalks were left, standing abont six 
inches high. 

It was a doubtful experiment, for I knew 
nothing practically about their needs, and sev- 
eral flower-wise neighbors told me they were 
mined. I protested stoutly that what was a 
good rule should be sauce for the goose as well 
as the gander, but was gravely informed that 
carnations were not like anything else, and 
couldn't be treated like roses. As a conee- 
quence, when, some three or four months after, 
my carnations (having been carefully dug 
aronnd and watered in the meantime) put;' on a 
new green top of young' shoots and stood liter- 
ally loaded with buda, I was in no small degree 

But a short time ago on inquiring of a florist, 
who formerly grew large quantities of them, the 
reason of their scarcity, I was told that be 
" used to keep lots of 'em, but somehow they 
don't amount to anything; they grow a year or 
two and just die out." 

At the same time, as I write, I can see three 
carnation plants — two of them five years old, 
the third being one of the originals on which I 
first experimented eight years ago. How old 
it was at that time I do not know, though it 

was probably two years old at least; but at 
present it haa on it, by actual count (I have 
counted as a matter of cariosity), 646 buds and 
blossoms, the whole plant looking like a newly 
rooted one. 

The fact is tb»t wherever cutting is done it 
forces new shoots, and these new shoots produce 
the flowers; therefore the more new shoots you 
can force the more flowers yoa will have, and 
vice versa. 


A great many object to cutting fachsias, as 
they think their natural drooping habit more 
graceful, and I even once heard an expostula- 
tion from a lady on the " barbarity " of " cut- 
ting the graceful fuchsia into a stiff shrab. " 
However, I think that lady will find that her 
"graceful" fuchsia will in a short time be 
flowerless, and, although I do not agree with 
her that a fuchsia properly trimmed is any- 
thing approaching the ungraceful, still if the 
choice lies between grace and blooms, I pre- 
fer the blooms. 

Just as soon as my plants (of any kind ex- 
cept annuals) give signs of being nearly out of 
bloom, and the foliage looks dry and do longer 
fresh, I cut them back with no gentle hand and 
rest them for new efforts. This not only does 
not prevent them from attaining size but rather 
seems to force rapid growing and vigorous 

Are greatly benefited by this trimming, and 
more particularly by a liberal application of 
soapsncls. I know of no plant which responds 
BO readily to this stimulant, and I have had a 
dark- purple heliotrope, the tenderest and poor- 
est bloomer of the whole family, give me great 
sprays of deepest purple blooms eight inches 
across, for two or three months after receiying 
a few bucketsful of sads. 

Are benefited by cutting for two reasons; one, 
of course, the production of flower shoots, but 
also because they are brittle and easily broken, 
naturally growing with long, slender branches. 
By keeping them cat back to a round stocky 
bush, not only do they give a mass of bloom, 
but are prevented from being broken by the 
wind, etc. It takes very little frost to affect 
these and heliotropes, and even around Oakland 
they will often be killed if left uncovered dar- 
ing the winter nights. To cover them do not 
use anything heavy enough to break them; a 
newspaper does as well as anything, and is gen- 
erally sufficient if properly secured over the top. 
Other Plants. 

Bulboas plants, lilies, gladiolus and the like 
require rich soil (it can hardly be made loo rich) 
and moisture. 

Dahlias, too, are plants which require the rich- 
est possible soil, and when supplied it gives most 
magnificent flowers for distant effects. Unless 
one is troubled with moles or gophers I think 
there is no necessity of taking up the bulbs or 
tubers here in California during the winter 
months, though I know many do so. 

Koses, especially the red varieties, need the 
sun and all the richness of soil you can give 
them. Wood ashes or powdered charcoal are 
also excellent for them. 

Deep cultivation (for any plants) takes the 
place of water to a great extent, though they do 
still better if they have a plenty. 

All plants of whatever sort shonld have the 
blooms cat as soon as they begin to fade. Not 
only do the old blooms disfigure the appear- 
ance of the plant but the forming of seeds is a 
very exhausting one, and should be prevented 
as much as possible. 


When you water, do so at night, and thor- 
oughly. You may think when you use a rose 
nozzle that you are putting on an immense 
quantity of water, when, in reality, you are 
giving them but little. Take a bucket and fill 
it from the sprinkler, and see how long it takes, 
and you will be able to judge about how much 
you are putting on. A well-grown plant, to 
get a good soaking, needs the equal of three or 
four wooden buckets of water, and to put them 
on with a sprinkler takes time and patience. 

Do not allow the water to run with the full 
force of the stream, as it hardens the ground; 
moreover, if your soil is of the sort which packs, 
do not wet the whole bed, but only the indi- 
vidual plants, if possible covering afterward 
with dry soil. Of course, in a large garden, 
the labor of this renders it impracticable, but 
where there are few plants it may be done, and 
acts as the stitch in time which saves nine. An- 
other way to hoard the moisture is to use a 
mulch of some kind around their roots. Good 
strawy manure is the best, but half-rotted straw, 
leaves, or even weeds pulled from the garden, 
do very well in lieu of better. 

Give your roses, carnations, pelargoniums 
and such the sunny spots; the luchsias, helio- 
tropes, lilies, etc., the paitial shade. Fuchsias 
do well anywhere if watered and cultivated, 
but their blooms are finer in the shade. Give 
your plants plenty of room and do not crowd 
them, setting them far enough apart so that 
they may all get the sun. 

The difference in the size and beauty of the 
blooms seen at the florist's and those taken from 
private gardens is not by any means to be at- 
tributed always to their being grown nnder 
glass, for many of the cut flowers sold are 
grown in the open air. The great difference is 
in the constant, daily, intelligent care each 
Tariety receives, and when we give them the 
same care we shall receive the same results. 
Aorth Temeacal. 


State Hortionltnral Society Meeting. 

The regular meeting was held in this city 
June 24th and was well attended. President 
Hilgard being unavoidably absent, Mr. .Shinn 
was chosen as chairman of the meeting. After 
the reading of the minutes of the preceding 
meeting, Messrs. H. W. Rice of Haywards and 
I. Allegretti of West Berkeley were elected 
members of the society. The names of S. L. 
Goldman of San Francisco and W. A. Fisher 
of Napa were proposed for membership. 

Fruit Exhibits. 

There was exhibited a specimen of cheri- 
■rooyer or custard apple grown by .Joseph Sex- 
ton of Goleta, Santa Barbara county. The fruit 
-was pear-shaped, about 4^ inches in diameter, 
the surface having something like pineapple 
markings, the color greenish, turning to yellow 
as ripening progresses. The fruit was unripe, 
but excited much interest for its novelty. The 
specimen will be kept for ripening by the 
secretary . 

R. J. Trumbull showed a fine sized apricot 
ripening at San Rafael, nearly with the Pringle 
and considerably ahead of the Royal. He did 
not know the variety or whether it was a seed- 
ling or not. No one present could give the in- 

James Shinn showed St. Ambroise apricots, 
' quite large and handsome but still long from 

The secretary showed Centennial cherries sent 
him by Leonard Coates of Napa, June l*2th, 
being picked the day before. They were placed 
.on a patitry shelf to see how long they would 
'keep. At the meeting June 25tb, they were 
•till sound and handsome. 

Fruit Reports. 

B. M. Lelong, secretary of the State Board 
of Horticulture, submitted a long report on the 
condition of the fruit crop, with special refer- 
ence to the excessive hot spells and frosts which 
have visited the State since April. The cor- 
respondence upon which the report was based 
covered nearly the whole State. We give be- 
low an outline of the report in condensed form, 
grouping the replies by counties : 

Shasta County. 

C. C. Bush, Redding : No damage in this 
vicinity from hot weather or frost this season. 
Fruit crop is exceptionally good up to this 
time. No insects or blights have been re- 

J. M. Lowe, Anderson: Fruit trees are all 
loaded to their fullest capacity. Bartlett pears 
very full. No damage has been done by heat, 
and the fruit crop promises to be a perfect suc- 
cess in all respects, except plums and prunes, 
which will not be more than half a crop. 

Butte County. 
John B'dwell, by G. M. Gray, Chico: Hot 
weather burned the China pears but did not 
hurt Bartletts; they stick tight and are a splen- 
did crop. Peaches were not injured, but apples 
were burned on west side of the tree, and white 
cherries were burned and braised somewhat. 
The codlin moth is our worst pest, but it is not 
as bad as last year. We have been over the 
bands twice this year, and one time found 1200 
larvie. Two years ago we caught 17,500 worms 
the first time over. I think the reduction is be- 
cause of close attention to the bands and spray- 
ing with sulphur and soap when the fruit was 

Sutter County. 
S. J. Stabler, Yuba City: The hot weather 
did not affect pears or peaches. Peach crop 
best we ever had, especially late varieties. Hot 
winds in May injured smalt fruit seriously. 
Estimate of the iruit crop of this county: 
Peaches, 1500 tons; apricots, 500 tons; pears, 
2(X) tone; apples and nectarines, nominal; very 
few cherries in the county. No perceptible in- 
jury from frost. 

Colusa County. 
(Report unsigned.) Have not been able to 
detect any damage by heat. Fruit crop in this 
immediate vicinity I should estimate about 80 
tons of raisin and table grapes, IGOO boxes of 
peaches. Other fruits are not yet in bearing. 
Frost did some injury to vines, but not to 

Yolo County. 

Geo. W. Hinclay: The heavy norther blew 
off the pears. Birtlett crop light. So far as I 
know, no damage from codlin moth, yet attri- 
bute this to neighbor Thissell's bug trap, which 
has caught ap all the codlins in this section of 

J. R. Wolfskin, Winters: The hot weather 
caused the Bartlett pears to drop badly; also 
lost a few peaches and many apricots; Royals 
dropped one-fifth of the crop. Of the fruit 
crop I would say: Apricot yield, large; peaches, 
good; prunes, none; pears, fair; very few cod- 
lin moth larva- so far. 

Webster Treat, Davisville: Hot weather of 
May 27th and 28th caused all kinds of pears to 
drop to some extent, bat did no damage to 
peaches. Have not seen any oodlia moth larvie 
this season. No injury by peach moth, no 
blight, no fungus. 

Solano County. 

' A. T. Hatch, Suisun: Bartlett pears dropped 
from whipping of the wind, not by heat; peach- 

es also Buffered in the same way but not to any 
extent; yellow egg plums badly burned; goose* 
berries badly damaged; cherries, considerably. 
The crop of apricots, peaches, pears, nectarines, 
and almonds is large. Very few codlin and 
peach moth larv;c this season. No blight on 
pears this year. 

Napa County. 

Leonard Coates, Napa: Bartlett pears have 
not dropped more than usual. We count a 
north^ wind good for pears, as likely to check 
fungoid diseases. Peaches are dropping some- 
what. Small fruits and cherries were most in- 
jured by the hot spell. The fruit crop gener- 
ally is a very fair average; peaches and apri- 
cots being above the average, though some are 
still falling off. Codlin moth larvip is hardly 
to be seen. I think the cold weather killed 
off the first moths. List year at this time 
there were plenty of the larvae. The peach 
moth was very troublesome early in the season; 
also twig-boring beetles. We have about as 
much pear blight as usual. Washes do not 
seem to have done any good, but the north wind 
reduced it. 

Sonoma County. 

Robt. Hall, Sonoma: Pears were not injured 
by the hot weather, nor have they thinned 
themselves enough. Where trees were pruned 
heavily, there is a good crop free from blight. 
Where there is too much wood and a mass of 
foliage, they are more subject to fungus. Will 
be a fine peach and apricot crop. Hot weather 
caused plums to drop, but enough remain to 
make a good crop. Fruit outlook better than 
for several years. There is, however, great 
danger of high winds; if it blows as strong later 
as it did a few weeks ago, much of the fruit 
will undoubtedly be knocked off. 

Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa : No injury to 
Bartletts, and the trees are loaded. Winter 
Nelis is a failure this year, peach trees are over- 
loaded; some apricots and apples dropped, but 
the apricot was never so fruitful as this year. 
French prune crop is short; Bartlett pears as 
usual; apples short. Codlin moth has done 
great damage in three years past; have not 
seen it yet this year. I see no apple and pear 
blight this season. 

W. H. Pepper, Petaluma : The hot weather 
burned bat few peaches, but at least half my 
plum crop was cooked by it. Some apples 
were burned; Newtown pippins and many other 
kinds set very light. Young trees in some 
parts of nursery were badly damaged by the 
frost in April. No apple worms so far, bat I 
think it is not time for them to show yet, as 
the spring is so late. 

Alameda County. 

E. Munyan, Newark: Pears and peaches 
not injured by the heat, but blight is appear- 
ing on the Bartlett pears within the past week. 
Apples burned badly; cherries somewhat in- 
jured; gooseberries and currants almost rained; 
plums are falling off fast. In this vicinity 
apples and pears will be about an average; 
peaches, apricots and quinces very heavy; 
plums fair; black cherries a good crop; Royal 
Ann almost a failure, the latter being injured 
seriously by the frost. Codlin moth does great 
injury. Pears slightly blighted, hut helped by 
washing with wood ashes and lime. 

Jas. Shinn, Niles: Pears and peaches un- 
injured by the heat; apples burned to some ex- 
tent on the south side of the tree. No injuries 
from frost. Codlin moth very destructive last 
year, but not noticeable so far this year, prob- 
ably because the season is so late. My pears 
of all kinds are unusually clean of all fungus. 

W. C. Blackwood, Haywards: No injury to 
tree fruits, except plums, by the hot spell, and 
no dropping, to any extent, of fruit. Currants 
and gooseberry crops about one half destroyed; 
yellow and egg, Jefferson and Coe's Golden 
Drop badly damaged. No codlin moth has ap- 
peared yet. Paris green and London purple 
have been widely used, but it is too early to 
know the results. Have not heard of any 
damage by peach moth nor any blight on pears 
or apples. 

C. C. Chase, Irvington: No damage to pears 
or peaches by the hot weather. Apple trees 
affected with blight, but oannot state amount 
of damage. 

J. L. Beard, Centerville: No iujury to pears; 
peaches are dropping somewhat, but not more 
than usual. Hot weather cooked two-thirds of 
my gooseberries and currants. Think I lost 
8.'1000 worth of them. Plums were considerably 
injured, especially .Jefferson. Codlin moth is 
very bad; last year lost one- quarter of my pear 

H. W. Meek, San Lorenzo: Hot weather did 
no injury to pears or peaches, but small fruits 
were badly burned; currants were injured at 
least 40 per cent; gooseberries 25 per cent, 
plums are not more than half a crop. Codlin 
moth larv.v appeared to slight extent on June 
15th, but not as numerous as last season. 

Santa Clara. 
.John Britton, San Jose : Pears and peaches 
are dropping badly from blight and cold nights. 
In some localities the damage by frost was 
serious. Codlin moth haa appeared, but can- 
not state to what extent yet. Last year it 
took three-quarters of the pear and apple 

A. Block, Santa Clara : The hot weather 
caused considerable injury by dropping of 
pears, peaches— late Crawfords worst — egg 
plums and Moorpark apricots. I have not data 
for a close estimate of the crop of the county, 
but I think there will be .5000 tons of apricots. 
Codlin worms have appeared, but in small 

July 2, 1887.] 


nnmbera, owing, I think, to latenesa of the 

San Benito County. 

H. Donnelly, HoUister: Hot weather did 
but little damage. Codlin moth iojurious in 
past years, but has not appeared so far this 
year. No peach moth; some blight, but not to 
any great extent. Fruit crop generally good. 

John W. Green, HoUister: No damage to 
fruit crops. Estimate crop of the county at 
450 tons. 

Sacramento County. 

Sol. Eunyon, Courtland: Hot spell did no 
damage in this section unless it was to grapes 
which were just setting. We promise to have 
a full crop of peaches, apricots and apples; 
pears and plums are somewhat short. There 
has been no damage by frosts this season ex- 
cept to grapes in some parts of the county. I 
have not seen much of the codlin moth larvae 
yet, and the peach moth is not aa bad as last 

C. W. Reed, Sacramento: No damage by 
heat in my orchard. Fruit crop is good except 
plums. Grapes injured here and there by the 
frost. Codlin moth larva has made its appear- 
ance. I have picked all the infested fruit, but 
do not think I have more than ten per cent as 
much as last year. No peach moth this year. 
No blight of pear or apple trees. 

Sperry Dye, Walnut Grove: North wind 
dropped Bartlett pears, but the main injury 
was done, I think, by the striped beetle 
(Diahrotica villata), which destroys the petals 
of the flowers, and the small pears fall. No 
other variety than the Bartlett is affected. 
Hot spell did no damage to peaches, nor has 
there been any injury by frost. Codlin moth 
larva has appeared, but not to any extent so 
far. Peach moth not abundant. I have not 
heard of blights or fungus diseases here this 
season. Have used B. M. Lelong's winter and 
summer washes with excellent results. 

C. T. Davis, Richland: Heat caused too 
many Bartletts to drop. No effect noticed on 
the peach crop. Fruit crop of the county will 
exceed that of 1885. No damage by frost. 
Codlin moth has appeared as bad as ever. 
Apples are dropping off badly. 

Placer County. 

N. R. Peck, Penryn : Hot weather did no 
harm to pears and peaches, but burned apples 
on north side of tree. Injured some kinds of 
plums a little; caused oranges to drop. Fruit 
crop will be large, excepting plums. Frost 
hurt nothing but grapevines, and the damage 
was slight. Codlin moth has appeared, but not 
as bad as heretofore. No blight or fungus dis- 
eases reported. 

P. W. Butler, Penryn: All varieties of pears 
promise full crop. No injury by hot weather. 
Peaches will be abundant, though some injury 
was done to the young trees by the cold 
weather of May 10th. The heat caused oranges 
to drop, and greatly reduced the raspberry 
crop. Peach and pear crop will doubtless be 
double that of any previous year. 

C. M. Silva, Newcastle: Pears dropped bad- 
ly before the hot weather came on, but there 
are still enough on the trees for a fair crop. No 
damage to peaches and the crop is large. Plum 
crop is light; full crop of nearly all other kinds 
of fruits. Vines on low ground somewhat in- 
j[ured by frost, but on high ground not at all. 

El Dorado County. 
E. O. M. Mortensen, Pilot Hill: No damage 
by heat to pears or other fruit, but some injury 
by frost and codlin moth. Fruit crop for Co- 
loma section will be about one-third, being at- 
tributed to frost of May 11th. Peaches suf- 
fered most and pears the least. Codlin moth 
is our most injurious pest. Early varieties of 
apples are all dropping. 

Nevada County. 
Felix Gillet, Nevada Ci'y: All sorts of pears 
and apples have been dropping because of the 
black frosts of April 10th and May 11th, which 
were severe enough to weaken the stems. 
Still our trees are very full. Hot weather did 
no damage whatever. Cannot estimate fruit 
crop of the county, but if it were not for the 
codlin mothj.our pear and apple crops would be 
more than a good average. The main suffer- 
ers from frost were the plums, cherries, peaches, 
apricots and small fruits. Outside of the cod- 
lin moth our mountains are entirely free from 
insect pests. Winter Nelis pear is the only 
kind attacked by blight or fungus. 

Amador County. 

G. L. Lebbs, lone: Peaches not injured by 
hot weather, but slightly touched by frost of 
May 10th, from which some varieties dropped 
heavily. Peaches dropping within the last 
two weeks attributed to the cold weather which 
has prevailed. Cannot estimate fruit crop, but 
complaint is that it will be much less than was 
expected. Grapes are damaged about one-half 
by the frost. Pears and apples have been at- 
tacked by fungus, but cannot estimate amount 
of damage. 

San Mateo County. 
J. T. Doyle, Menlo Park: My apples, 
peaches and apricots were thinned before the 
hot spell, and do not see any injury from beat. 
Our crop is enormous, but the fruit small. 
Fears and plums give small crop; peaches aud 
apricots very large; apples about average 

Santa Cruz County. 

H. C. Morrell, Wrights: Hot weather did 
no damage. Bartletts are a full crop; Winter 
Nelia a failure, as usual, from black mildew. Cold 
north wind caused some Salway peaches to drop. 

but other varieties are a full crop. I hear it es- 
timated that the crop of this region will run 
thus: Plums, one-quarter of a crop; peaches 
and apricots, full crop; French prunes, full 
crop; German prunes, a failure; Hungarian 
prunes, full crop. The codlin moth had ap- 
peared in full force. The amount of damage 
last year was 75 per cent. Peach moth not here 
yet. Have had the gum blight for last three 
years, but it is passing off. 

A. N. Onymous, Santa Cruz: Hot weather 
dropped Bartletts in some places but not in all. 
No complaint of other fruit dropping. The 
peach crop is good; plums poor; Petite prunes 
light for us; pears rather poor; cherries good; 
olives very promising; codlin moth and black 
blight on pears and apples are very bad. 

T. V. Mathews, Santa Cruz: Fruit crop is 
very good; 25 per cent better than ever before. 
We have some codlin moth, but it does little 
damage. We think it is prevented by night 

San Joaquin County. 
W. H. Robinson, Stockton: Hot weather 
caused too many pears to drop, but did not hurt 
the peaches. Late cherries were injured. Ap- 
ples were scorched where the sun struck them, 
but the in j ury on the whole is not great. Vine- 
yards somewhat damaged by the frost. Codlin 
moth larvs have appeared, but not as bad as 
formerly. Peach moth has done slight damage. 
Blight has attacked Winter Nelis. 

W. B. West, Stockton: Hot weather did 
not injure peach crop here; were not hart by 
the frost, but on the Mokelumne river and 
slightly on the Calaveras, they were injured. 
Apples are not grown to any extent. Pear 
trees mostly free from blight. 

Fresno County. 
W. M. Williams: Heat did not cause pears 
or peaches to drop; in fact, they are too full 
now. Fruit crop of the county very heavy, but 
cannot give estimate. 

Tulare County. 
Isaac H. Thomas, Visalia: No injury by hot 
weather to either pears or peaches; in fact, 
more warm weather would be desirable; fruit 
50 per cent better than last year, plums and 
prunes only being short. Codlin moth very 
bad last year, and probably the same this year; 
we are experimenting with numerous remedies. 
No blight known here. 

Kern County. 
C. Brower, Bakertfield: No injury either by 
hot weather or north wind, but small acreage 
in fruit here as yet. Plums and nectarines on 
low, wet land, very little crop. Few codlin 
moth last year, none so far this season. 
Santa Barbara County. 
J. Sexton, Goleta: The hot weather did not 
visit this section. Fruit all has to be thinned 
by hand. Winter Nelis has no fruit, from what 
cause I do not know. I do not think any fruit 
will go to waste except apricots; there is a larger 
crop of them than can be handled. Very little 
codlin moth here, not enough to do us much 
damage. We have no peach moth, nor have we 
heard of any blight or fungus on apple or pear 

Ellwood Cooper, Santa Barbara: Hot spell 
did not reach Santa Barbara. Bartletts in the 
Goleta district are fruiting abundantly ; in 
fact, all our fruit trees are loaded. We have 
in some places the black scale and the Icerya. 
Fruit cannot be grown at a profit anywhere un- 
less the insects are kept at bay. 

Geo. W. Coffin, Sinta Barbara: Taking 100 
as an average standard, I would estimate the 
fruit crop as follows: Peaches 100, pears 100, 
apples 90, cherries 80, apricots 125, grapes 100, 
almonds 25, walnuts 125, figs 100, olives 
blooming full. I have seen codlin moth in 
former years, but none so far this year; in fact, 
it seems to be a bad year for insects generally. 

O. N. Cad well, Carpinteria: Bartlett pears 
promise very well; Winter Nelis very thin; 
plums falling off early; peaches looking well, 
and expect good crop; nectarines full crop; ap 
ricot crop very large. No codlin moth in this 
vicinity; no peach moth. 

H. C. Ford, Carpinteria: All fruits are do- 
ing well. Apples are above the average; apri- 
cots and walnuts one quarter above the average; 
peaches, plums and prunes a full crop. Pears 
in most localities, fair crop. 

Ventura County. 
N. W. Blanchard: No hot wave in this 
county. Fruit crop is good all around, and as 
large as two years ago. There was no frost ex- 
cept in the Ojai valley, and that injured noth- 
ing but plums. We have none of the popular 
pests, and no blights or fungoid diseaees. 

Los Angeles County. 
Milton H. Thomas, Los Angeles: Have had 
no hot weather to do any damage to the fruit 
crop, which will be a good average. 

S. McKenley, Los Angeles: Fruit crop of 
county very large and good. Have never seen 
better prospects for apricots. No damage from 
heat or frost. Are now marketing tomatoes. 

Note by Mr. Lelone. 
Samples of apples attacked by codlin moth 
larvaj were sent to this office by Mr. Gillet of 
Nevada City. They were small— the largest 
of the samples was only one inch in diameter 
and the smallest about one-half inch. Upon 
being cut, the larv;e that were found in them 
were nearly full grown, about ready to leave the 
apple. These samples were laid upon the 
mantel, and two days afterward it was found 
that two \a,T\'9i had bored out of the side and 
left the apple. 

Several samples of burned fruit were also re- 

ceived from various sections, but none to equal 
those sent by Mr. Robinson of Stockton, the 
upper side of the apple being badly burned. 

From all reports received, I find that where 
Paris green and arsenites were used the rav- 
ages of the codlin moth larvaj are less than any 
previous season; also where sulphides were 
used against blights and fungoid diseases, they 
were less noticed than at any previous time. 

Notwithstanding the many obstructions the 
fruit-growers of this State have had to over- 
come, they have shown that they can grow the 
best of fruits and grow them profitably. The 
healthy condition in which the large majority 
of the orchards of this State are found, in com- 
parison with former years, is sufficient proof 
that progress has been made. 

The Apricot Discussion. 
The report of Mr. Iielong was heard with 
much interest, and afterward there was a dis- 
cussion on the apricot, led by Judge Blackwood, 
of which we will give a report next week. 

JIJhE *V'ETEf^lNAR[/rN, 

Colic in Horses. 

Editors Press: — I have read a very interesting 
coniiiiunication by Robert J. Dawson, V. S. , m the 
Rural on "Colic in Horses." It is apparently 
written with a view to prevent frequent attacks, but 
I wish to ask if Dr. Dawson will tell us, through 
your paper, what simple remedy or remedies he 
would recommend when a horse has an attack. Last 
year and this, each of my horses had a slight attack 
I think of colic, when fed freely on the new hay. 
I gave them about four or five ounces of brandy, 
diluted one-half, with about a tablespoonlul of soda 
added, and it seemed to give them relief. What 
would Dr. Dawson prescribe ? I think information 
on the subject would be appreciated by many of 
your readers. — A Subscriber, Los Gatos. 

Editors Press: — In answer to " A Sub- 
scriber " I will endeavor to give the best treat- 
ment for horses sufifering from colic or gripes. 
He is right when he says that my notes upon 
that subject treated mostly with preventive 
measures, and I maintain this Is the most im- 
portant matter in all diseases. In the first 
place, I guess that it is hardly necessary to 
point out to this gentleman that having clearly 
proved to his satisfaction that the cause of 
colic in his horse was due to the consumption 
of hay in a particular condition, he must 
discontinue to feed upon this kind of food, and 
the effect will cease. But in the case of those 
animals really suffering from pain, there must 
be two objects borne in mind, viz., to abate or 
altogether remove the pain by sedatives, and, 
secondly, to remove the offending material from 
the intestines by purgatives. As an extremely 
useful and efficient remedy for the first, I have 
used for many years the ordinary gum opium 
(powdered) in one-dram doses, mixed in a pint 
of warm water. 

The dose may be repeated in two hours if re- 
lief has not been obtained. If it is a case of or- 
dinary colic, this may be relied upon aa a most 
effectual remedy. This one-dram dose is that 
tor an ordinary sized horse, an animal of the 
kind and aize of those usually worked upon the 
farm in buggies, etc. Of course, in the case of 
a small pony, such as a Shetland or Exmoor, 
half a dram is sufficient. And, on the other 
hand, a horse as large as some of our city firms 
employ, I have frequently given, in the course 
of one day, as much as four drama of opium. 
Some veterinary authorities say that the ob 
jection to opium is that it has a tendency to 
produce constipation of the bowels. This I 
will admit, but there is no medical agent which 
is so good a sedative in the practice of veteri- 
nary medicine; and the subsequent administra- 
tion of a purgative counteracts this constipating 
effect. In many cases of intense pain from any 
cause, I have used, with much good effect, the 
injection of morphia under the skin, by means 
of a hypodermic syringe made for the purpose. 
And so quick is this remedy in producing the 
desired results, that a poor animal may be roll- 
ing and throwing itself about in the most in- 
tense agony, and one minute after the adminis- 
tration he will be absolutely free from pain and 
probably commence to eat. The application of 
blankets, which have been dipped in hot water 
and afterward wrung nearly dry, to the region 
of the bowels, is very comfortable and soothing 
to the suffering animal, and is a thing highly 
to be recommended. So much for the sedative 

Secondly, if the colic is due to a spasmodic 
contraction of the bowels, produced by drink- 
ing while much heated of very cold water, the 
above-mentioned administration of opium, 
etc., is all that is needed; but if the attack is 
produced by the animal having eaten indigesti- 
ble or unsuitable food, it is clearly evident that 
this material must be removed from the intes- 
tines by purgatives. For an ordinary-sized 
horse six drams of the best Barbadoes aloes 
should be given, mixed with one dram of 
Jamaica ginger, which will prevent griping; 
but it is necessary to remember in giving pur- 
gative medicine to horses that some horses, like 
some people, are very much more easily purged 
than others, and the administrator of veteri- 
nary medicine must remember this, as if he 
gives too strong a dose of laxatives the horse 
may die from super purgation. And this is an 
ailment — this diarrhea in horses — which is very 
difficult to stop, so that if the owner feels that 
he is not sufficiently acquainted with the indi- 
vidual peculiarity of the horae in question, he 
had better resort to giving bran mashes in large 

quantities daily. This will have the effect of 
producing a loose discharge from the intestines, 
which can be regulated by means of lessening 
or increasing the quantity of bran. Linseed 
oil in this disease is also a safe medicine, given 
to the amount of one pint, and if a desired 
effect is not produced in 24 hours another half- 
pint may be given. I may state, in passing, 
that it takes 24 hours always in the horse to 
produce purgation. 

There are a great many thinga in comparative 
pathology which are interesting, and speaking 
of colic in horses, I have often noticed that the 
animal is much more liable to an attack after 
extraordinary exertion, or when he has used 
up a great deal of vitality. It has been thought, 
but not proved, that Jieru hay will at a certain 
period, when the chemical changes are taking 
place, the conversion into sugar, and so on, pro- 
duce colic. Personally, I question this, and am 
much more inclined to think that the pain is 
produced by eating too much of this agreeable 
food, thereby over-distending the stomach, and 
the digestive system not being able to get rid of 
if, the ingesta undergoes fermentation and pro- 
duces what is known as " flatulency," or windy 
colic. And in this disease the brandy and car- 
bonate of soda, which " A Subscriber " gave, 
was rational treatment, and likely to do some 
good; the carbonate of soda neutralizing the 
generated gases and chemically converting 
them into liquids, which, taking less room in 
the intestines, does away with over-distention, 
and consequent pain. Robert J. Dawson, 
SS5 Geary St., S. F. Veterinary Surgeon. 

A Born OrphaD. 

I am a lone, unfeathered chick 

Ol artificial hatching; 
A pilgrim in a desert wild. 
By happier mothered chicks reviled, 
From all relationships exiled, 

To do my own lone scratching. 

Fair Science smiled upon my birth 

One raw and gusty morning; 
And now the sounds of barnyard mirth 
To lonely me have liitle worth; 
I am alone in all the earth — 

An orphan without horning. 

Seek I my mother ? I would find 

A hearlless personator; 
A thing brass-hided, man designed. 
With steampipe arteries intermined 
And pulseless cotton-batting hned — 

A patent Incubator. 

It wearies me to think, you see — 
Death would be better, ruther — - 

Should children e'er be born to me, 

By fate's most pitiless decree 

My little ones, alas, would be 
With never a grandmother. 

And when to earth I bid adieu. 

To seek a greater, 
I will not do as others do, 
Who go to join the ancestral crew. 
For I will just be gathered to 

My Incubator, 

— Burdettc, in Brooklyn En^le. 

Automatio Poultry-Feeders. 

There has been aomething done in the way of 
automatic chicken-feeders, but the following 
from a correspondent of the Calistogian will be 
read with interest : A few days ago I saw an 
old lady emerge from a barn with a quantity of 
wheat in her aprop, and heard her cry "chick, 
chick, chick," while she scattered the grains 
broadcast on the ground. I suppose that old 
lady has done the same thing day after day for 
years, and will continue to do so to the end of 
the chapter, if inventive genius does not come 
to her aid. As I watched the antediluvian 
process of feeding chickens, I wondered why 
the men who invented such labor-saving ma- 
chines as egg-beaters, apple-parera, sewing- 
machines, etc., never thought of automatic, or 
some other matic, chicken-feeders. I have an 
idea borrowed from a pheasant preserve in 
Great Britain which may serve to put some 
practical mechanic in our district in the way of 
making a cheap and useful contrivance. In the 
preserve above mentioned, pheasants are fed 
with maize during the winter months, and I 
assure you a game-keeper would have a big job 
on his liands were he to feed all hia birds by 
hand. Besides, were he to scatter it on the 
ground, all the birds of the forest would come 
in for a share. The difficulty is overcome by 
placing boxes in convenient localities and train- 
ing the birds to come to them. The feeder is 
simply a box with a lid and a hole perforated 
low down on one side. Over the hole is apiece 
of board which swings on a pivot and opens or 
closes the aperture. On the side of the pivot 
away from the hole there is a step or a perch 
for a bird. When a pheasant lights on this 
perch, the maize runs out into a cup fastened 
to the side of the box. As soon aa the bird 
flies away the lever falls back and covers the 
hole. The leverage is so arranged that birds 
lighter than pheasants fail to open the source of 
supply, and so the little sparrows, robins and 
wrens go on short rations. Could not old 
cracker-boxes with dented pieces of tin be man- 
ufactured into similar feed-boxes, and thus les- 
sen the work of human chicken-tenders? It 
would be necessary to fill the boxes only once 
a week or month, according to the capacity of 
the box or the chickens. 



[July 2, 1887 


Correspondence on Granve principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Oraiuces are respect- 
fully solicited tor this department. 

From the Veteran in Kansas. 

We are gratified to hear again from Bro. T. 
A. Thompson, the pioneer Patron whose letter 
in the Press of April 9th many readers will 
recollect with pleasure, and we doubt not they 
will thank us for giving them the opportunity 
to read most of his latest missive and welcome 
him anon to the Grange homes and halls of Cal- 
ifornia : 

Lawrence, Kansas, June 25, 1887. 
Dear Sir and Brother : It is very stratifying 
to the early laborers in the Order to realize that 
it has outlivtd the opposition all new move- 
ments encounter and the mistakes of those who 
sought only pecuniary giin and never grasped 
the high and noble purpose to educate the 
farmers and bring them into association for so- 
cial and intellectual development, and that it is 
♦irmly and securely ettablished and destined to 
go on parallel with similar but older institutions, 
bringing to the farmers benefits little antici- 
pated at first. Thousands who have stood 
aloof from the Order are now satisfied of its 
permanency and utility, and come flocking to 
its support. 

I believe the Order is doing more good now 
than ever before. It commands the respect of 
all classes, and is enjoying a healthy and sub- 
stantial growth. Very ignorant and dull must 
be that farmer who does not realize the ne- 
cessity of organization by his class. The de- 
mand was never more pressing than now. 
Every other class and interest is organized, and 
only through organization can they expect to 
secure and enjoy their rights. I wish every 
farmer would ask himself, what is the 
tendency of the times, and whither are we 
drifting ? and what has the Orange accom- 
plished ? and then seek to answer from an in- 
telligent standpoint. An investigation of the 
facts will show the (irangecame none too soon, 
and involves the welfare of the farmers, and, 
through their prosperity, the welfare of the 
whole people. 

I am not located where I can enjoy any 
Orange privileges, there being no (Jrange in 
this vicinity, but .lohnson county, adjoining 
this, is well organized, and the Patrons there 
have realized more from the Order than in any 
other county I am acquainted with. They 
have only demonstrated what the Order is capa- 
ble of doing for a people. They have a bank 
and co-operative store, do their own business 
and mind their own business; have fine halls, 
and discuss questions relating to their interests, 
and advance in social and intellectual enjoy- 

I note with pleasure the reports of picnics 
and Grange meetings in the Press and the 
Patron. While you have many live and strong 
(Jranges, yet in California, as elsewhere, the 
Order is not so strong as it shonld be. 
Farmers think they cannot spend time to go 
to the Grange when it can be made 
the most profitable aa well as the pleasantebt 
time of the month. Farmers work too much 
and think too little; or rather, read and think 
and interchange ideas too little. As the Grange 
was designed, it is proving to be the greatest 
educator the farmers have ever enjoyed. 

It has been my purpose to visit the Pacific 
Coast at as early a day as possible. This de- 
sire has been strengthened as I have become 
more familiar with the facts through the Rural 
Press and California Patron, and documents 
sent by various friends. I have not been able 
yet to efifect a sale of interests in Dakota and 
Minnesota. Before settling I wish to see vari- 
ous localities and visit many Granges, so as to 
be able to decide intelligently where I would 
like to make my home. To this end I now 
^hink of obtaining a ticket good for six months, 
and spending next winter in your State. 

It has been my good fortune to enjoy a large 
observation of the practical workings of the 
Order; and if I mingle with the Patrons of Cali- 
fornia, I hope to give them such information 
as will encourage them to take renewed inter- 
est in the Order, and assist in strengthening the 
Granges; and where I can reach the public ear, 
aid in removing prejudice and indifi'erence and 
awaken an interest in the Order, thereby in- 
creasing the membership. 

Vours fraternally, 
T. A. Thompson. 

A New Grange in Placer. 

Kureka Grange, P. of H., was organized .Tune 
18ch, at the Columbia pchoolhoupe, five miles 
from Auburn, by State Deputy Overhiser. Bro. 
Flint, State Lecturer, was also present and lent 
valuable aid. This new organization, which 
starts with over 20 charter members, is largely 
due to the earne«t efforts of Bro. V. W. Still, 
W, M. of Magnolia (irange. The officers are 
as follows: C. L. Corwin, M ; K. W. Striplin, 
O ; Mrs. R. C. L-iwis, L.; J. C. Burns, S.; R. 
S. Fathey, A. S.; Mrs. L. Srite, C; Mrs. L. 
Srite, T.: Annette Futhey, Sec; E. E. Hul- 
bert, G. K.; Elizabeth Hnlbert, P ; Dora E. 
Burns, F.; Mrs. Burns, Ceree; Ecta Hulbert, 
L. A. S. 

Point ok Timber Grange now counts over 
40 members and expects to confer the fourth 
degree on a big class the 16th inst. 

Interstate Commerce — Resolutions of 
Walnut Greek Grange. 

The following preamble and resolutions, 
adopted at the last regular meeting of Walnut 
Creek Grange, were published in the Martinez 
Daily Item of June 25tb: 

Whereas, The Interstate Commerce Law, 
passed by the last Congress, has called forth much 
opposition and statements pro and con in regard to 
railroads; and 

Whereas, The railroad companies, in our opin- 
ion, are seeking by odious and unwarranted con- 
structions under said law to secure its modification 
and repeal in the interest of monopoly and favor- 
itism and discriminations between persons and 
places; and 

Whereas, We regard it as proper that we should 
express our opinion upon such vital questions; 

Resolved, First — That railroad companies were 
not, in our opinion, chartered with the right of 
eminent domain and other rights which they enjoy, 
or organized, or permitted, for the sole purpose of 
making all the money possible for their promoters 
or shareholders; that the object of their creation 
was not to create any favored classes of people or 
particularly profitable business, but that the object 
of their creation was primarily the convenience and 
benefit of the public generally, and secondarily only, 
and incidentally only, the reasonable profit of the 
promoters and shareholders. 

Second— That such and all other corporations 
authorized by law to administer a public trust, or 


use, or business, should at all times be subject to con- 
trol by the public, and that any other theory- or con- 
struction inevitably leads to the creation of favored 
classes, which we regard as inimical and destructive 
of republican institutions, and the rights and privi- 
leges of republican^cilizens, and at variance with 
and destructive of our form of republican govern- 

Third— That we recognize that the questions of 
proper control of such organizations are compli- 
cated and not easy of solution and require the calm 
and thoughtful consideration of our best talent; but 
that general rules prohibiting discrimination between 
persons and places and prohibiting excessive charges 
and prohibiting a higher charge for a short haul 
than a long haul, of which the short haul is a part, 
as embodied in the Interstate Commerce Act, are 
eminently just and should be the basis of all regula- 

Fourth — That the railroad companies should not 
be permitted to carry freights at nominal rates in or- 
der to build up business for themselves to the in- 
jury of local manufactories or interests; that the peo- 
ple do not exist for the benefit of the railroads, but 
that the railroads exist for the benefit of the people. 

Fifth — That the experience gathered after a few 
years of trial and strict enforcement of the said law 
will the better enable the Commission provided and 
Congress to apply proper remedies. 

Sixth — That for these reasons we favor the strict 
enforcement of the said Interstate Commerce law 
for at least a sulTicient number of years to allow 
business interests to adjust themselves thereto, and 
that we deprecate any attempt to change or alter 
said law until a sufficient number of years have 
elapsed to demonstrate whether the evils claimed to 
be consequent thereto are real, or mainly due to op- 
position to lawful control by the railroad companies. 

Stockton Granok thinks the Interstate Com- 
merce law should have a fair trial and has re- 
quested Congressman Biggs to use his best en- 
deavors to that end. 

Grange Tracts. 

Our National Leotarer, among other mission- 
ary work this year, is sending out various 
printed circulars, leaflets and slips to workers 
in the Order. Many of these campaign tracts 
are of a size convenient to slip into a common 
letter envelope. Here, for example, is the body 
of one of the more recent — No. 11: 

J. H. Brigham, Master of the Ohio State Grange, 
closed an address to the Patrons of that Stale with 
these words: 

Let our watchword be, " Put none but honest, ca- 
pable, sober, economical men in official positions." 
Let us demand a fair share of representation in the 
Legislature and Congress for the men who are di- 
rectly interested in the nation's greatest industry. In 
a representative Government, the interests not di- 
rectly represented always have and always will 
suffer. No one but a fool or knave will deny this. 
Shall past follies t)e repeated and continued? Shall 
we not act upon the theory that the " Lord helps 
those who helps themselves "? There is no shadow 
of excuse for us. We can protect our every interest, 
and it we are not manly enough to doit then wc de- 
serve to suffer. If we are determined to give more 
attention to our own interests in the future, the first 
step must be to organize our forces. It is not prob- 
able that a political or party organization of farmers 
is desirable, but an organization which is not afraid 
of politics we must have. The Grange has its social, 
educational and moral features, but that is not all. 
We propose to boldly advocate political reforms, 
' and co-opt rate for the overthrow of the "pirates" 


who infest and sometimes control political parties. 
Farmers, join us in this work, and we will do you 
good, and hurt no man who is doing an honest, le- 
gitimate business. 

The smaller ones usually end thus: " Read 
this, then hand it to your farmer neighbor, or fold 
it in the next letter you write. For further in- 
formation about the Grange, address Mortimer 
Whitehead, Lecturer National Grange, Middle- 
bush, New Jersey." 

Bro. Whitehead invites Patrons to keeo this 
kind of ammunition at hand, when writing let- 
ters or sending papers to friends or foes, and 
slip them in, and so Iceep them movinrj " for the 
good of our Order, our country and mankind." 
He also suggests that local papers might be will- 
ing to reprint some of them, as matter of inter- 
est. These suggestions are all worthy of con- 

Grange Interests in Sonoma. 

Editors Press: — Pomona Grange meets in 
Santa Rosa Grange hall the third Wednesday 
in July. Beside the usual business there will 
be a choice program of oratorical, rhetorical, 
musical, and elocutionary selections. A big at- 
tendance of Patrons is expected. All fourth de- 
gree members are welcome. 

Santa Rosa (rrange is growing. A class 
of four was elected at the last meeting. 
The visit of Worthy State Lecturer Daniel 
Flint was of great benefit. He made friends 
for himself and for the Order. Daniel Flint is 
the right man in the right place. But he will 
discharge the duties of any place with honor to 
himself, his friends and the position. As W. 
M. of the California State Grange, he amply 

won the commendation, " Well done, good and 
faithful servant." 

■Santa Rosa Grange has just taken in five 
members by affiliation and one by initiation. 
There are also a number of applications for 
membership. The several committees appointed 
to make arrangements for the accommodation 
and entertainment of members of the State 
Grange are busily at work. There is no doubt 
of a large attendance at the October meeting of 
the State Grange. All who can should attend, 
for Santa Rosa is a splendid town, and a cordial 
welcome will be extended all visitors. D. 

The Patriotic Order Sons of America held 
their Eleventh National Convention in Chicago 
last week. The revised platform declares 
against permitting any foreign Socialists, An- 
archi^its, or Nihilists to land at our ports, and 
would forbid foreign speculators and adventnr- 
ere investing in American real estate. 

The Areata Grangers' picnic at Dow's Prairie 
is said by the Union to have been an unusually 
happy occasion for all who participated. 

Ringing the Liberty Bell. 

As near as we can remember, it was a hot 
and sultry summer day of 1776, that Thomas 
Jefferson gave a piece of his mind to the old 
folks across the water, in an essay or indictment 
called the Declaration of Independence. It was 
very handsomely done, and in substance says 
that the United Colonies bad saved up money 
enough to set up housekeeping for themselves. 
On or about the 4th of July, 1776, this docu- 
ment was signed by Benjamin Franklin, .Tohn 
Hancock, et al., as plaintiffs in a case about to 
to be tried in the Court of Mars. It is a 
very readable document and should be read 
once a year. 

Suffice it to say that early in the morning of 
that memorable day everybody felt sure some- 
thing startling was about to happen. Groups 
of excited men could be seen on the street or 
rushing toward the State house. Congress was 
talking over the great divorce question; the 
hour for the decree was approaching. The old 
bellman mounted to the belfry to be ready to 
proclaim the joyful news. The bell had been 
cast in England with this prophetic sentence 
aroond its rim: " Proclaim liberty throup;hout 
all the land nnto all the inhabitants thtreof." 
At length, at 2 o'clock the door of the hall 
opened and a voice exclaimed: " It ha* patted " 
Like lightning the words leaped from lip to lip 
and the building shook with huzzis. The boy 
at the foot of the ladder shouted to the old man 
in the belfry: " Ring, ring ! " The first clang 
started every heart in Philadelphia like a bugle 
blast. "Clang, clang!" it sounded on; the 
echoes floated on the air to Boston, to New 
York, all over the land, blending with the boom 
of cannon, martial music and the shoats of a re- 
joicing people. The sound of that bell wis 
borne on the breeze across the sea, and there ia 
a tradition that old Lord North fainted, parlia- 
ment cried like a child, and the whole idland 
felt as solemn as a graveyard. 




Cherries — Oroville RegiUer, June 2."?: Mr. 
A. B. Knepper has sent us a box of very fine 
Bigarreau cherries, grown at Forbestown, on 
red land without one drop of water, except what 
nature provided, or any fertilizers whatever. 
The altitude is 3000 feet above the sea level. 
The cherries were txtremely large, of brilliant 
color and of fine flavor. The cherry grows 
very large and fine in Oroville, and, as Furbes- 
town is 26 miles distant, the whole foothill 
slope of 26 miles, and up to the altitude named, 
is a favorable region for cherries. 


Wheat. — Bepubtican, June 24 : Reports 
from various portions of the county indicate 
that wheat is turning out considerably better 
than expected. Summer-fallow is giving a first- 
class yield, and nearly all the early sown wheat 
is making a fair crop. Most of the wheat is 
first quality and will rank No. 1 in the market. 
Farmers tell us that they will make more on 
their crop this year than they did last. The 
average yield will not be so heavy, but the 
higher prices will more than make up the dif- 

AfRicoTS FOR Profit.— .1. H. Harding has a 
10-acre apricot orchard in Washington colony, 
of the Royal, Peach and Moorpark varieties, 
and is now engaged in picking and curing the 
first-named variety. His trees were set out 
three years ago last February, and bore a fair 
crop last season. He is now taking an average 
of 115 Dounds of fruit from each tree, and there 
are 1 08 trees to the acre. This fruit will sell 
on the tree for one cent per pound, the packers 
doing their own picking. The yield of 1080 
trees will be 124 200 pouuds, worth $1242 on 
the trees. Mr. Harding proposes to do his own 
drying, however, and reap the profits of that 
labor. His fruit when dried will weigh about 
20,000 pounds. First-class sun-dried apricots 
sell readily at from 12A to 15 cents per pound, 
so that he expects to realize from $1200 to 
$1600 for picking and drying, which he will do 
with little help outside of his own family. 
San Diego- 

Honey.— San Jacinto Re<ji*ter, June 23: P. 
Bell reports the honey prodaot light. The 
quality is not so good as iMt year on account 

July 2, 1887] 


of the lateness of the flowers. He has obtained 
four tons of honey this year. He had more 

than double this amount last season H. T. 

Hallock states that his bees have made two 
cards of honey weighing 9^ pounds each, and 
two cards weighing 8 pounds each. 

Horticultural Meeting. — The regular 
monthly meeting of the San Diego County 
Horticultural Society will be held at Poway, 
Jnly 6th. A cordial invitation is extended to 
all, with comfortable lodgings and plenty to 

Los Angeles. 
Westminster Products. — " R. S." in Los 
Angeles Times of June 23: Everybody is busy 
with the hay crop; stacks line the roads. The 
apricot crop is very good, and is now ready for 
market. Our crop is the best in this whole 
section, and will probably all be sold for con- 
sumption in the surrounding towns. The early 
Moorpark is the best apricot now known to us, 
combining earliness, large size, beauty and fine 
flavor. These were fully ripe here June 14th. 
The peach and apple crops are very promising, 
and the Anderson peach has now a fine color 
and will soon be in the market. The potato 
crop is large Jae. A. McFadden has fur- 
nished the Anaheim New Era with the follow- 
ing statement of produce grown and shipped 
from Westminster township during the past 
year: ;22,000 sacks corn, 2,640,000 pounds (110 
cars); 5000 sacks potatoes, 500,000 pounds, 
(25 cars); 7000 sacks barley, 700,000 pounds 
(35 cars); 3000 tons hay, 6,000,000 pounds (300 
cars); 3840 cases eggs, 230,400 pounds (12 cars); 
288 coops fowls, 40,320 pounds (2 cars); 18,000 
rolls butter, 36,000 pounds (2 cars); merchan- 
dise received at stores, regular freight rates, 
275,800 pounds (14 cars); carload rates, 120,- 
000 pounds (6 cars). The preceding does not 
inclade stock raised or sold. 

Wool-Day at Ukiah. — Dispatch and Demo- 
crat, June 24: The streets presented a most 
animated appearance last Saturday, and wool- 
buyers from the city, as well as the home buy- 
ers, were busy examining the many loads of 
wool that the growers had brought in to sell. 
The Mendocino spring clip proved one of the 
best ever put upon the market, and our wool- 
growers reaped their reward. Nearly all the 
sales were made in the afternoon, and within 
two hours' time, amounting to some 600 bales, 
or 180,000 pounds, aad sold at from 22i to 23i 
cents. Humboldt and Mendocino wool always 
commands the best prices going for the Pacific 
Coast product. 


East Bound Fruit. — Record- Union, June 
28: Five carloads of fruit went East last even- 
ing by the express train, which had to be run 
in two sections. Two carloads were from Sac- 
ramento, one from Vacaville and two from 
Newcastle. The shipments of full carloads of 
fruit to New York by passenger train are 
much more extensive this year than heretofore. 
San Joaquin. 

Watermelons. — Lodi Sentinel, June 25: On 
account of the cool weather during May, water- 
melons in this, as in all other portions of the State, 
will be two weeks later this season than last. 
Indications point to a good crop. 

Santa Oruz. 

A New Berry. — Pajaronian, June 23: J udge 
J. H. Logan has produced a new small fruit by 
grafting raspberry on blackberry stock. It is 
as large as a blackberry, but more of the color 
of the raspberry. It is firm and should be a 
good shipper. The flavor of both berries is 
blended, while it is similar to the raspberry in 


The New Cannery. — Santa Rosa Democrat, 
June 25: Between 20 and 30 carpenters and 
laborers are hard at work to finish the new 
cannery on Sixth street next week. The build- 
ing is of brick, 120x80 feet, commodious, well 
lighted and ventilated, and capable of accom- 
modating 600 hands during the busy season. 
The floor is composed of 2000 pieces of 2x6 
timber, Aggregating 20,000 feet. The walls are 
about 12 feet in hight, from which the roof as- 
cends at an easy incline to the peak, which is 
fully 40 fe«t from the ground. A 30-foot well 
has been sunk, and a 35 foot windmill and 
6000 gallon tank are to be erected. The ware- 
room is filled to the roof with 40,000 cans and 
well stocked with box material, upon which 
the box makers will commence work next week. 
Three hundred tons of fruit have been con- 
tracted for already, and Mr. Perry states that 
about 1,000,000 cans will be put up during the 


Scott Valley Notes. — Cor. Examiner, June 
21: All danger of June frosts has passed. The 
late rains have insured the wheat crop, which 
promises to be of an excellent quality, while 
other grains and hay look well. Hundreds of 
acres of the foothills have been sown to alfalfa, 
and in many instances will yield from one to 
four tons of hay to the acre. An irrigating 
ditch leading down the eastern side of the val- 
ley is one of the enterprises projected. 


Maize, Melons and Black Caps. — Visalia 
Times, June 23: The first watermelons of the 
season were brought to this city yesterday by 
B. C. Anderson, from his ranch four miles east 
of town. He also brought in a few sample box- 
es of the Black-Cap raspberries, which were 

very fine The residents of Ijime Kiln 

have been feasting on green corn and water- 
melons for the last 10 days. Lime Kiln is in 

the thermal belt of the Sierra Nevada, and this 
early production of green corn and melons shows 
what an opportunity there is for supplying the 
whole country from here to El Paso with early 
vegetables, were our mountain ranchers dis- 
posed to turn their attention and industry in 
that direction. 


Using Strippers.— Modesto News, June 24: 
The farmers who have small tracts of land in 
the hills east of Oakdale are cutting their 
grain this year with strippers, which are giving 
the best of success. The cost of this machine is 
about $400, and can be worked with four horses 
and two men, and cuts eight feet. 


A Fine Apricot. — Woodland Mail, June 25: 
G. D. Fiske yesterday placed on our table one 
of the finest clusters of apricots we have yet 
seen. This fruit is of the Routier variety and 
was grown on the premises of W. Coleman, 
near town, on trees only three years old. The 
apricots are large and of a delicious flavor. 
There were about a dozen on the branch, which 
was not over six inches in length. 

Raisin Product. — Davisville Cor. Democrat: 
I am informed that the Brigga family will place 
upon the Eastern market 100,000 boxes of rai- 
sins, besides some 50,000 in the hands of friends. 

which they can contract. This is about one- 
sixth of the entire product of the State, and will 
justify their intention of entering the market 
independent of the middleman. 


A Flowing Well. — Marysville Appeal, June 
24: W. F. Lavy, whose place is about 10 miles 
south of this city, on the Sacramento road, says: 
" Four years ago I started boring a pump-well 
in one of my grazing fields. Imagine my sur- 
prise when at a depth of .30 feet a stream of 
water came out about one foot in the air. For 
six months of each of the past four years, that 
well has watered all my stock; and by digging 
deeper I could undoubtedly have secured a per- 
petual flow. In 1864, on the Eberhard ranch, 
I assisted in boring an artesian well which has 
made the large-sized pond now on the place, and 
which receives its life from that well. No, the 
surrounding country does not need irrigation — 
Dry creek runs through so much of it." 

Harvest Help Scarce.— Wheatland CrapA- 
ie, June 25 : On Wednepday and Thursday $2.50 
a day and board was oflFered, but every avail- 
able man in town was at work or had been en- 
gaged. In consequence of the scarcity of local 
help, workmen had to be procured from Marys- 
ville and Sacramento, and then were hard 
to get. 


Editors Press: — More rain has fallen 
throughout the Palouse country during the 
month of June than has been known before 
for many years, and the ground is as thoroughly 
soaked as it is in ordinary seasons on the 1st 

of April. Grain of all kinds is making a very 
I rank growth, and old settlers say that it will 
be so late in the season before it ripens that 
there will be some danger of its being frosted. 
Should the weather be dry, however, from now 
until the 1st of August, there will probably be 
the largest yield per acre ever grown in this 
upper country. There is some old wheat yet 
in producers' hands, and some of it two years 
old. The farmers have been keeping it in 
hopes of getting a better price after awhile; 
and now that the railroad is completed over the 
Cascade mountains, those who have grain are 
in high glee, thinking they will soon have a 
chance to ship to the California market. If 
the commission merchants and wheat buyers 
of San Francisco would arrange for receiving 
and handling grain at Tacoma so farmers 
could ship directly to them, they could secure 
the largest portion of the crop in this region. 
Wheat is now selling at 58 cents per bushel. — 
G. F., Spangle, W. T.,June 20th. 

Sonoma Connty Notes. 

Editors Press: — That busiest of all seasons, 
the harvest, is now at hand; and consequently 
an ordinary farmer correspondent can hardly 
find time for newspaper work. This explains 

why "old Sonoma " has not been heard from 

The hot spell hit us here, but did very little 
serious damage. Wheat may be a trifle shrunken 
in consequence, but the yield will be remark- 
ably large. There has not been such a crop of 
grain in this county for the past 10 years as 
will be harvested this summer. Already the 
self raking reaper, the improved header, and the 
twine-binding harvester are to be seen in scores 
of grain-fields. Thrashing has not commenced 
yet, but the machines are being put in order 
for that work, and soon the shrill whistle of the 
steam-thrashing engine will be heard at early 
dawn, at noon-time and at dusk. 

The hop crop of Sonom& is one of its staples, 
and brings many thousands of dollars to the 
tillers of the soil. So far the outlook for an 
abundant yield of hops is very encouraging, 
and the promise for price is not at all discour- 
aging. Report hereabout says that certain 
dealers have oflfered to engage the coming crop 
at 20 cents per pound. That means $400 per 
ton, which is a paying business. 

In the vineyards there is every reason to ex- 
pect a fair return of grapes. True, the late 
frosts did some damage, but the new acreage 
will more than ofi'set the harm done by frost. 
Therefore, at the present writing, it seems the 
vintage of 1887 will be as large as that of 1886. 
That being the case, the outlook for price is 
not very encouraging, for wine-makers realized 
little profit last year, and they do not seem 
at all anxious about buying grapes, espe- 
cially at fancy prices. However, there is yet 
abundant time for the grape crop to be ma- 
terially damaged. The long, hot days of July 
and August are very trying, and no one knows 

how much damage may yet come to his viuc- 
yard in the next 60 days. 

That portion of our farmers who are engaged ■ 
in the sheep business here did well this sea- 
sou. Sonoma wool always finds a ready sale at 
tip top prices. We know of farmers who have 
80ld,their spring clip in home market this year 
for, 23^ cents per pound. What do you think 
of that ? 

If one can believe half he hears, there will be 
many miles of rail laid in this county within a 
year. No one seems to doubt the construction 
of the road from Santa Rosa to Benicia. It 
will be a paying line and ought by all means to 
be built. Then the new road from Santa Rosa 
to Green valley via Sebastopol seems sure of 
construction. That also will be a paying line. 
It will tap one of the best and most prolific 
fruit sections of California. Then again, the 
S. F. & N. P. R. R., or Donahue line, will prob- 
ably be extended from Cloverdale, the present 
terminus, to Ukiah, the thriving county seat of 
Mendocino county. This road would tap an 
immense timber section, as well as the fertile 
Russian river valley. All of these roads ought 
to be built. Let it be so, is our prayer. 

The fruit crop is very large, but will all be 
cared for. At Petaluma there is an immense 
cannery; a large one also at Healdsburg, and 
the largest of all at Santa Rosa. Then there 
are fruit-driers at Sebastopol, Healdsburg and 
Santa Rosa, and beside many farmers have 
their own driers. Peaches and Bartlett pears 
are being contracted at $30 and $35 per ton. 
This seems to us a paying price for the pro- 

Corn never promised a better yield. In short, 
everything in this grand old connty is booming 
on a safe yet paying basis. We have no land 
boom, and do not want one. All we want is a 
steady growth, and that we have, and are sure 
to keep on having. 

Lumbermen are busy making both plumber 
and money. 

Dairymen talk of a short season, but say 
they have done fairly well. 

Grangers growl, yet they ought to be the 
happiest people on earth. 

State Grange season fast approaches. Santa 
Rosa expects a large crowd the first week in 
October. All who attend may expect a good 

Next in order is the Fourth of July, and 
after that comes plenty of hard work. Here's 
to the Fourth and to the work ! 


Santa Rosa, June S8, 1887. 

Mollie Pitcher. 

The battle of Monmouth was foaght on the 
28th of June, 1778. It was on the Sabbath and 
the hottest day in the year. It was stubbornly 
contested, and may be regarded as a drawn 
battle. It was during this battle that an Irish- 
man by the name of Pitcher, while serving his 
gun, was shot down. His wife, named Molly, 
only 22 years of age, employed herself, while 
he loaded and fired his piece, in bringing water 
from a spring near by for the thirsty soldiers. 
While returning with a supply, she saw him 
fall and heard the officer in command order the 
gun to the rear. She immediately ran forward, 
seized the rammer, declaring she would avenge 
his death. She fought her piece like a hero to 
the last. The next morning. Gen. Greene, who 
had been struck with her bravery, presented 
her to Washington, who immediately promoted 
her to a sergeant, and afterward had her name 
put on the half-pay list for life. Previous to 
this she fired the last gun when the Americans 
were driven from Fort Montgomery. Gentle 
Mollie was a fair specimen of our fore-mothers, 
whose amiable daughters now declare that tax- 
ation without representation is a wrong and an 
outrage that must be righted or there will be 
another rumpus in the land. 

Tile Fourth of July. 

After John Adams had signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence he wrote to his wife the 
following prophetic words concerning the 
Fourth of July: 

It will be the most memorable day in the 
history of America. I am apt to believe that 
it will be celebrated by succeeding generations 
as the great anniversary festival. It ought to 
be commemorated as the day of deliverance by 
solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It 
ought to be celebrated with pomp and parade, 
with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, 
and illuminations from one end of this conti- 
nent to the other, from this time forward, 
forever more. 

A Monument to Starr King. — The Unitari- 
an church in this city, built during the ministry 
of Thomas Starr King, has lately been sold and 
will soon be torn down. The remains of the 
mighty, brilliant, patriot-preacher will be tak- 
en up and laid elsewhere. This has again 
brought up, in grateful remembrance and ad- 
miration, bis inestimable service to the State 
at the time of the war for the preservation of 
our national oneness, and a strong movement 
is well afoot to have a fitting monument erected 
in Golden Gate park in memory of the man 
who confessedly did more than any other to 
keep California loyal to the Stars and Stripes, 
and who gave his life for the cause of Liberty 
and Union as truly as did those who fell on 
southern battle-fields. 


f ACIFie F^URAb p> RESS. 

[July 2, 1887 

A Pioneer's Romance. 

A Fourth of July Before the War. 
IVV'ritten tor the Kuril Press by M. B. D.] 

Tom Raymond's proud turnout went glitter- 
ing through the Btreets of Merrimac. The new 
buggy literally gleamed in the afternoon sun- 
shine, and the pair of spanking bays were 
glossy as satin. 

" The whole thing looks as though 'twas 
greased," slid one newsboy to another as the 
equipage passed them. 

It whirled on to the station, met the train, 
and soon came hack; and now the vacant seat 
beside Mr. Kiymond was occupied by a hand- 
some girl. No stranger was she to the many 
they met, and who recognized her with a glance 
of surprise. Only a year ago she bad left for 
her last term at Northampton, a slip of a girl, 
with the gentlest manners and a wild rose face 
that made her a general favorite. But what a 
change ! She had returned not only with her 
graduating honors, but with a beauty and air 
of fashion that was evident even from the 
glance obtained of her in passing. Her cheeks 
glowed and her eyes sparkled through her flut- 
tering veil, while she smiled and nodded to her 
old frienrls with conscious delight at seeing 
them. Yet there was a young man unrecog- 
nized, and he felt that one of those gay little 
nods to him would be a treasure, as he gazed 
with open admiration at this meteor which was 
soon out of sight, gliding on down the elm- 
shaded avenue. 

This young man was Oliver Lloyd, the rich 
pioneer from California; for this was in the year 
1861, when the pioneers of the Pacific Coast 
were young men, the most venturesome and the 
strongest of the country, who s3ught fame and 
fortune where those less vigorous and bold 
would hardly have dared to penetrate. Not a 
mouth ago his arrival in Merrimac had occa- 
sioned a ripple of excitement, especially among 
the young people, and immediately the girls 
had curled their tresses with more studied art, 
while their admirers were resolved on keeping 
their favor in spite of this dangerous lion, who 
was supposed to be a competitor for it. His 
first appearance was at a party given by Mrs. 
EIco, a leader in society. On the appointed 
evening her large triple parlors were ablaze 
with light, which glittered in the depths of 
broad mirrors over the fretwork of the gilded 
cornices and costly pictures. 

Her nieces, Maud and Ina Harley, were in- 
deed striking figures among the bevy of bright 
and youthful ladies about them. They did 
their best to attract the particular attention of 
the new lion, and so did Miss Vincent, an ac- 
knowledged belle, whose dark eyes beamed be- 
witchingly over the plumes of her snowy fan; 
but all this array of beauty was in vain for him. 

Nevertheless he was very genial and popular, 
and he attended their parties and picnics with 
a constancy and evident enjoyment that was 
gratifying to his entertainers. And yet there were 
shadows about his keen gray eyes, and, at times, 
a melancholy expression upon his rather strong 
and haughty features, that made him still more 
interesting to those who were either sentimental 
or sympathetic than he was to the light hearts 
of vanity. He might sometimes be seen at dusk 
upon a lonely ramble, and Miss Miller, a kind- 
ly old maid, declared that hU sadness must be 
owing to some heartache. She was a music- 
teacher, and being out upon her errands of in- 
struction, often met him. He frequently 
walked to the cemetery, and once she followed 
him out of curiosity, but was rewarded only by 
seeing him rest by his mother's grave. The dusk 
had nearly merged into night, wben he started 
to return, and perceiving her, joined company 
and walked on to the village. To him her quaint 
humor and innocent gossip was amusing, and 
wben he met her by chance he was not averse 
to listening to it. Along the avenue they pro- 
ceeded until they had passed the more thickly 
settled portion of the town and found them- 
selves again beycnd the suburbs. Half a mile 
further on still. Miss Miller paused before a 
large, deep garden that nearly concealed the 
farmhouse it inclosed. 

"I am going in to see Miss Belmont. You 
know she only returned this eveuing from her 
finishing term at school, and she will have lots 
of news and plans to tell of." 

" May I have the pleasure of joining yon?" 

"Not for the world would 1 give you such 
trouble. 1 shall return quite late, perhaps, and 
my nephew will see me home." 

Mr. Lloyd had been on the point of asking 
for an introduction to the little graduate, but, 
from the manner in which she interrupted him, 
was not quite certain that this would be agree- 
able to her. His surmise was well founded. 
Tom Raymond was her favorite nephew, and she 
strove to promote his wishes in regard to Miss 
Belmont, since, like others, he too had been 
charmed with her sweetness and beauty. 

As Mr. Lloyd wandered on, the fragrance of 
roses and mignonette grew faint and was lost in 
the light air that blew from a grove in the west, 
where the sunset was dying in a glow which 
grew brilliant as carmine against the horizon. 
Taking a footpath, he began to penetrate the 
deepening shades of these groves, but before he 
had wandered far he reached a sheet of pure 
spring water, which was almost a lake. How 
its glassy face glimmered like a fire opal inthe 
sunset light. Blushing lilies starred its margins, 
and tall reeds and bushes leaned over its 
marshy banks. A tiny boat was moored to a 
small sapling. The oars were secured inside, 
and, casting ofiF the painter, he leaped into the 
light bark. He reached the middle of this 
fairy lake, then explored the shores, and finally 
found the outlet, a silvery stream that seemed 
to lose itself in the vistas of the wood. Fol- 
lowing its course, at length be saw its ripples 
grow diamond-pointed by the moonbeams that 
fell through the opening above and between the 

" What a glorious place for a moonlight 
stroll !" thought he, pausing to enjoy the view; 
" but it is a trifle lonely," and a thought of 
the farmer's daughter in the farmhouse yonder 
came to his mind. 

As if in response to the fancy, he saw a lady 
whose white dress was clearly outlined against 
the dark foliage behind her. A wealth of sunny 
curls fell down over her shoulders and reached 
to her waist in rich profusion, while a fleecy 
scarf covered her head and encirled her delicate 
face, now beaming with pleasure. At first 
she seemed alone, but presently he heard her 
merry voice and laugh as a tall man came from 
some rosebushes, with his hands full of fresh 
damask roses which he had just gathered for 
her. She took them with the eagerness of a 
child, and inhaled their dewy fragrance as joy- 

Mr. Lloyd frowned, thinking, "Here comes 
the lover — a fine old fellow, too; but I'll cut 
him out if mortal man can doit." He had 
passed the confines of the garden, and now, be- 
coming aware uf his trespass, hastened to 
leave it. 

" I had better take you in out of this damp, 
Maggie," he heard the gentleman remark while 
he silently plied his oars. 

" Oh ! no, papa. I have not been so happy 
this summer as I am to-night. It must be 
lovely down by the pond; let us go." 

Mr. Lloyd unconsciously listened for his re- 
ply, but could not catch it above the babbling 
of the brook. Then he hastened away. The 
quivering path of silver over which he floated 
seemed winding to the land of enchantment. 
He had recognized the girl whom he had seen 
in the fine equipage during the afternoon, and 
her moonlight walk disclosed to him her filial 
love and fondnrss for home, which he thought 
adorable traits of character. 

On regaining the road he walked with rapid 
steps, and as he passed the farmhouse snapped 
from its stem a half-blown rosebud that leaned 
over the garden wall and fastened it in his but- 
tonhole. • 

His resolution to win Miss Belmont he found 
difiicult of accomplishment. At church, at 
parties, and in her own home, to which he soon 
gained admittance, he often met her; but she 
seemed as indifferent to him as she did to oth- 
ers who were just as anxious to gain her favor, 
and Mt. Raymond was not an exception, although 
he was a most formidable rival. She sometimes 
drove out with him in his fine carriige, and 
this Mr. Lloyd beheld with jealous pangs and 
renewed determination to carry out his resolve. 
He saw them on the morning of the Fourth of 
July speeding down the avenue just after the 
parade of the firemen and several societies that 
had turned out to celebrate the occasion. 

This year the exercises were particularly in- 
teresting, since the breaking'out of the war had 
aroused the patriotic spirit among them to the 
pitch of enthusiasm. Crowds of spectators 
were still watching the uniformed townsmen 
and listening to the strains of martial music 
which rang upon the sultry air, when the car- 
riage passed him, and now he received a gay 
little nod from Miss Belmont, but not with the 
gratification he had once imagined such notice 
would give him. He was quite disturbed, but 
sauntered on, trying to devise some plan of 
making the evening particularly pleasant to her. 

There was not to be any public display of 
fireworks, since the moon was full and wonld 
detract from its success. A public ball was to 
be given, but this she declined to attend. 

Miss Miller looked from her high dormer 
window just as he turned a corner, and he 
caught sight of her sharp face, which expressed 
unusual satisfaction, for she too had seen the 
company her nephew had secured. Like a flash 
a plan came to his mind, and the idea that she 
would make a good assistant occurred to him; 
so shortly he found himself in her stiff little 
reception-room unfolding it to her unfriendly 

" Miss Vincent will be delighted, no doubt," 
she remarked at the conclusion, affecting not to 
understand his purpose, and added : " Indeed 
1 will see the thing through; so let us begin." 

The summer evening was simply perfect after 
the hot, oppressive day. A balmy breeze 
came from the woods, and the flowers seemed 
to revive in its gentle breath. Before the stars 
had fully appeared in the purple dome of 
heaven, the moon rose and dimmed their 
sparkling light with her full-orbed splendor. 

It was a most select and brilliant assembly 
that gathered by twos and threes in the old 
farmhouse, until the parlors were overflowing. 
Maggie Bdlmont was in high spirits at the com- 

pliment of this gay surprise party. Mr. Lloyd 
was at her side and seemed most devoted. He 
found an opportunity of calling her attention 
to the exquisite moonlight without, and solicit- 
ed a walk. 

" What a fine idea! We will all go down to 
the bridge," she returned merrily. And. so, 
after some delay in securing the dainty wraps 
of the ladies, they sauntered out through the 

Miss Bilmont walked demurely with Mr. 
Lloyd, pouting to herself because that gentle- 
man had on a sealskin cap. "How absurd!" 
thought she. "A man nearly six feet high 
wearing a fur cap in July." 

" What a warm climate you must have in 
California!" she said with an arch glance. 
" This must be cold in comparison." 

'' Yes, it is warmer, but much more comfort- 
able, for we have not the humidity which 
makes the heat oppressive. The hottest day 
is followed by a cool, refreshing evening, such 
aa we never know here. In mid-summer, when 
the verdure upon the hills of Tuolumne is dry 
and yellow, and even the green chapparal looks 
dusty against the cloudless skies, we always 
have a breeze of pure air winging up from the 
coast, or down from the lofty Sierras, until, 
like the Olympians, we seem blessed with a 
royal atmosphere." 

They had been walking a little in advance of 
the others, and now reached the bridge that 
spanned the Merrimac river. The beauty of this 
stream invited them to pause, and as they gazed 
upon its dark, moon-kissed waves, she went on 
rather saucily: 

" If you are afraid of the dews and damps of 
New Hampshire, perhaps an overcoat would be 

He had bent down, and stood leaning over 
the railing of the bridge, which was high above 
the current. Lifting a floating end of her scarf 
up at arm's length to adjust it, her bracelet 
clasp caught in the objectionable seal cap, and 
as she drew her arm back suddenly, it whirled 
through the air down, down until it rested like 
a tiny boat upon the waves below them. 

" There !" she exclaimed with an uncon- 
scious smile of glee, as she saw it whirl like a 
leaf in the eddies. "What are you going to do 
now y" she asked, and her face had a half- 
wicked, half sympathetic look in it that made 
it bewitching. 

" I will forgive you the accident if you will 
return to the house with me by the shortest 
cut, up yonder through the woods." 

He could hear Mr, Raymond and Miss Vin- 
cent, who were approaching in company, laugh, 
probably at his discomfiture, he imagined. 

"Such a delightful way," Miss B.ilmont re- 
plied. " We will pass the mill and the pond 
further on;" and raising her voice, she called to 
thereat, " Follow your leader," rather proud 
to guide them through the romantic vistas 
ahead at the side of this lion who walked like a 
chief, as iaiperturbed at the loss of his cap as 
though he had never worn one. His fine thick 
hair was displayed to advantage, and his good 
spirits and pleased manner made him more 
agreeable than ever before. 

The dark, silent mill loomed into view, its 
sharp outlines as distinct as those of an etching 
against the arch of moonlight beyond it. The 
milldam was dark and smooth as a lake of ink, 
its still depths being shadowed by the woods on 
one side and by lofty piles of new balsam- 
scented lumber on the other. 

But a few steps further on was the pond, and 
they crossed the little stream, its outlet, upon 
a bridge of planks. On reaching the center of 
this insecure structure. Miss Belmont glanced 
up, and, raising her hands, exclaimed: " Look ! 
look at the pond ! " 

A volcano seemed to have sprung up in the 
midst of it and to have thrown balls of fire all 
around the banks. Crimson and yellow and 
purple lanterns waved beneath the deep 
shadowy boughs of the tree, and the floating 
pyramid of light in the heart of the lake il- 
luuiinated the whole of its limpid surface. 

They rushed on to view the wonder more 
closely, and reached a nook where an old lady 
offered them sherbets and ices, which sparkled 
in pitchers arranged about her fairy cave. 
Further on was another, and here two little 
girls presided over a feast of sandwiches and 

"What does this mean?" asked Miss Bel- 
mont, scanning the host of friends who had 
reached her and now gazed about with as much 
wonder as she betrayed. 

Before their expressions of surprise had 
ceased, a new vista of light blazed out, and a 
band struck up a cheering strain that swelled 
till the waters of the pond seemed a-quiver, 
and the woods rang with myriad echoes. 
Pleasure was reflected upon every face. With 
the thoughtlessness and enthusiasm of youth, 
they dispersed in groups, examining the pretty 
wonders about, wben a shower of Roman can- 
dles shot up from the floating ark of light and 
made the heavens as brilliant as the grove. 
Then what cheering and clapping of hands rose 
above the music ! This was followed by rockets, 
and more candles from the banks, and again 
more cheers. Perfect success had crowned the 

At the head of the lake a tent bad been 
pitched, and the earth under it carpeted to pro- 
tect its occupants from the dampness. A large 
company of older people were seated comfort- 
ably inside, or before it, enjoying the surprise 
of those who came later than themselves as 
well as the urusual scene about them. 

The hours fled with rare mirth and pleasure 
until the moon looked down from her luminous 

throne in the zenith, and the candles had burned 
low in the lanterns. 

Miss Miller had been bustling about, giving 
a hint here and there of the part she had taken 
in preparing the entertainment; her chipper 
voice and mysterious suggestions making her 
for once the center of every circle she entered. 

But the air had begun to grow cold, and she 
sighed for a hot cup of tea. In fancy she could 
see the thin steam curling up from the warm 
CUD, and the sugar and cream waiting to be 
mixed with the fragrant beverage in the mimic 
well. There were sugar and cream, and tea and 
cups, but all were cold, so cold that she shivered 
at the thought of them. A bright idea came to 
her aid. Why not heat some tea in a tin buck- 
et, gipsy fashion ? It was easy enough to build 
a little camp-fire. Oa ! she would add another 
surprise for her tea-loving friends. 

In a few minutes she bad a fine blaze leaping 
up a heap of dry twigs and cones under some 
fir trees. The kettle began to bubble, and her 
gaze, which had been earnestly riveted upon 
the steaming liquid, did not note the little 
sparks that had shot away from her camp-fire 
and now wound along like serpents over the dry 
fir needles that had long since fallen and become 
as inflammableas paper. These treacherous fires 
crept up the trunk of the tree behind her, grow- 
ing fierce and strong as they fed on the rich 
resinous drops that exuded through its bark. 
Unfortunately this tree was dying at the top, 
and as soon as the fire reached above the green 
portion it began to rage and flare boldly, grow- 
ing wilder every instant in the breeze that 
fanned it. The tongues of fire reached out for 
other trees that interlaced their green boughs 
among the crackling branches of this one. 

The consternation and surprise which trans- 
formed the gay company at hand into dumb 
spectators of the threatening calamity can be 
readily imagined. Miss Miller observed the 
sudden change, and, discovering the danger al- 
most above her head, fled precipitately, and, 
unwittingly stumbling, fell with a shriek into 
the pond. 

" Oh ! my father's mill and all the lumber !" 
moaned Miss Belmont, clinging to her com- 
panion's arm. " Oh ! they will all 'be burned, 
and that means ruin to us," she exclaimed with 
sudden energy, looking up into Mr. Lloyd's face. 

He left her with her mother. The next mo- 
ment the scream and splash of Miss Miller told 
of her mishap. Throwing off his coat, he 
plunged into the water after her with all the 
confidence of a good swimmer, and soon 
brought her thin, drenched form to the bauk 
and laid it upon the grass, to be cared for by 
her friends. 

Then he dashed toward the flaming woods, 
snatching up as he went an ax that bad been 
left by those who had pitched the tent. While 
with vigorous strokes he chopped at the trunk 
of the burning fir, strong, active men procured 
buckets from the mill and brought water to 
quench the burning branches as they fell, and 
prevent a further spread of the fire upon the 
dry leaves beneath. 

At length, the blazing monster came down 
with a crash, its flaming crown falling toward 
the lake; and ere the flames upon its charred 
limbs were extinguished, the smaller trees 
which had caught fire crashed down upon it 
and shared the deluges from the buckets, filling 
the air with clouds of steam and smoke. 

In less than an hour from the time the fire 
had first been observed, Oliver Lloyd had res- 
cued a lady from drowning and prevented a 
conflagration. He leaned upon his ax before 
them, dripping with the water of the lake, 
flushed and burned with the heat, blackened 
by the falling cinders, and half exhausted by 
his heavy exertions. 

The company gathered around him, vying 
with each other in offering attention;; for he was 
no longer a mere lion, but had become a hero. 
Miss Biilmont insisted upon twining her fleecy 
scarf about his neck, at the same time murmur- 
ing, "This Fourth-of-July entertainment is 
worthy of a Roman, and we owe it all to you, 
in addition to the preservation of the mill," 
The glance of her glowing hazel eyes said even 
more to him than her words and manner, and 
he placed her arm through his own with an air 
of confidence. 

Every spark of the lanterns and all of the 
fire had been carefully put out; so he led her 
back to the farmhouse in triumph, followed by 
her hosts of friends. 

Miss Miller was not seriously injured by her 
accidental drenching and fright, and she soon 
recovered, when her gratitude to the new hero 
was unbounded, Mr. Raymond continued to 
be assiduous in his attentions to Miss Belmont 
as heretofore, but after this long-remembered 
Fourth-of July evening he received no more 
encouragement, since Oliver Lloyd had become 
her hero, and when he returned to the genial 
climes of Tuolumne he took her with him — his 

Ediule Snails. — New Orleans is the largest 
consumer of snails in this country. They are 
first thrown into hot water, says a .Southern epi- 
cure, and killed. Then they are washed in a 
weak solution of lye, which removes the slime, 
and the shells are cleaned with stronger lye. 
Then the meats ara boiled and replaced in the 
shells, with a dressing of bread and parsley, 
and thus prepared the snails are roasted. When 
the covers are removed from the dish one must 
eat the snails whether one likes them or not, 
the flavor is so enchanting. They can be eaten 
in two ways — the meat can be picked out with 
a fokr, or the shell maj be put to the mouth 
and the snail sucked out bodily. 

July 2, IBS'/] 


The Fourth of July. 

IWritten for the Rural Prebs by Dr. J. W. Gally.) 


Since great .Tuhn Adams first did say 

Tliat. tliis shou'd be, for after timts, 
A celebrated "cpoclia" 

Of Inud aoplauae and ringing chimes. 
We havn not been remias in noise, 

Of voice and powder loud and high ; 
Of marching crowds and shouting boys 

On thii the 4th day of July. 
Ah ! there were boys, some here to-day. 

Who, fired with ghiry years ago. 
Were happy in the liorae display 

And thrilled with music's brajen blow. 
What since have those old boys beheld 

When war's dense vapor filled the air, 
And home bred foeman loudly yelled 

To fright the Hag of ion there? 
Well, Ihey have seen that we'd forgot 

In our great growing, full of pride. 
The older struggle for our lot 

By those who nobly did and died ; 
Forgot the little things that make. 

Like mountain rills, the greater stream, 
'Till, face to face, we wide awake. 

In bloody battles, from our dream. 
To waste in men, and cash, and might 

[Saying naught of broken hearts, though brave]. 
Enough to twice have bought the right 

Of Freedom to the unhappy slave ; 
But, patience lost, we wrathful grew. 

Lost all respect we either held 
For either and to battle flew. 

One cheering while the other yelled. 
Not so the old men of yon day. 

The heroes, of July the Fourths 

Mankind's opinion," so wrote they, 

[Except King George's or Lord North's,] 
We Oo respect with decency ; 

And tv-en they niaae their great appeal 
Which, often as we read, we see 

Is strong with reason, calm and real ; 
No haste, no anger, no vile word. 

No taunt from out the tortured heart ; 
But i|uietly they drew the sw )rd 

And coolly played the hero's part. 

NEW TiiiNoa. 
New timea are grand, new things are bright. 

New men, new measures, new maoliiiita. 
Bring with them thrills of new delight 

And hopes of greater human means. 
We know not if these things be best 

For man's irreat future ; but we knov^ 
That rist is born of great unrest. 


His name is lost who first put wheels 

Cpon eu axle for the ox. 
And he, no doubt, took to his heels 

Pursued by " packers " orthodox ; 
That other name is, also, lost 

Of him who first wrought iron tools- 
Gone, gone forever, teoipest tnssed 

'Mid Time's oi l prehistoric " fools ;" 
But iron and axle, rail and wheel, 

Have quickened modern thought and skill 
'Till now we know not but we leel 

That man grows more a manlier will. 
Hail then to him, our far oft sire. 

Who first took pry to aid his left. 
When hunting ca> es to feed his fire 

And earthen pot with savage thrift ! 
Hail honest thought expressed in stone. 

Or wood, or metal, word or deed, 
From pry sticks to the telephone ! 

Thus human thought aids human need; 
But never let us loose our hold 

On those great anchors of the past. well the new, respect the old 

So long as time or men shall last- 
Take Pa'rick Henry's lamp to Kuide 

Our feet, when darkness shuts the way ; 
But look aliead, as Morning wide 

Spreads the new glory of a day. 


But something now must we abate. 
There must be naught of hale for hate ; 
The grander North, the newer So\ith 
Have far outstripped the Nation's youth. 
And peace, with her white wings outspread 
Shadows a blessing on the dead 
And, dove-like, to the living still 
Means peace on Earth— to all, good will. 


Even Britain, our most heavy ancient foe. 
For whom this day means battle's overthrow, 
Has nearly learned that hatred does not pay. 
And takes our (now dead) hero from his way, 
Around the world, to show hirn all respect. 
Why should not we, if wisely we reflect, 
Keturn a compliment the same to her 
At any time, should favoring chance occur? 
And more than that has old Great Britain done. 
(A marvel under all the shining sun). 
She's nearly found, 'neath very wise control, 
1 hat a Corknnian has almost a soul ; 
Seven hundred \ ears she's held to the reverse, 
And that same liolding been, to her, a curse- 
Beneath her young-old Premier, who can tell 
How soon John Bull will get entirely well 
So long aa his physician's Charles Parnell '{ 


But leaving politicians to their lot, 

Whi^-h may be-as it may be, we know not, 

'There is another power marching on ; 

A Knighthood, not the chivalry that's gone. 

But the young blood, the brawny-fisted Knight, 

He that has come to stay and stays to fight — 

Not fight witi violence or war's display 

But just enough to have his say and day. 

AS wealth, and church, and crown have had 

Their days of power, both good and bad. 

Why should not labor, honest labor. 

Marching with his next-door neighbor. 

Step o'er the list, with glove in helm. 

And claim a loud voice m the realm'.' 

He, certainly, has earned the right 

To show, if there is aught in might, 

That he's the mightiest man abroad — 

The very child of the living God — 

Who, whether under curse or grace. 

Lives by the sweat of his honest face. 

Hail Knights of Labor ! from the shop or farm I 

We lean unon your stalwart arm 

Inpeace; and when the war drum rolls <>larm 

To you we look to abield us from all harm. 


Now, if br»wned labor and high scheming wealth 

Can come together, openly or by stealth. 

No matter how, so long as honor rules. 

And all men's children still ma" have the schools. 

When will this day, the day we celebrate. 

Be what it was, for Freedom square and straight ? 

But if all wealth falls to the cunning few. 

And eduiation narrows in her view, 

Then will our ani'ual plaudits be a He— 

And then farewell the 4th day of July. 


The Muse had a word about the flag. 
And a thought that is free from pelf. 

But what is the use to boast or brag ? 
" Old Qlory " speaks for himgelt. 

*^OUNG ]E(0LKS' QoioUMJ^. 

The Heart's-Ease. 

There was once a king who had a very beau- 
tiful garden, with grounds arranged with taste 
to please the eye, to afford refreshing shade, re- 
tired walks, commanding views, and, besides, 
all the delightful fruits that could be procured. 
There was one superb old oak, so high and 
grand that it could be seen for miles around. 
There were roses and lilies, and flowering 
shrubs of every kind; in short, nothing was 
wanting to make it a most perfect spot. One 

clinging to the trellis and trees, but trailing 
sadly on the ground. He stopped and said: 
" Grapevine, what is the matter with you ? 
Why are you lying so dolefully on the ground ? " 

" Ah," said the vine, " you see what a poor 
weak creature 1 am; I don't even hold up my 
own weight, but must cling to a tree or post, 
and what can I do ? I neither give shade like 
the oak nor bear flowers like the shrubs; I al- 
ways must depend for support upon something 
else, and surely I am of no use." 

On went the king, quite in despair to see 
his place going to destruction; and it grieved 
him to think that for all that kind care and at- 
tention he had lavished upon his garden, he 
was to be repaid but by murmuring and re- 
pining. But he suddenly spied a little heart's- 


day the king's head gardener came in and ex- 
claimed: " O king, pray come and see what is 
the matter with your garden; everything is 
wilting, drooping and dying ! " 

While he spoke the other gardeners came 
running in, and all had the same story to tell. 
So the king went out, and there found all as 
they had said. He went up first to the grand 
old oak tree, his pride and admiration, and 
said: " Why, old oak, what is the matter with 

ease, low down on the ground, with its face 
turned up to him, looking as bright and smiling 
as possible. He stooped and said: " You dear 
little heart's-easel what makes you look so 
bright and blooming, when everything around 
you is withering away ? " 

" Why," said the heart's-ease, " I thought 
you wanted me here; if you wanted an oak, 
you would have planted an acorn; if you want- 
ed roses, you would have set out a rosebush; if 


you that you are withering and dying away ? " 

" Oh," said the oak, " I don't think I am of 
any use, I am so large and cumbersome; I bear 
no fruit or flowers, and I take up so much room; 
and, besides, my branches spread so wide and 
thick that it is all dark and shadow under 
them, and no flowers or fruit can grow there. 
N^ow, if I were a rosebush, it would be worth 
while, for I should bear sweet flowers; or if I 
were a peach or pear tree, or even like the 
grapevine, I could bear you fruit." 

The king next went to his favorite rosebush, 
and said: "Well, rosebush, what is the mat- 
ter with you — why are you so drooping ? " 

" Why," said the rosebush, "I am of no use; 
I can bear no fruit, I have nothing but flowers; 
if I were an oak, like that one in the middle of 
the grounds, I should be some use, for then I 
could shelter you, I could be seen for miles 
around and be an honor to your garden; but as 
it is, I might just as well die," 

The king then went to a grapevine, no longer 

you had wanted grapes, you would have put in 
a grapevine. But I knew what you wanted of 
me was to be heart s-ease; so I thought I would 
try to be the very best little heart's ease that 
ever I could !" 

Dear children: Would you be like thebeart's- 
ease ? Then be just what God made you — a 
child; loving, kind and good; be the best little 
heart's-ease that ever you can! 

Y. M. C, A. Building at Woodland. 

We give on this page an engraving of the 
front of the Young Men's Christian Association 
building now in course of construction in 
Woodland, Yolo county. It is a handsome de- 
sign, and is the work of Gilbert & Son, archi- 
tects of Woodland. It is i credit to the ener- 
getic young men of Woodland that their fine 
town has the second Association bailding on 
the coast, the first being on Sutter street, in 

San Francisco. Woodland is a very handsome 
city, and one of beautiful homes as well as fine 
business streets. It is surrounded also by a 
rich and progressive country. 

We are glad to call the attention of our 
young people to this structure at Woodland 
and the association which has secured it. The 
work done among our young men and young 
women by these organizations is incalculably 
valuable. There should of right be a disposition 
on the part of the people to aid and support 
them, and a desire among our young people to 
show, by their profiting by the work of the asso- 
ciation, that they appreciate what is being done 
for them. We would like to see such an in- 
stitution as that at Woodland in every town in 
the State. 

The Opening of the Ball. 

Our fathers were fighters, men who believed 
in Providence, but kept their powder dry. 
When they heard the Stamp Act had passed, 
which provided that the pigs and toothpicks 
must all bear the stamp of the Government, 
the stamps to be paid for by the colonists, of 
course, they instantly held town meetings in 
all the district schoolhouses and hurled defiance 
at the British throne. Patrick Henry, a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Legislature, on hearing of 
it, arose and said : " Sir, we must fight — I re- 
peat, sir, we must fight." 

" Death to the man who offers a piece of 
stamped paper to sell 1 " shouted the people of 
Boston. The ball opened on the 18th of April, 
1775, at Concord, where our fathers had very 
thoughtfully stored away a big lot of explosives, 
probably for the purpose of celebrating their 
forthcoming Fourth of July. The precious 
store was guarded by a small squad of minute- 
men. General Gage sent a detachment of 
about 3000 redcoats to destroy these explo- 
sives. In dead silence, by the dim moonlight, 
they stole out of Boston, supposing their move- 
ments were unknown. But the patriots had 
eyes that could see in the dark and ears that 
could hear in the silence. In the gray dawn 
of the morning, Major Pitcairn rode up to a 
company on the village green and said, "Dis- 
perse, you rebels ! " Regarding the remark as 
rather impolite, the militia retorted, " You're 
another," whereon there was a pretty lively 
time for a few minutes. The woods were full of 
minutemen. There seemed to the dazed eyes 
of the redcoats that there was one behind 
every boulder and fence-post. From every 
house, barn, pigpen and fence sped the un- 
erring ball. Darker and fiercer the storm 
gathered. Wearied, mortified and disgraced, 
they reached Charlestown late in the evening, 
and on counting noses found they were short 
273 men. Pretty good for the first day's work. 
The accompanying cut is supposed to be a real- 
istic representation of the British army on its 
retreat. It seems to have been conducted in a 
somewhat informal manner. The unstudied ac- 
tion of the pedal extremities indicate a pressing 
engagement suddenly remembered. There 
are sundry other anatomical peculiarities about 
this picture of which the least said the better. 


Cream Cake. — One-half cup butter or one cup 
sweet cream, 1^ cups sugar, four eggs (one 
beaten separately), one-half cup sweet milk, two 
teaspoonfuls cream of tartar, one teaspoonful 
soda. Bake in a long pan. When done, cut 
open and spread between one pint whipped 
cream, one cup sugar. Flavor with lemon. 

Chicken Croqbettes. — Take a cold chicken, 
roast, boiled or broiled; mince it very fine, or 
it will not adhere; moisten with a rich gravy or 
with cream; season with pepper and salt and a 
little mace, if you like the flavor; make up into 
small forms, dip in egg, roll in breadcrumbs 
and fry slowly in pot lard. 

Beef Fritters. — Chop pieces of steak or cold 
roast beef very fine; make a batter of milk, 
flour and an egg, and mix the meat with it. 
Put a lump of butter in a saucepan, let it melt, 
then drop the batter into it from a large spoon. 
Fry until brown, season with pepper and salt 
and a little parsley. 

Tea Cakes. — Rub together four teaspoonfuls 
of butter and one of sugar, add one well-beaten 
egg, one tablespoonful of cream and two cups 
of flour, into which has been sifted two tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder. Bake in small 
pans and eat while freeh. 

Suet Puddino. — One cup of molasses, one 
cup suet, one cup raisins, one cup of milk, two 
teaspoonfuls baking powder; add flour till very 
stiff to beat with spoon; put in a steaming pan 
or floured bag, and steam constantly for three 

Egoless Cake. — Two-thirds of a cup of 
sagar, i of a cup of sweet milk, ^ of a cup of 
butter, two cups of flour and two teaspoonfuls 
of baking powder. Flavor to taste, and before 
putting in the oven grate sugar over it. 

Chocolate Cookies. — One cup of butter, two 
cups of sugar, three cups of flour, four eggs, 
one cup of grated chocolate, ^ teaspoonful of 
soda, and one teaspoonful of cream of tartar. 
Roll thin and bake in quick oven. 

Cream Sauce. — Melt three ounces of butter; 
add flour to thicken with half a pint of cream; 
season with pepper and salt; let it boil and 
serve with chicken, veal or sweetbreads. 



[July 2, 1887 

A. T. DKWEY. W. B. E'W'KR. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Ofice, 220 Market St., N. E. cor. Front St., S.F. 
tr Take the Slevator. tlo. It Front 

Our Subscription Rates. 

Our SuBSCRtFTioH Kates irk turrk onLLiRs a year, in 
advance. Wtiile thifl nutic« apiiears, all subscribers pay- 
inf; 9.^ in advance will ret^ive 13^ months' (one year and 
six weeks) credit. For $1.50 in advance, six mouths and 
three weeks. All agents and clerks are required to 
adhere to these terms. No new names entf*red on the 
list without payment in advance. Our preaiium offer- 
loKS are subject to these terms. 

Advertising Bates. 

1 Week. 1 Month. S Months. 1 Tear. 

Per Line (ag-ate) t .25 S .SO $2.20 $6.00 

Half inch (1 square). . . 1.00 3.00 8.00 24.00 

One inch 2.00 5.00 U.OO 46.00 

LftriC^ advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, le^^l advertisements, notices a|>pearing 
In extraordinary type, or in particular parte of the paper, 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

DEWET & CO., Patint SouciTORt. 


Our lattst foriM go to press Wednesday evenmg. 

Registered at S. F. Post Office >■ sacond-clags mail matter. 


Saturday, July 2, 1887. 


EDITORIALS.— California Kaisins; Georire Washing- 
ton; The L"ind of Booms, 1. The Week; The Declara- 
tion of Inde[>endence; Desert Land Frauds, 3. Ma- 
chinery and Labor, 9. 

Il.L.OSTRATIOHa.-Washin^'ton In 1772, 1. The 
Bellman Informed of the Declaration of Independence; 
Moll Pitcher at Monmouth, 5. Male Forms of Cottony 
Cushim Scale, 9. 

FLOHICDLTURE.— The Care of Tender Plants 3. 

HOBTIOnLTORE.-State Hotticultural Society 
Meeting', 2. 

THE VINEYARD -Colic in Horses, 3. 

POULTRY YARD.— A Born Orphan; Automatic 
Poultry Feeders, 3. 

eran in Kansas; Grange Interests io .Sonoma; A New 
Grange in Placer; Interstate Commerce Kesnlntions of 
Walnut Creek Grange; Why a Farmer Should be a 
Patron; Oranj/e Tract, 4. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES— From the various 
counties of California, 6 

TRE HOME CIRCLE.— A Pioneer's Romance, 6. 
The Fourth of July, 7. 

YOUNG FOLKS' GOLUMN.-The Heart's Ease; 
Y. M. C. A. Builoing at Woodland; The Opening of the 
Ball, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Cream Cake; Chicken Croquettes; 

Beef Fritters; Tea Cakes, Suet Pudding; I^tgless Cake; 

Choiolate Cookies; Cream Sauce, 7. 
ENTOMOLOGICAL.— The Life History of the 

Icer>'a, 9. 

FRUIT MARKETING,— Fruit Union Notes, 13. 

Business Announcements. 

Agricultural Implements— Baker & Hamilton, 

Windmills — Pacific .Manufacturing Company. 

Golden Gate Plug Clo«et— Joseph Budde. 

Gloves- Waterproof Glove Co., West Oakland. 

Field Seminary— Mrs. R. G. Knox. 

Trinity School— Kev. E. B Soalding. 

Dairy Machinery-G. O. Wii kson & Co. 

Guns and Pistols- Geo. W. Shreve. 

Freckle Cure— The W. Millard Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Commission Merchants— Witzel & Baker. 

Frtiit Fitters- Wieater & Co. 

trSee Advertising Column*. 

Tlie Week. 

The observauce of the National Birthday 
promisei to be unusually wide and pronounced 
this year. It is fittinc; that it should be. Pa- 
triotism, it is to be hoped, we shall always have 
with us, but patriotism assumes forms of ex- 
pression according to the prevailing moods and 
conditions of the people. Therefore as the dis- 
position of Californians at the present time is 
buoyant, as activity pervades all our lines of 
industry and of thought, and as progress seems 
to be stamped upon everything involved in the 
advancement and development of our State, it 
is natural that there should be a general tend- 
ency toward marked commemoration of the 
favorite American holiday, the Fourth of July. 
From Shasta to San Diego various towns are 
getting ready for a grand time next Monday. 
We have not space to specify the many details 
of arrangements at interior points which come 
to our notice. They are doubtless well watched 
for in the local papers by the people most in- 
terested. As some of our friends always 
like to come to San Francisco, we will 
state that preparations foreshadow a mem- 
orable celebration in the metropolis this 
year — in fact, it is promised that it will be the 
" grandest eyer held in the city." It is ex- 
pected that there will be over 9000 men in the 
procession. There are to be eight divisions, and 
at the head of each division will be a " float " 
expressing some patriotic idea. In front of the 

Native Sons there will be the great seal of Cali- 
fornia. The usual literary exercises will be pro- 
vided and no doubt those who become the city's 
guests on the Fourth will have quite as much 
sight-seeing as they can attend to. 

Those who are prevented by distance or other- 
wise from participating in formal celebrations 
will, we trust, plan for themselves and their 
children some fitting exercises. It is a good 
thing to recall to mind, and to teach the young- 
sters the great significance of the day. 

Desert Land Frauds. 

Whitever may be said of the theory of the 
late "desert land law," and whatever honest 
development may have been done under it, it 
has been fully demonstrated that it has been 
the cloak of some of the most wholesale and 
shameless land-grabbing. There has been so 
much of this grabbing done during the last de- 
cade, under one pretext or another, that it is 
difficult perhaps to tell exactly which specious 
measure has cloaked the most, but certainly 
the " desert land law" did its full share of the 
mischief. It now appears that the Government, 
under the lead of Gen. Sparks, is recovering 
some of this land, by sending out agents to see 
what the sworn statements of improvements 
amount to. Last Saturday Gen. Sparks took 
the necessary preliminary steps to cancel 55 
desert land entries in Wyoming Territory, ag- 
gregating in all about 35,000 acres. In these 
cases the "final proof" was, on the face of it, all 
that was required, documents being filed to 
show that by means of ditches already con- 
structed an ample supply of water is at hand to 
properly irrigate the land; that the claimants 
own the right to the water thus secured, and 
have never parted with their interest and 
have never agreed to do so. But the real state 
of the case is shown by the report of an agent 
of the Land Office from which the following is 

Upon a majority of the entries no ditches 
that would convey water have ever been con- 
structed, while the few ditches that have act- 
ually been constructed never have been util- 
ized. A survey of one large and several lateral 
ditches was made, and a plow-furrow made in 
many places to show the line of surveys, but no 
actual bona fide ditching was ever done by the 
claimants, or by any one for them. All the 
ditching that was ever done was of the most 
shadowy nature, and was not substantially use- 
ful, nor intended to be so. The land has not 
been reclaimed or irrigated to the slightest 
degree in any one of the 55 cases ennmerated, 
and was, at the date of investigation, in the 
condition it was at the time the entry was 

It is upon this evidence that Gen. Sparka 
proposes to recover the land for the Govern- 
ment. Certainly laud that has been clearly 
forfeited should be recovered. The law was 
certainly good or bad enough to have honest 
work done under it, and it should be insisted 
upon. The provisions were exceedingly favor- 
able to those who took up land under it, and 
where they were not complied with, the land 
should revert. 

We like to see development and progress, 
and wish the desert to blossom as the rose, etc., 
but it is time that there should be no more 
haste in disposing of the title to public lands. 
The country is settling up so fast that all the 
vacant areas will be soon called for by individ- 
uals who desire to make homes upon it, or by 
co-operative colonies 'Jwho can furnish the 
amount of labor and capital required to bring 
in water and undertake other large enterprises. 
There is no need to dispose of more at whole- 
sale to large operators, who desire to hold it as 
large ranges or to peddle it out in homesteads 
to settlers and thus enrich themselves at the 
expense of the settlers. The railroads have 
been liberally treated, and new lines are multi- 
plying without bonuses because the trallic is 
worth contending for. It would seem the plain- 
est common sense to hold the rest of the public 
lands for actual settlers, and thus save some 
room for the overflow of population from the 
old and thickly settled States. We are glad 
the Land Office has a head who believes the 
Government land is good for something else 
than to get rid of. 

Fires more or less disastrous in field and 
forest are reported from various quarters — as 
usual at this season. The heedless camper, the 
dropped match, the cigar-stump and the gun- 
wadding are chargeable with sad losses every 
year. Let us, each one of us, be careful that 
we do not cause the mischief. 

Tlie Declaration of Independence. 

The movement for independence was not 
any sudden explosion of heated passion, nor 
was it the work of one man or assembly of 
men. For months it had been talked orer as a 
" consummation devoutly to bo wished " by the 
mechanic in his shop, the fisherman along the 
northern coast, the planter in the Sunny South 
and the pioneers and hunters of the West. It 
had been discussed in town meetings, social par- 
ties, in the pulpit, newspapers, pamphlet, com- 
mittees of safety and Provincial Legislatures. 
The members of the Colonial Congress were no 
company of reoklesa adventurers who had 
everything to hope and nothing to lose by a 
revolution. They all hesitated and li-stened to 
hear the voice of the people. On the 10th of 
May, 1776, Mr. .lohn Adams ventured to sug- 
gest a measure which Congress adopted, " that 
all the colonies which had not established gov- 
ernments suited to the exigencies of their affairs 
adopt such governments as would conduce 
to the happiness and safety of their conttituents 
in particular and America in general." That 
was the first step. It was a feeler of the popu- 
lar pulse. June 7th, Richard Henry Lee, in the 
name and by the special authority of Virginia, 
proposed this resolution: "That the United 
Colonies are and of a right ought to be free 
and independent States, that they are absolved 
from all allegiance to the 'British Crowo, and 
that all political connection between them and 
the State of Great Britain is and ought to be 
dissolved." This resolution was seconded by 
John Adams. The debate that followed was 
long and warm. Many of the members hesi- 
tated about taking so decided a step. Some 
still hoped that the eloquence of Chatham and 
the influence of Rockingham might effect an 
honorable reconciliation. The matter was final- 
ly adjourned to the first day of July. 

The day set apart to consider Lse's resolu- 
tion arrived. Fifty-one members were in their 
places. The outlook was ominous. The ex- 
citement caused by the display of gallantry at 
Bunker Hill by untrained militia had passed 
over. The business of the day began by read- 
ing a letter from Gen. Washington, who re- 
turned the whole number of men under his 
command that were fit for duty as 7754. 

Many of these were volunteers for a year, 
whose term of service had nearly expired. All 
needed money, clothing and ammunition, and 
Congress had no power to levy a tax nor credit 
to borrow. Sir Henry Clinton had just arrived 
before Charlestown with a line of battle ships, 
and the safety of that place was in doubt. 
New York was threatened by Lord Howe with 
a formidable armament that had already ar- 
rived at Sandy Hook. Gei). Montgomery had 
panted out his brave soul under the walls of 
Quebec, and the little army that had invaded 
Canada with so much hope was on the retreat, 
badly shattered by disaster and disease. Tlie 
Indians on the frontier were already on the 
war-path. As yet no foreign power had seat a 
word of sympathy that could kindle a ray of 
light in the bosom of the most sanguine. Such 
was the aspect of affairs on the first of July 
1776. Is it any wonder that, when the order 
of the day was announced, for a few moments 
a perfect silence prevailed? John Adams 
broke the solemn stillness by a speech which 
tradition says was sudden, impressive, impetu- 
ous and powerful, and on the evening of the 
second day the resolution passed with only one 
dissenting colony, New York, not yet being 
able to concur. The Rubicon was crossed. 
The old 13 British colonies stepped forth among 
the nations of the earth free and independent 

It now only remained to give the world 
the reasons for this important act, and to 
indicate the principles whicii this new people 
would acknowledge as the basis of their politi- 
cal action. It was ordered that a committee be 
appointed to prepare a declaration in support of 
this measure. This committee was chosen by 
ballot, and consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John 
Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and 
Robert R. Livingston. It is usual when com- 
mittees are elected by ballot to arrange their 
order according to the number of votes each 
one received. Mr. Jefferson had the highest 
and Mr. Adams the next highest number. It 
is said there was only the difference of one vote 
between them. Standing thus at the head of 
the committee, they were requested by the 

other members to act as a sub committee to 
prepare a draft. Mr. Jefferson drew up the 
paper. He showed it separately to Adams and 
Franklin, who only made a few verbal car- 
rections. Congress now entered upon the con- 
sideration of this document. For two days its 
statementof principles was closely analyzed, and 
every word critically scanned. On the Fourth 
of July, 1776, it received the final approbation 
of Congress, and copies were ordered to be sent 
to each State, and that it be read at the head of 
the army. The crowning act was on the Fourth 
of July, and hence for all time the recurrence of 
that day will be fragrant in the memory of 
every patriotic heart. We can render no higher 
homage to those noble men who laid the foun- 
dation of our nation than annually to baptize 
our souls afresh in the spirit and meaning of 
this declaration. 

It has been said, as if it were in derogation 
of this Declaration, that it contained nothing 
new; that it was a recital of old ideas and argu- 
ments that had seen service before. No doubt 
people sitting in darkness, wearing the yoke of 
oppression, may at times have caught a glimpse 
of the truth, that all just government derives 
its powers from the governed, and started as 
one who in a foreign land has suddenly heard 
the familiar accents of home. The growth of 
this idea, like all other great ideas, was slow 
and silent. It was cradled in the Magna 
Charta extorted from King John, June 19, 
1215. It grew through the centuries, as the 
great oaks grow, becoming strong and tough in 
wrestling with terrible gales. From the dis- 
covery of America to the settlement of Massa- 
chusetts and Virginia, nearly all over Europe 
political and religious events were taking place, 
that to the wise men and seers of the day were 
harbingers of a new era. England jfor more 
than a century, unconscious to herself, was un- 
dergoing an education that was destined one 
day to run under the sea and shoot up in a 
fresher soil into a richer growth. The foster- 
ing of the spirit of commerce, the encourage- 
ment given to arts and manufactures, the modi- 
fication of the feudal system of entails, these 
and kindred measures were helping slowly to 
form a new class in society aside from the 
barons and great land-holders and retainers of 
the crowD, that would sooner or later claim a 
voice in political affairs. The great religious 
controversies, from the times of VVycliffe and 
Luther, perhaps more than any one agency, 
helped to change and liberalize society. But 
still we may safely aver that, up to the time of 
the announcement of this Declaration, the 
idea of laying the foundation of government ex- 
clusively upon the will of the people at best 
had never been anything more than a beautiful 
ideal that had sadly failed on trial in Greece 
and Rome, but might be realized in the millen- 
nium. It was oar fathers alone who had the 
genius and courage to rise above all traditional 
reverence for kingly prerogatives and heraldic 
families and assert, as the corner-stone of their 
new government, that God had mingled divinity 
in the blood of every man, and the poorest and 
lowliest might rise up and say, " I, too, am a 

Improved Condition of Orchards. 

Inspector Klee, who has just come back from 
a tour among the orchards of several interior 
counties, informs us that in Alhambra valley. 
Contra Costa, he found the trees in good condi- 
tion and fruit promising, although in some por- 
tions of the county the fruit is rather small on 
account of the drouth. A general improvement 
is noticeable here, owing to faithfal application 
of insecticide treatment. 

From Contra Costa the inspector passed up 
the Sacramento river, spending several days in 
this fruitful region, where, more than any- 
where else, he noted a decided advance over 
previous years. Orchards which were in very 
bad condition last season now show renewed 
life and vigor, and the crop prospects in general 
were very encouraging. 

At Winters, Vacaville and Pleasant Valley 
the peach and apricot crops are very large; the 
preparations to dry and pack for foreign ship- 
ment are extensive, and all available help is 
busily at work. 

In some localities the late hot winds damaged 
the Tokay grape considerably, but they also 
nearly annihilated the San Jose scale, so per- 
haps the gains equaled or outweighed the 

July 2, 1887] 


The Life History of tlie Icerya. 

Forms of the Male Cottony Cushion Scale. 

[From Advance Sheets of Report by Prof. C. V. Rilky, 
U. S. Entomologist ] 

Last week we gave the different forms of the 

female Icerya, and this week we have forms 

which are distinctively those of the male 

sex. It will be understood that the sex of the 

egg and of the newly hatched larvae is not 

distinguishable, consequently Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, 

as used last week as early stages of the female, 

are to be considered as also leading up to the 

more advanced forms of the male, as given on 

this page. 

The following is a quotation from Prof. Riley's 
report describing the figures given on this 
page : 

The Male Larva — Probable Second Stage. — 
Neither Mr. Coquillett nor Mr. Koebele were 
able to distinguish the male larvae until these 
had reached the stage in which they form their 
cocoons. Among the specimens studied at the 
Department, and which were sent alive from 
Los Angeles by Mr. Koebele, we have found a 
larval form which has not yet been described, 
and which we strongly suspect may be the 
male in the second stage. Tliis form is illus- 
trated at Fig. 1. It differs from our supposed 
second stage of the female in its more slender 
form, longer and stouter legs, and longer and 
stouter antennae. The legs and antennae are 
not only relatively longer and stouter, but are 
absolutely so. The body above is much more 
thickly clothed with the short stout hairs than 
the corresponding female stage, and the men- 
tum is longer and darker colored. The anten- 
nse are six- jointed, and the joints have precisely 
the same strange relative proportions as in the 
female. The secretory pores are present, 
but are not quite so numerous as in the female. 

Male Larva — Third Stage. — In this, the third 
or last larval stage, the male is readily distin- 
guished with the naked eye from the female in 
any stage by the narrower, more elongate, more 
flattened, and evenly convex form of his body, 
as well as by bis greater activity in crawling 
about the trunk or branches of a tree. More 
careful examination shows that the beak is en- 
tirely wanting, the tubercle from which it 
arises in the earlier stages being replaced by a 
shallow triangular depression. The body is al- 
most naked, being very sparsely covered with 
a short, white, cottony matter, and is destitute 
of the short but stout black hairs which are 
found upon the body of the female during the 
third and fourth stages of her life. In the ab- 
sence of black spots and in the nine-jointed an- 
tennse he agrees with the similar or third stage 
of the female, and the average length when full 
grown is about three mm. and diameter abjut 
one mm. 

The Male Pupa and Cocoon. — When the male 
larva has reached full growth and is ready to 
transform it wanders about in search of a place 
of concealment, finally secreting itself under a 
bit of projecting bark, under some leaves in the 
crotch of the tree, or even wedging itself down 
under a mass of females. Very frequently, 
probably in the majority of cases, it descends to 
the ground and hides under a clod of earth, or 
works its way into some crack in the ground. 
Having concealed itself, it becomes quiescent, 
and the delicate, flossy substance of which the 
cocoon is formed begins to exude abundantly 
from the body. This material is waxy in its 
character, but is lighter and more flossy and 
less adhesive than that of which the egg-sac of 
the female is composed. After a certain 
amount has been exuded the larva moves back- 
ward very slowly, the exudation continuing 
until the mass is from 7 mm. to 10 mm. in 
length. From this method of retrogression it 
happens that the body of the larva is frequently 
seen protruding posteriorly from the mass, 
which naturally leads to the erroneous conclu- 
sion that the material is secreted more abundant- 
ly from the fore part of the body, whereas the 
reverse is the case. When the mass has 
reached the proper length the larva casts its 
skin, which remains in the hind end of the co- 
coon and pushes itself forward into the middle 
of the cocoon. 

The pupa (Fig. 2) has the same general color 
as the larva, the antenoce, legs and wing-pads 
being paler and the eyes dark. It has also the 
same general form and size. All the members 
are free and slightly movable, so that they vary 
in position, though ordinarily the anteuns are 
pressed close to the side, reaching to basal part 
of metathorax (ventrally); the wing-pads also 
against the side, elongate-ovate in form and 
reaching to second abdominal joint. The legs 
are rather shorter than the diameter of body, 
and the front pair thrust forward. The anal 
end is deeply excavated, the abdominal joints 
well separated, the mesonotum well developed 
and the pronotum tuberculous or with some 
eight prominences; but there are no other 
structural peculiarities. The surface is, how- 
ever, more or less thickly covered with waxy 
filaments, which are sometimes exuded in suffi- 
cient quantities to give quite a mealy ap- 

Whenever the pupaj are taken from the 
cocoon and placed naked in a tin box, they ex 
ude a certain amount of wax, often enough to 
partially hide them from view. If disturbed, 

they twist and bend their bodies quite vigor- 

The cocoon is of an irregular, elongate shape, 
appearing a little denser in the center where 
the pupa has placed itself, and at the edges 
delicate and translucent. The material of which 
the cocoon is composed is very delicate, and 
appears like the finest cotton, but on submis- 
sion to a gentle heat it melts as readily as the 
coarser secretion of the female, and leaves the 
larva or pupa, as the case may be, clean and 

The Adult Male {Fig. S). — A careful descrip- 
tion of the male of this species has never been 
published. It was unknown to Mr. Maskell at 
the date of his first paper and has not been men- 
tioned in any of his subsequent papers. Mr. 
Trimen attempted to breed it, but was unsuc- 
cessful. He says: "So little is certainly 
known of the males of the Coccidae that I have 
kept from time to time a large number of this 
Dorthesia under glass in the hope of obtaining 
the males, but hitherto without success. I once, 
however, found on my window a male of some 
Coccus which I thought was very probably that 
of the introduced species, as it agreed in most 
of its important characters with Westwood's 

Fig. 1. 

nearly as broad as long; joint 2 is half as broad as 
I and is somewhat longer; joint 3 is nearly twice as 
long as I and slightly narrower than 2; joints 4, 5, 
6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 are all of about the same length 
as joint 3, and grow successively a little more slender; 
each joint, except joint i, is furnished with two 
whorls of long light-brown hairs, one near base and 
the other near tip; each joint is somewhat constrict- 
ed between its two whorls, joint 2 less so than the 
others. There are no visible ocelli. The pronotum 
has two wavy subdorsal longitudinal black lines, and 
the mesonotum is nearly all black, except an oval 
patch on the scutum. The metanotal spiracles are 
black, and there is a transverse crescent-shaped 
black mark, with a short median backward prolong- 
ation. The mesosternum is black. The legs are 
also nearly black and quite thickly furnished with 
short hairs. The wings are smoky black, and are 
covered with rounded wavy elevations, making a 
reticulate surface, a cross-seclion of which would 
appear crenulate. The costa is thick and brown 
above the subcostal vein, which reaches costa at a 
trifle more than four-filtfis the length of the wing. 
The only other vein (the median) is given off at 
about one-sixth the length of the wing, and extends 
out into the disk a little more than one-half the wing 
length. There are, in addition, two white lines, one 
extending out from the fork of the subcostal and the 
median nearly straight to the tip of the wing, and 
one from the base in a gradual curve to a point 


figure of the male Dorthesia characias. It was 
dark red, with the wings gray, and very slender 
and fragile in its structure. It measured 15 48 
inch across the expanded wings." 

The male was unknown to Prof. Comstock, 
but was very briefly mentioned by Dr. Chapin 
in the first report of the Board of State Horti- 
cultural Commissioners, Sacramento, 1882, p. 
68. He found the male in numbers during a 
period of two weeks from Ssptember 25, 1881, 
but did not observe it in 1882. It is also men- 
tioned by Matthew Cooke in his " Injurious 
Insects," etc., 188.3, p. 16C, and a rough and 
uncharacteristic figure is given at Fig. 146, 
plate .3. His few words of description are: 
" Male insect, winged; color, thorax and body 
dark brown; abdomen, red; antennae, dark 
colored, with light hairs extending from each 
joint; wings, brown, iridescent." The follow- 
ing detailed description is drawn up from nu- 
merous specimens both mounted and living: 

The adult male is a trifle over 3 mm. in length, 
and has an average wing expanse of 7.5 mm. The 
general color is orange-red. The head above is 
triangular in shape, with the apex blunt and project- 
ing forward between the bases of the antennae. The 
eyes are placed at the other apices of the triangle, 
and are large, prominent, and furnished with well- 
marked facets. There are no mouth-parts, but on 
the under side of the head is a stellate black spot 
with five prongs, one projecting forward on the con- 
ical lengthening of the head, one on each side to a 
point just anterior to the eyes and just posterior to 
the bases of the antennae, and the remaining two 
extending laterally backward behind the eyes. The 
antennoe are light brown in color and are composed 
of 10 joints. Joint i is stout, almost globular, and 

some distance below the tip. Near the base of the 
wing below is a small ear-shaped prolongation, fold- 
ed slightly on itself, making a sort of pocket. The 
halteres are foliate, and furnished at tip with -two 
hooks, which fit into the folded projection at base 
of wings. The abdomen is slightly hairy, with the 
joints well marked, and is furnished at tip with two 
strong projections, each of which bears at tip four 
long hairs and a few shorter ones. When the in- 
sect is at rest the wings lie flat upon the back. 

Bate of Growtti of the Dlfiferent Stages. 
The rate of growth of the insect necessarily 
depends so much upon surrounding conditions, 
and especially on the mean temperature, that 
it is d fficult to make any definite statements 
as to time elapsing between molts or that re- 
quired for other periods of the insect's growth. 
No facts have hitherto been published which 
bear upon this point. Mr. Coquillett's obser- 
vations shovi^ that individuals hatched from 
eggs on the 4th of March cast the first skin on 
the 23d of April, and underwent the last molt 
on the 23d of May. Mr. Koebele also reports a 
case which bears upon this point, and which is 
interesting as occurring later in the season. He 
placed four newly hatched larvae on a healthy 
young orange tree, out of doors, August 5th. 
On September 26 ;h two of them passed through 
the first molt. October 10th, one more molted, 
and on October 23d the fourth cast its first 
skin. All left the leaves after molting and set- 
tled on young twigs. None of them had gone 
through the last molt when be left Los Angeles, 
November 6th. He was afterward informed 
by Mr. Alexander Craw of Los Angeles that 
nearly all of the insects were full grown in Feb- 

ruary, and he therefore concluded that the in- 
dividuals observed by him would not attain full 
growth before that time. 

The mature male larva requires on an average 
about 10 days from the time it begins to form 
the cocoon before assuming the pupa state, 
and the pupa state lasts from two to three 
weeks. The more reliable information we have 
been able to obtain would show that at Los 
Angeles the average number of generations 
each year is three. 


The newly hatched larvre settle upon the 
leaves and tender twigs, insert their beaks, and 
imbibe the sap. On passing into the third stage 
they seem to prefer to settle upon the smaller 
twigs, although a few are found upon the leaves 
and still fewer upon the larger branches and 
trunk. The adults, however, almost invariably 
prefer the trunk and largest branches. 

The insect is rarely found in any of its stages 
upon the fruit. 

The species difl'ers markedly from most 
Coccidae in being active during the greater part 
of its life, though most of the traveling is done 
by the female immediately after the third molt 
and by the male just before settling to make 
his cocoon. At these periods they wander up 
and down, the trunk and larger limbs until 
they find some suitable place, when they settle 
down, the male to pupate and the female to in- 
sert her beak and develop her eggs and their 
characteristic waxy covering. She is capable 
of slow motion even after oviposition has com- 
menced, but rarely does move unless from some 
exceptional cause. In thus settling after their 
last wanderings both sexes are fond of shelter 
and will get under any projecting piece of 
bark or under bandages placed around the tree, 
the male often creeping under clods of earth. 
Both the female and the male, in adolescence, 
are most active during the hotter parts of the 
day and remain stationary at night; but the 
perfect or winged male is rather sluggish dur- 
ing the day, usually remaining motionless on 
the under side of the leaves of low plants or 
high trees, in crevices of the bark, or wedged 
in between females on the tree. There seems, 
in fact, to be a well-marked attempt at conceal- 
ment. The recently developed individuals are 
found abundantly on or under clods of earth 
near their pupal cocoons, and they issue most 
numerously daring the latter part of the after- 
noon. They are at first weak, awkward and 
ungainly, and instinctively seek some projec- 
tion on the tree or elevation on the ground 
from which to launch on the wing. 

At the approach of night they become im- 
bued with a very high degree of activity and 
dart rapidly about on the wing. At such times 
they swarm around the infested trees. In Sep- 
tember and October Mr. Koebele noticed that 
the males began their flight about 5 o'clock, 
and as soon as it was fairly dark they again 
settled down to rest. None have been observed 
flying at night and none have been attracted to 
the electric lights. 

Machinery and Labor. 

John Swinton, a labor advocate of some repu- 
tation at the East, recently gave an address in 
Boston on the revolutionary forces of the times. 
His audience, according to a report of the ad- 
dress in a Boston paper, pretended appreciation; 
but, according to the report before us, if true, he 
must have dealt largely in incoherent talk about 
Rome, Greece and mediaeval history. Moreover 
his language must have been found very difficult 
of application to thS points which he assumed 
to illuminate. One of the forces which were 
mentioned by him was the growth and mass- 
ing of machinery. The truth of his statement 
is not to be disputed, but when he alludes to it 
disparagingly as working to the detriment of 
the laboring classes, he is running tangent to 
facts that have been demonstrated time and 
again as favoring the social and material con- 
dition of the working people. Though said 
with a sort of raillery, there was much truth in 
the vulgar remark: " When the clodhopper 
reads, the clodhopper is lost. When the gut- 
tersnipe's head becomes a knowledge-box, the 
guttersnipe is impossible." The lowness of 
man's employment is raised in proportion to 
his mental education. No vocation is servile 
or degraded in itself, and it becomes so only be- 
cause intelligence does not enter into its execu- 
tion, hit the mind be educated to the employ- 
ment of the hand and street-sweeping develops 
into a science. The meanness of labor is so be- 
cause of the abasement of man's nature; elevate 
that and all that he undertakes is elevated. 
Instead of denouncing the condition of affairs 
in their relations to mankind, the best thing 
that can be done is to improve them, not to 
overthrow them. 

Mekcury from 120° to 122° in the shade is 
the temperature reported at the Needles for 
three days last week, white Phoenix, Arizona, 
got it above 117°.- 

The wheat crop in the Wiiliamette Valley 
promises to be the largest raised for years. 


f ACIFie F^URAb f RESS, 

[July 2, 1887 

The Women's Fourth of Jaly Declara- 
tion of ladependence. 

(Wntten for the KrRAi, Prkss.] 

"I call this here meeting to order. I aiat 
the president, ladies, I am only the chairman 
'pro tem,' as that monster, man, says in his 
public perceedins." 


" Don't call no names," spoke up a little mar- 
ried woman who looked as if she was the "boss 
of the ranch," to use a homely expression; but 
the speaker gave her a severe look and proceed- 
ed: " Now, ladies. I want you to elect a promi 
— , no, a permaaent president. This fol de rol 

way the men have of doin' business, nom- 

inatin' and electin' two or three trumpery pres- 
idents afore they settle down to business, is 
just a wastin' time. Let us show our superiority 
by doin* things up to wonst. I therefore move 
we elect the woman that has — that has — what 
is it the men say?" 

" If you please, Mrs. President, pro tem, we 
aint here to re-echo what the mascaline gender 
say. We wish to be original; we must be, to 
improve our lowly brothers, or else, why this 
meeting ?" spoke up a lady with a fair educa- 
tion and a fair exterior. 

"Ladies, excuse me; it was a lapsis — well, a 
lapsis — ■ — " 

" Lapsus linguae," prompted the lady with the 
fair exterior. 

"Well, yes," said the P. pro T. " Now let 
ns nominate the woman with the most grit 
and go in her for the office, and if it isn't your 
'umble servant, let it be the next best woman." 
Then there arose a mighty 

Babel of Voices, 

Soch as the K'.issian historians say character- 
izes their town meetings remote from the Capi- 
tal even to this day; but out of which confusion 
order and good laws are at length evolved; so 
pardon the women. 

After awhile the ladies got tired of nominat- 
ing everybody and finally settled upon one of 
the handsomest, best-dressed and most intelli- 
gent women among them, and elected her by 
acclamation. She was assisted to the platform 
and introduced by the P. pro T. as " Our hon- 
ored Presidentess (remember the 'ess,' ladies), 
Mrs. Lorina Madeline Clemmince, who is heart 
and sperrit in our cause." Then, amid the 
applause, she took not exactly a "back seat," 
but one at the eide where it was convenient for 
her to jump up every little while and help di- 
rect the proceedings. 


The President bowed gracefully and said: 
"Ladies, this meeting, as far as I can under- 
stand, is called for the purpose of our declaring 
our independence; that is why it is called on 
this glorious anniversary of our breaking the 
tyrant bands that bound us to a foreign land 
under an odious Kine " 

"Qaeen— Queen Victori !" interrupted the 
P. pro T. 

"Kxcuse me," smiled the President, "but 
that dear lady did not reign till many years af- 
ter. Ladies, we must, we will make this glori- 
ous 4th of July more mf-mirable than our fore- 
fathers did the 4th of July of old, for from this 
day we will become the 

Foremothers of the American People, 
The foremothers that have been so wrongfully, 
so ignominiously left out of history. We hereby 
declare that we will break the iron bands of 
custom, the 'What will Mrs. Grundy say?' of 
the women, the ' It isn't proper!' of the men. 
We know that there are many things that are 
right and beautiful and good for women to do, 

from which they are debarred by tyrant cus- 
tom." (Applause and cries of "hear! hear!" from 
the assembly.) 

" We will take the every day affairs of life 
first; the grand, the heroic, the beautiful will 
be discussed in their regular order. 

"From this day we declare that it is just as 
right for a man to stay at home at night and 
take care of the baby, and get acquainted with 
it, as it is for a woman to do so; also to let nis 
wife, his wife who has worked and worried and 
worried and worked all day long, go out and 
spend an evening in innocent amusement — not 
to have a 'jolly time,' as the men do eight 
times out of seven " 

"Oh!" came from the audience. 

" Yes, I mean it. Till 12 is one night, but 
the gentlemen stay out very occasionally till 
two or three in the morning. Add these hours 
together and you will get the extra night, and 
perhaps two. (Applause.) We declare that 
they have just as much right to the sleepless 
nights, walking the floor with the twins, as we 

" We declare from this time forth that the 
father is as much proprietor of the child as the 
mother is — that is, in its care and mainten- 
ance; that till o'cloc'ii in the morning, when 
most of the gentlemen have to go to work, that 
they shall share the domestic economy, either 
cook breakfiet or hold the baby while we do it, 
or, if there is no baby, sweep the diuiog roora 
or set the table; for, my dear sisters, we know 
too well that at breakfast-time there are gener- 
ally a dozen things to be done at once, which 
the woman is expected to do with a pleasant 
face and without a murmur, while the (then) 
ornamental partner is dressed in his next-to- 
best clothes, and quietly (if he is not grumbling 
because we cannot do more things at once) 
reading the newspaper. Now, why should he 
have a 

Half-Holiday Every Day, 
For they generally end work at .'5 i". m., while 
woman has not one, from month's end to 
month's end. When I say woman you will un- 
derstand I do not mean the few, who for 
awhile are so favored by fortune that they can 
eit with idly folded hands if it pleases them to 
do so; no, I mean the women who make the 
world, who rear the voters — " 

A voice came from the Assembly, "Yes, and 
we oughter vote, too." 

" I will speak of that presently," replied the 
President in a gentle tone. "Women who ad- 
vance the arts and, I was about to say, sci- 
ences, but in that realm, my sisters, I am sorry 
to say, we are but in our infancy, save an ex- 
ceptional few; but I am digressing. This is to 
be the day of our Declaration of Independence 
from error, from superstition, from wrong do- 
ing and from scandal." 

A few of the most enlightened of the assembly 
applauded, but some thoaght it a dreadful thing 
not to be allowed to say what they pleased 
of everybody else; but nobody must say any- 
thing ot them, let them dare; and then who 
ever would begin anything on Friday; so there 
was quite a murmur of disapproval, but the 
President was firm and said: 

" What is the use of meeting and speaking if 
we are to remain in the same old groove? 
' Talk is cheap, and so are prayers,' whispered 
a gifted sister to me lately at a W. C. T. A. 
meeting. How men as well as women would 
sit in a chair or on the curbstone and talk till 
their tongues gave out, if the good things of 
this world would come to them for mere words; 
and others would pray till their knees were 
sore, if by doing so the blessings of this world 
and the next would descend upon them; but 
not all words are valuable, and not every so- 
called prayer ascends to the throne of (irace. 
Deeds, deeds are the key-notes to character. I 
see a lady standing. Please do not do so — if 
you only knew how unkind it is to those behind 
you. I was once at a public exhibition of the 
attainments of the pupils of the 

Dumb and Blind Institution. 
A lady in front of me persisted in standing. I 
finally told her that others behind her wished 
to see also, so for awhile she sat down very dis- 
contentedly, but at the more interesting part 
up she jumped again and remained standing. I 
thought her manners and her looks were great 
friends, for both were ugly. In a few moments 
up jumped a young giantess in front of her, this 
seemtd like retributive justice, but I could see 
still less, and had no parasol to poke her to sit 
down, for she looked as if she had some sense, 
but her actions belied her looks. Afterward, 
I asked one of those ' terrible creatures' — she 
smiled — a man — 'what ailed my sex. Was it 
thoughtlessness or what ? ' ' Pure unmitigated 
selfishness,' he replied; 'they care hut for 
themselves: if they see, all right, the rest can 
do without or stay at home.' Oh ! my sisters, 
I have often thought we need missionaries at 
home almost as much as the poor African. We 
need to be taught to think of the comfort and 
pleasures of others, even strangers whom we 
may never meet again. We need to be taught 
when the car is full to draw our skirts a little 
nearer to us, to move just a little bit, to even 
take the child upon our lap, for whom we would 
grumble to pay a fare, to be just a little con- 
siderate, that others may be tired as well as we. 
Do you think that God takes no notice 
of these tiltle tiiingn/ Do you think there is a« 
high a place in heaven for a woman who would 
stand up at an instructive exhibition knowingly 
cutting off the view of those behind her ? Dj 
you think there is as bright a crown awaiting 
the woman whose tongue has stabbed the repu- 
tation of a sister woman, or repeated evil words 
of another ? Do you think that Christ will say 

' well done thou good and faithful servant,' to 
the woman who hurts the feelings of the 
tender-hearted, or withholds the hard-earned 
money of those who labor for their bread, as 
for those who fulfill the spirit of God's tender 
laws ? Oh ! my sisters, we need to be taught 
in many things, so that we can set that exam- 
ple of purity of heart and tongue, that example 
of unselfishness of word and deed to our dear 
brothers, who profiting by it may reach that 
higher plane, from which they can clearly see 
that we, more than one-half of the human race, 
have not our full and proper rights." 

Oh, now the applause was long and gener- 

" Mrs. President, hadn't we oughter vote? " 
demanded the same voice as before. 

"To vote is nothing," replied the President, 
" unless we can vote intelligently. A child can 
put a slip of paper in a box, but to put the 
right slip requires more study and thought than 
a woman can always give; yet I think she has 
the right, and if a great number tried, I think 
they would be allowed to deposit their vote, for 
there is nothing in the constitution to forbid it; 
but they should each subscribe a little money 
so as to be able to defend their cause by law. I 
think we. have a right to a voice in the decision 
of who shall teach our children, and who shall 
preach in our churches. I think we have a 
right to utter our protest against selling im- 
mense tracts of 

Public Land to Wealthy Men, 

Or to foreigners. Oae man should never be 
allowed to own more than 500 acres of land at 
the most. One hundred and sixty acres is evi- 
dently enough to support one man and his 
family, or wise Uncle Sam would have made 
different laws about granting land to settlers. 
I was so happy the other day, when riding so 
far into the country that fences almost dissp- 
peared, that I exclaimed, 'Oli, this looks as if 
God owned the land.' * You don't like fences ? ' 
asked a lady by my side. ' I do not like the 
whole country fenced in as if no one had a right 
to put their foot outside the confines of a dusty 
city. I do not like to think that our children 
and our children's children that come after us 
shall be debarred from the privilege of all God's 
creatures, a little home of their own. I would 
like women to have a voice in the matter of 
selling property belonging to the city in which 
they live, so that the little parks and breath- 
ing-places shall not be recklessly disposed of by^ 
a tew officials whose term of ofiice lasts but a 
few years, but the effect of whose bad deeds 
remains forever. Witness the selling of the 
city's property on Market street, where a beau- 
tiful small park cou'd have been made that 
would have been a boon to the citizens of San 
Francisco, and made the public buildings an 
ornament instead of the unsightly pile they now 
are, and to think that poor beautiful Oakland 

ter," said the P. pro T., embracing her. " No 
man to worry our lives out," she continued, 
holding her umbrella under her arm, " no mas- 
ter to order our goings and comings, and to be- 
grudge ns our hard-earned clothes. No hus- 
band to be flirtincr with the girls behind our 


backs, but before marriage so sweet, yet after 
that important event letting us drag along the 
best way we can, carrying all the babies. No ! 
if we are compelled to earn our own living, 
when we come home it is to peace and comfort, 
and a good book. It is the old maids who have 
done something for the good of the world. 
Witness Rosa Bonhenr, the glorious painter; 


is likely to suffer also, for the hand of sacrifice 
is already raised above the only pretty public 
spot there is for half her citizens; and like the 
claws of the terrible vulture is impatient to 
descend upon its prey.'" (Applause.) "If 
there is a lady present from the country, we 
should like her to come upon the platform and 
give her views of what is needed to ameliorate 
the condition of women whose lot is cast in the 
beautiful country." 

Up rose a till, gaunt woman of 40 summers. 
" We want less work." " S'ep right on to the 
platform," said the P. pro T. " L-^ss worry, 
less hours of labor, more good clothes, more 
amusements, more books and more newspa- 
pers," and down she sat amid g'eat applause. 
" Is there a single lady present who will please 
to step this way and tell 

What She Thinks Would Benefit 
Those who have the courage to remain single 
and take up a life of work." 

A very sweet lady arose. "I have but a few 
words to say, so will not come to the platform. 
We, being single, are not represented in the 
various administrative assemblies iu the coun- 
try, as the gentlemen claim that we are; and as 
we number many thousands, and many of us 
own property, therefore we have taxation with- 
out representation, which is tyranny, so that 
tyranny is exercised toward us American 
women, against which our forefathers fought, 
bled and died; but what can we do — we, the 
poor old maids of the land?" 

"Old maids, indeed! I think we are the 
most sensible of all the female portion of the 
world," said a sour-faced woman, walking 
straight to the platform. " Welcome, my sis- 


witness Miss Herschel, the wonderful astrono- 
mer; Florence Nightingale, the dear mother of 
the sick and sore. Bat it is true what my sis- 
ter says: we should have representation, and 
the day is not far distant 
on which the tyrant man 
will be compelled to give it 
to us !" 

She sat down amid tre- 
mendous applause. 

The president said: "La- 
dies, I wish you to think 
well over all that has been 
said, and help us on our 
next meeting night with 
your advice and counsel. 
^ Our ' declaration ' will be 

ready by that time, to 
which we wish all your 
signatures appended, and 
they will become as cele- 
brated as those of the sign- 
ers of the declaration of 
old. Ladies, work heart 
^ and soul for our great 
" ciuse, and you will never 
regret it !" 

"Three chairs for our 
noble presidentess," shout- 
ed the P. pro T., and they were given 
with a will. Then the assembly adjourned, to 
meet again at no distant day. 

Fancy and Fun. 

Our Asente. 

OUK Prirkds can do much in aid of our p*p«r and the 
cause of practical knou ledKC and science, t>y assistins; 
Agents in tbuir labors ot canvaHsmtc, by lendijip their in- 
fluence and encoura^nif favors. We intend to send noue 
but worthy men. 

Jakkd C. Uoao — California. 

O. W. Inoalls — Arizona. 

Olio. McDon KiiL— Santa Barbara Co. 

J. L. KoTLK— Marin Co. 

yf. J. Fkrkvah— CaMfnrnia and Nevada. 

William Pool — Fresno Co. 

M. S. Pkimb— Alameda Co. 

K. G. HtsTJX— Butte, Montana. 

E P S.MITH— Humboldt Co. 

8. .1. LiTTLRFiKLU— Los Angeles Co. 

ICU.MUKD WsieiiT— Shasta aiid Tehama Cos. 

II. M. Hamilton— .San Mateo and Santa Cruz Cos. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
ijuested to examine its contents, terms pf sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as tar as practicable, aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
cents, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
subscriber, please show the paper to others. 

Thbrb is one admirable feature about a 
barbed-wire fence. The patent medicine man 
can't paint a legend on it in regard to hia liver 
cxire. — Ex. 

July 2, 1887.] 

f ACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 



Carbolic Smoke Ball 




Catarrh, Asthma, Diphtheria, Croup, Neu- 
ralgia, Hay Fever, Bronchitis, Cold 
in the Head, Sore Throat, Etc. 


IKTot Sold "lay X>x-u.sel'S>tsi 

Circulars, Testimonials, Etc., Sent to any 
Address Free. 

Genuine Home Testimonials can be 

seen at our oflBce. 

"Smoke Ball" and "Deliella- 
tor" packages sent by mail, 
with full directions, on receipt of price, $5.00 (Smoke 
Ball, $3.00; Debellator, 82.00), two ii-ceno stamps. Re- 
.nit by Postal Note, Wells, Fargo & Co., or Poatoffice 
Money Order, Registered Letter, or in coin by express. 


Rooms 7, 8, 9, 10. No. 652 Market St., Cor. 
Kearny (opp. Lotta Fountain), San Franciaco, Cal. 
taf Separate Parlor for Ladies, who will be waited upon 
by skilled and polite lady attendantn. 

The New Mnsic Books of the Season 

Musical people on their travels are invited to call at 
the various Stores of Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston, New 
York and Philadelphia, or at Lton & H halt's, Chicago, 
to examine the very superior Music Books b-oughc out 
during the last few months. 

Piano Classics, 

loung People's Classics for Piano, 
Song Classics, 

Song Classics for Low Voices, 

81 each. High class music, reflued and pleasing. 

Good Old Songs We Used to Sing, 

?1 26. 115 Songs. 

Part-Songs and Glees, $1. Emerson. 
Anthems of Praise, $1. Emeison. 

1 iiie Collections. 
Royal Singer, A royal good singing-class 

Voices of Praise, "| E*ch 35 c»nt8. 
Songrs of Promise, \- For Sund 

Song Worship, J 
Voices of Nature, 40 cts. ~| Good, easy, 

Forest Jubilee Band, 40 ots. [ new, 
New Flora's Festival, 40 cts j Cantatas, 
l^ife of Liszt, S I 2,1 . I Ne w Bi • 

New Life of Mendelssohn, H 50. / ographies 

These are but 16 books out of 2U00 that a'e in stock. 

Lists cheerfully furnished, and all inquiries i^romptly 

Ctf'Any Book mailed for Retail Price. 



C. H. DITSON & CO., 

867 Broadway, Nnw York. 



is the 



[years Experience. 

Use the IIallada7 StniKl-ird Oearod Wind Mill, I-X-L 
Corn Shcllcr ai.d I-X-L Iron Feed Mill nu.l do your sh.-ll- 
ing and griiiiliiR at hotnc, thus Baviug toll and teamioi; to lui 
rn,m tlie (irist Mill. This work can be dono rainT. windv davf. 
when out-door work li »u.ipctided on the Karni. the aame .Mill 
will cut corn stalks, saw wood, run churn and grind-atone, pump 
waler, etc. 

We manufacture thf* llalladav standard C^ored and 
Piiinplnir Wind MIIU,I-X-I, Corn Shellern, I-X-L Iron 
Feed .Mlllm I-X-L Stalk Clltterit, Hor.e Powers, Jacks, 
.Saw T.ildes. Standard Havinii Tools, cnosistini! of Anti-Friction, 
Ituversihle, Swivel and Rod Hay Carriers. Harpoon anil r.r«pplo 
Itor«o Hay Korks, Pull.Ms and Floor Hooks. Also a full line of 
T.mks, Tank Fixtures and Humps for Farm. Ornamental, Village 
ant Railway purpo-Jes. Send for catalogue and prices, 

l{?liable Airent* warned in all una^siened territorr. 


Saa Francisco Savings Union, 

KM California St,, corner Webb. 
K r the half year ending with June 30, 1887, a divi- 
dend hai been de< lared at the rate of four and thirty- 
two one hundredth-i (+ 32-100) per cput per annum on 
term depoMts, and three and six-tenths (3 6-10) per cent 
per annum on ordinary deposits, free ot ta.\e8, payable 
uii and after Friday, 1st July, 1387. 



Junction IVIarket, Pine and Davis Sts., San Francisco. Nos. 9, 11, 13 & 15 J St., Sacramento. 

MANUFACTORY-Benicia Agricultural Works, Benicia, Cal. EASTERN OFFICE-88 Wall Street, New York. 




No. 1, or Small Size, weight, 675 pounds ; capacity, one ton per hour Price, |125 00 

Has rollers 8 inches long and 6 inches in diameter. Should be speeded not less than 1000 nor over 1200 revolutions per minute. Should be run 

with not less than G-horse power. 

No. 2, or Large S-ze, weight, 1620 pounds; capacity, 30 tons and upward per day Price, without wagon, $200 00 

Rollers are 12 inches long and 18 inches in diameter. Should be speeded not less than 600 nor over SOO revolutions per minute. Should be run 

with not leas than 10 horse power. 

Small Farms on Easy Installments. 


A choice portion of the Reading Grant, two miles from the town of Reading, hitherto re- 
served for farming purposes, now divided into 20 acre lots and thrown open to purchasers. 
River bottom soil, sandy loam and very productive. Prices from $30 to $50 per acre. Other 
agricultural lands, in lots to suit purchasers, at from $10 to $25 per acre. For circulars and 
maps call on 

FRISBIE & WILEY, Redding or Anderson. Shasta Co., Cal. 


YER'S Oil-Tanned, Water- 
proof, hand-sewed Buckskin 
Gloves manufactured on the 
Pacific Coast are made by the WATEKPKOOF GLOVE 
CO., West Oakland, Cal. The Hinrt-sewcd Harvest 
Buckskin Glove will be sent by reeristered mail at our 
risk on receipt of $1.25. Money will be refunded for 
every pair that does not eive satisfaction. Send ^our 
address, and price list ot other styles, with samples of the 
buckskin, will be sent FKEE. 


Steam EnsinoM, I'nn crs A IViud .llills. 

Complete Puiiipiug outfits— all sizes— for 
every purpose. The latest. iMJSt 
and rli<*up(*st. If you need any 
thill;: ill this liuc, write to 

Byron Jackson 

r 625 6th St. Sail Francisco. 


Invest in a Fresno Vineyard 

We have for sale, till .July 31st, a one-half interest in a 
fine vineyard ranch, 266 acres, all level and susceptible 
of ?asy irriiration, situate'! near Minturn, Kresno county; 
;:i5 acres in best varieties wine and raisin grapes three 
and four years old, in full bearing; low estimate is 3.50 
tons this year; 15 acres in S-year-oid orchard and table 
erapes, full crop; 8 acres in 8.\ear-od almond in full 
bearing; 50 acres alfalfa; 40 acres grain Entire tract 
under rabbit-proof, lumber fence; amply cross-fenced. 
Main il.iin, gate", ditches, dykes and water, all belong to 
prcmiHcs. So litigation, no riparianism, no costs. Un- 
iloubtodly best system of irrigation in the State; beauti- 
ful reservoir. Two good dwellings picturesquely lofated 
beneath the beautiful foliage ot 9-year old ornamental 
trees. Two very large barns, an abundance of shed- 
room. Agricultural implements, machinery, etc. 
Horses, hogs, mules, cattle and sheep. The object in 
taking a partner is to build wine-room, storage house 
and adobe cellar, and must be sold before July Slst in 
order to utilize the coming immense crop. Price 820,000. 
For full particulars address us or (better) come and see 
the property. 


Real Estate Agents, 

Fresno, Cal. 


f ACIFie f^URAlo f RESS. 

[July 2, 1887 



Coffee Mills, 

Store Trucks, 
Steel Scoops, 

Brass Scoops, 
Tin Scoops, 

Money Drawers, 
Cheese Safes, 

Wood Measures, 


For Sacking Grain, Coal, Ore, Potatoes, Salt, ^-r, TPin/=.T.a 

Beans, Coffee, Flour, Etc. I^^OUnter I? UierS. 


Get Illustrated CatiIo;,'uc from 


B17 and 519 Market Street, SAN FHANCISOO. CAIi. 







Agricultural Implements and Hardware. 










Powell Derrick and Nets. 



Anderson Springs 

Are beautifully and deliuhtfully located in a {^rand nat- 
ural park, with fine lari<e Kroves of forest trees. ^rKline 
trout brooks, and ihe greatest variety of valuable min- 
eral sprin^-^ known in any one locality, including hot 
iron and sulphur springs and a cold iron spiirg. 

These springs have been well estahlisheU for years by 
the present proprietors, who furnish 

Excellent Board with Good Home Cooking. 

Good care is taken to make living at the hotel and 
cottages as pleasant and agreeable to all as possible. 

The remedial ((Ualities of the bprings are indeed won- 
derful. Excellent bithing in b >th mineral and pure 
water, including natural-puttiiig steam baths. 

Board, $10 to $H per week. Children under 12 and 
over .3 yesr. of at;e, half price; 2 and 3 years of age, one- 
fourth price. Route fr- m S. F.: Take morning train to 
Calistoira, Napa Co., C'al. Sta^res leave Oalistoga daily 
(or Middletown, fare, #2. Private team to springs, tl. 
Express and P. O. address, Middletjwn, L'ike Co , Cal. 

Write for (urtlier information. 

J. ANDERSON, Proprietor. 



Homo of Wheat, Fruit, Wine aod Olive; 15,000 acres 
sold ia past 8 months to 220 settler', representing a pop- 
ulation of 1100; 49,000 acres— small subdivision. — aver- 
age, 922.60 an acre; } cash, balance 6 years, 6 per cent, 
ataloguea and maps free. C. U. PHILLIPS, Manager. 



TMs Closet is llie Best, Because 

1. It has a simple, strong valve, 
Huitable for any pressure, self-closing 
by a genuine Phooplior Bronx* 
Spring:, acting with the pressure. 
To prevent breaking and weakening 
of the sprimr, 1 have gone to the 
exiwnse of using Phosphor Bronze 
Wire, which will have the desired 

2. It has a real sanitary overflow, 
a copper float attached to a bell of 
the same metal resting on face of 
the brass overflow pi^-e, operated by 
the rising of the water in the closets 
above its level, thus absolutely 
preventing any escape of sewer gas, 
even the closets being without water. 

3. It has no dead corner, ronwquentlv no foul water will be left in the closet after lifting o( the handle. A 
constant rush out of the flO'Hf chaa.ber4 will keep the closet and trap perfectly clean. 

With above stated points, 1 am able to call ray Closet, the most perfect and cheapeot in the market. 

N. B.— Architects who endeavor to furnish their patrons with the .most reliable goods, should not hesitate to 
give this closet a trial ^fSend for descriptive catalogue. 

JOSEPH BUDDB, Manufacturer, 43 Fremont St., San Francisco. 




On the new extension of Southern Pacific Railroads, 
on the lands belonging to R. T. BUELL, Kit^., near Los 
Alamos, .Santa Barbara county, Cal. Parties desiring to i 
visit the property now, oan go via San Luis Obispo and 
take the cars from thence to Loa Alamos, thence by stage 
to the Colony. SO.OUO acres of the best lands in Call 
fornia, subdivided into 20, 40 and 80-acre f.trins; $20 to 
UNION, 401 Oallfoi-Dla St., San Francisco. 


Builder and Su[ienn'd't, 
Preliminary Drawings 
and Estimates furnished 
gratuitously. Plans and 
Specifications prepared 
with accuracy. No. O 
Eddy Street, S. F. 


California Military Academy 


Thorough instruction in all Departments. Business 
Course complete. Location unsurpas<ied. Send for 
Circular. COL. W. H. O'BRIEN, Principal. 


(Ralston House) 1222 Pine Street, 










A Sunny Primary Room and Gymnasium are to be 
added to the establishment this term. 

Will Re-open July 25, 1887. 

tVFor particulars apply to 


A Select School for Young Ladies. 

tfVot catalogue or information, addrers the Principal, 
1033 Va'encia St., San Francisco, Cal. 

School for Girls and Young Ladles 

1825 Telegraph Ave., Oakland. C&l. 
Address MRS R. G. KNO.X, Proprietor, or 

^The ]8tb year will begin Wednesday, Aug. 8, VHT. 


For Young Men and Boys, 

1534 MISSION ST., S. F. 

Chrislmas Term opens Aag^t 1, 1887. 

For information app^y to 

REV. E. B. SPALDING, A. M., Rec-tor. 

For Boys and Toung Men, 

539 Hobart Street, 

Oakland, Cal. 

English, Scientific, Commercial and Classical Courses of 
stud) . Gives the best prcpiraticn for beut college and 
universities. Next School Vear will begin July Id, 18^7. 

Send, as al>ove, for Catalogue to 

D. P. SACKETT, A. M., Principal. 


University Avenue, Berkeley, Cal. 

Preparatory, Commercial and 
Academic Departments. 


Monday, Aug. 1, 1887. Send for Circulars to 

T. STEWART BOWENS, B. A., T. C. D., Princi|ial. 


D Eiigiisli, French and GermaD Home anl Day School. 

Oak street. Oakland, Cal. The next year will begin 
.luly 27, 188/. Address, Uiss L. Th4cv. 


24 Post St. S. F 

Send for C^rmUv 

Shorthand, Tyi>ewritini;, Penmanship, Bookkeep ti%. 

July 2, 1887] 


EluiT CDai^keting. 

Fruit Union Notes. 

Editors Press: — Telegram received from 
Chicago June 28th reads: " Bartletta selling 
at from $4 to $4.50 per 40 lb. box; Royal Ha- 
tive plums, per 201b. box, |2; Royal apricots, 
in orates of 20 lbs., $1.50 to $1.75; peach ap- 
ricots, $1.50 to §1.75; peaches at $1.50. 
Weather is fine and cool, and fruit keeping 

We are loading a car every day here now, 
which is being made up of small consignments 
from all around. Peaches at $1.50 pay very 
well. The price is what it is because of the 
unusually large number of Tennessee peaches 
in the market which are fully as good in taste 
as our early peaches of the Briggs' Rad May 
and Alexander varieties. Just as soon as we 
begin shipping Early Crawfords we can expect 
better prices; but even at the above figure it 
nets the grower at least 65 cents for not over 
18 pounds of fruit. 

Me&srs. Dix & Wilkes have bepn appointed 
agents in Baltimore, and Blake & Ripley agents 
in Boston. 

Messrs. Sgobel & Bay, agents in New York, 
write us that they can furnish an immense 
market for our grapes; that from October 15th 
to November 1.5th, last year, their city used 
22,000 barrels of Almeria grapes weekly, equal 
to five trains of our fruit each week, and none 
sold for less than $4 per barrel of 60 pounds. 
Their people much prefer our grapes, if they 
can get them, as they far exc9l in flavor the Al- 
meria grapes. Our great difficulty in selling at 
auction, they inform us, will be to have 
the fruit put up in a uniform manner. It 
is sold entirety by sample, and should 
the sample of any shipper be either better 
or worse than the rest of his pack in the 
same lot, the result would be equally disistrous. 
Then, too, they find trouble in getting our 
growers to have all marking on one end. The 
shipper's name and residence and the variety of 
the fruit should all be on the same end. They 
have worked the matter up very thoroughly, 
and the dealers there are all on the qui vive to 
get our fruits at auction, which will allow them 
all a chance to get some. Apricots are selling 
at $3 per 20-pound crate at this date, in a small 
way. We have sent two cars, and a third goes 
to-night. Next week more will follow. The 
first car arrives to day, and at this writing, if 
all is well, the first auction of Califoriiia decid- 
uous fruits is now going on, with Messrs. Brown 
& Seccomb as auctioneers, in New York City. 
We will probably receive word from there by 
wire this afternoon. 

Our Eistern manager, Mr. Blowers, is so 
sanguine of the outlook for prices in the East 
that he notified his foreman to ship his apiicots 
to New York City. 

The Baltimore, Boston and New York peo- 
ple seem to have taken the agency of the Union 
with a desire to make it a success, and are 
straining every nerve to bring about that result. 
To date we have sent 38 cars East. 

H. A. Fairbank, 
Secretary Cal. Fruit Union. 

Sacramento, June 28. 

Dietz, Oakland, 
Frick, Los An- 
T. Hayes, East 
San Leandro, 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

Beported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

From the official report of U. S. Patents In Dbwbt & 
Oo.'s Patent Office Library, 252 Market St., S. F. 


365,163.— Saw Level and Set Gage— John 
Beaulieu, Areata, CaL 

365,165.— Nut Lock— Campbell & Hetzler, El- 
len^burg. W. T. 

365,168.— Grip Releaser FOK Cable R. R.— 
J. T. Cooney, S. F. 

365,170.— Disengaging Scale-Beam Latches 
— E. O. Deming, S. F. 

365,333. — Button-Hole Cutter— C. Dicken- 
son, Portland, Ogn. 

365,055.— Snow Plow— A. E, 


365,176. — Pipe Mold— W. A, 
geles, Cal. 

365,128.— Fire Ladder— H. 
Oakland, Cal. 

365,181. — Trammel— A. Heiron 

365,256.— Stereo.scope — G. D. Horton, Snoho- 
mish, W. T. 

365,342. — Smoke-Consumer— J. W. Hubber, 
S. F. 

365,140. — Drkdger — H. H. Lynch, S. F. 
365,144. —Vehicle Axle— Wm. F. McNutt, 
S. F. 

365.317.— Combination Lock— J. G. O'Neill, 
Nevada City, Cal. 

365 320.— Penholder— M. I. Rodrigue, S. F. 

^65 277. — Wood - 1 urning Machine — A. 
Schuch, Sacramento, Cal. 

365,153.— Automatic Oiler— J. T. Smi'h, S. F. 

10,846.— Insulating Material— J. B. Will- 
iams, S. F. , reissue. 

NOTB.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnlslied 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Coa )t 
inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 

The Weather. — The weather of the week 
has sustained its reputation for being " excep- 
tional." There has been another hot wave, 
but fortunately the grain is beyond harm, and 
we do not hear that it was high enough to injure 
fruit, though it has precipitated the ripening 
somewhat more than desirable in some casRs. 
The southern part of Santa Clara and the Pa- 
jaro valleys had a rattling thunderstorm which 
terrified old residents and made new-comers 
from the East feel at home. There has also 
been rain at several points in the State. Grapes 
are reported somewhat affected by adverse 
weather conditions this year, both in blasted 
berries and eovlure. 


[Famished tor publication In this paper hy Nelson Gorom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps, IT. 8. A. 


Red Bluff. 



Los Angeles. 

San Diego. 















1 Rain 







1 Weal 




1 Weat 

June 23-29. 


bher. 1 


















































































































































































N w 









Saorameoto Notes. 

Editors Press : — The fruit season has com- 
menced in earnest. The strawberry crop is 
about over; was a light yield this season. The 
Early Wilson blackberry has been in market 
since June 6th, and had it not been for our late 
hot wave the crop would have been heavy. 
The Kittatinny are coming in and will soon be 
followed by the Lawton. 

The peach crop will be immense. Shipments 
of early varieties began some weeks ago; others 
will follow as they ripen. Prunes will not 
bear a corner. It is an ofif year — not one-fourth 
of a crop. What there are will be large and 

Our grain-growers are harvesting their crops. 
The yield is better than expected. Wheat 
shrunk somewhat. 

Mixed farming is the true plan for small 
farmers in this State, in fruit, grain and varied 
heads of stock. If one thing is depreciated or 
light, other things come in to balance. 

The boom keeps everything moving, both in 
city and county. Raal estate is open for pur- 
chase, and large tracts are bsing cut up to ac- 
cntnmodate a more thickly settled population. 
With all our varied tropical fruits and flowers 
and healthful climate, our California homes are 
reaching far and drawing in the people of all 
races and tongues. G. R. 

Sacramento, June 27th. 

Fruit Prospects. — On another page of this 
week's Rural may be found brief notes from 
fruit-growers all over the State, concerning the 
outlook for the different fruits. The reports 
are condensed from a long report made to the 
State Horticultural Society by B. M. Lelong, 
secretary of the State Board of Horticulture. 
It will be noticed that most correspondents re- 
port fewer traces of the apple worm or codlin 
moth larva than usual. We hope it may prove 
80 through the season, but we fear the worm 
has been retarded by the character of the sea- 
son and may appear in force later. However, 
anything which may betoken a reduction of 
the pest is good news. 

Grape Grafting —It is announced that .T. 
H. Wheeler, Chief Executive Viticultural Offi- 
cer, is getting up detailed suggestions for the 
use of those who dfpire to experiment with 
" herbaceous grafting " of the grapevine. It is 
said to have been practiced extensively in Hun- 
gary for 50 years past, and consists in grafting 
in summer on the green grape shoots, thereby 
forming a resistant cutting that may be imme- 
diately planted the following spring. The 
idea is to get resistants to the phylloxera the 
first year, instead of waiting two or three years. 

The Los Angeles County Pomoloqical So- 
ciety will hold its next quarterly gathering at 
Orange, July 7th. These horticultural love- 
feasts have become famous, and wherever they 
are held there is sure to be a good attendance 
and interesting proceedings. This society has 
done more than any other to bring about an 
acquaintance between people of different sec- 
tions of the county and to inspire a feeling of 
fraternity and co-operation among the fruit- 
growers. Orange is sure to give the pomolo- 
gists a hearty reception. — Lo» Angeles Times. 

EXPLANATIOH.—Cl. for clear; Cy., cloudy; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; — nd oat^a boo small to measure. Ter"'"™*- e. 
Wind and wraths'- nt 12:00 m (Pui^ific Standard timel, with amount of .» afall in the preceding 24 hours. Note " T 
indicates precipitation inappreciable. 


At SACRAMENTO, Cal., Sept. 12 to 24, 1887. 

$2000 in Cash for County Exhibits. 


Is called, as well as the various Immigration Societies, Boards of Trade 
of the several Counties, and all others interested in bringing 
out the resources ot their respective Counties, 
to the advantages offered by an 
Exhibition at the 

Of the varied products of their counties. The fupervisora of each county are Imited to nialfe a liberal appropria- 
tion, sufficient to pay the oxpens' s of getting tosrether an Exhibition of County Products. Premivmis received can 
be returned to the treasury of eacli county makintr the appropriation, so timt their respective counties would be 
written up and advertised at a small expense by an exhibition of this character. The Railroad Company transports 
the same free of charge. 

THE LIVE STOCK EXHIBITION, connected with the State Fair, is sure to attract Eastern visitors 
anxious to view the resources of California. 

APPLY POR SPACE AT ONOE, as the Society is willing to devote the entire exposition building, if 
necessary, to displays of CALIFORNIA I'ROUUCTS. A NKW FEATURK has been added to the Premium 
List this year, in the shape of awards for a Sheaf Display of <5ereal8. Forty Sheave", not less than 10 
inches in diameter, of 10 varieties of g-ain are called for. Not necessary to he grown by exhibitor Notice is now 
given that eamples may be gathered during harvest, and laid away for exhibition. Address the Secretary for 
Premium Lists and other information. 

EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary. L. U. SHIPPBE, President. 


Air-Purifier and Preserving-Room 


A DAPTABLE to keep or transport all perisbftble articles in perfect condition. After 25 yeara of ptutlyin^ the 
rV. various means uf preservation for perishable articlCB, I have the honor to announce to the public that, having' 

fully Bucceedcd and cwnipleted my preserving process, I am now ready to build preserving- rooms, either on a large 

or small scale. For urther particulars address 


postoffice Box P. West Berkeley, Cal. 

N. B. — Save hundreds of thousands of dollars this season on this coast on Cherries and Apricots by adopting 
the Allegretti Air PurifEer and Preserving-Room System. 

Florida, '• The Land of Flowers," 
Is a paradise for the invalid, and the " Fountain of 
Youth " was once thought to be hid in one ot its forest 
glades. It is now the haven of many consumptives, who 
find benefit In her genial warmth and fragrant flowers. 
The consumptive invalid need not necessarily go so far 
from home and friends to get relief For if not in the 
last stages of the disease, Dr. K. V. Pierce's "Golden 
Medical Discovery" will restore to perfect hea'th. For 
all chronic throat, bronchial and lung diseases it Is a 
most reliable specific. By druggists. 

Mother's Smiles are the Sunllebt of Home. 

There would be fewer clouds and brighter sunshine in 
many households if every dispirited suffering woman 
realized what a boon Dr. Pierce's "Favorite Prescription" 
is for all weaknefses and malad'es to which her sex is 
liable No lady who gives this wonderf'il remedy a trial 
will be disappointed by the result. It not only acts 
promptly upon all functional derangements, but ny its 
rare nervine and tonic properties strengthens and repairs 
the whole feminine system. Fric« reduced to ono dol- 
lar. By druggiats. 

It outrivals all— Dr. Sage's Catarrh Remedy. 

A Glove. — There is probably no line of goods 
that requires more care in manufacturing than 
gloves. This is owing to the large number of pieces 
which must be accurately adjusted in order to make 
even a presentable glove. A visit to and an inspec- 
tion of the Leak Glove Manufacturing Co. 's estab- 
lishment is all that is necessary to convince one that 
they are fixed to do just what they profess to be 
doing— making the best gloves in the world. 

For Printing 

Of Every Description, such as 




Made to Order from First-CIass Material, 
Send Orders to 


S^Estimates Furnished when Desired. 




Cures all Diseases originating from 
a disordered state of the BLOOD ci 
LIVEE. Kheumatism, Neuralgia 
Boils, Blotches, Pimples, Scrofula, 
Tumors, Salt Rheum and Mercurial 
Fains readily yield to its purifying 
properties. It leaves the Blood pure 
the Liver and Kidneys healthy and 
the Complexion bright and clear. 

J. R. GATES & CO. Proprietors, 

417 Sansome St San Francisc" 



And Wholesale Provision Dealeri, 
320 & 321J Battery St.. i.ear riay, San Francisco. 


Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyping and Btereot^piog 
doDf at the office ot this paper. 

The best Farm, Garden, Poultry Yard, Lawn, 
School Lot, Park and Cemetery Fences and Gates. 
Perfect Automatic Gate. Cheapest and J^'catest 
Iron Fences, iron and wire Summer Houses, Lawn 
Furniture, and other wire work. Pest Wire Stretch- 
er and Plier. Ask dealers in hardware, or address, 

SED<>wiCK BROS.. Richmond. Ind. 


If you want a good 
pair of Gloves, ask 
your merchant for 
our brand. 



California Inventors 

Should connnlt 


ANi> Foreign Patknt Solk i iokm, for obtnining Pateuta 
and Caveats. EBtaldihhed in 18ti0. Their longexperieuce aa 
jovirualiKts and larjfe jiractice as Patent attorneys enables 
them to offer Pacillc Coast IuvenU>rs far better service 'haa 
they can obtain elHewhere. Bend for free circulars of lufor- 
matioD. Office of the Mining and Scibntific Press and 
Pacific RuRix Press, No. 252 Market St.. Sao Francisco 
EleTator. 12 Vront St. 



[July 2, 1887 

breeders' birectory. 

six lines or leas in this Directory at SOc per line per month. 


R. J. MERKBLEY. Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

BRADLEY RANCH, San Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thorou^^hbred Shorthorn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock for sale. 

M. D HOPKINS, Petaluma, Cal. Eastern Imported 
registered Shorthorn Balls and Heifers for sale. 

IjAND and Arcis strains; all ages; largest her I to 
select from. Young bulls, low. (All registered.) F. H. 
burke, 401 Montgomery St., 8. F. 

B. J. TURNER, Hollister, Breeder of Percheron-Mor- 
man registered Horses and Hoadsterft. 

E W.STEBLiB, San Luis Obispo, Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Holstein and Jersey Cattle. 

BETH COOK, Danville, "Cook Farm," Contra Costa 
Co., breeder of Aberdeen Angus, Qalloways and De- 
voBS (Itogistered). Young stock for sale. 

PETER SAXB & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Impijrlers and Breeders, for past 16 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILBS, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorongb- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write tor ciroulat. 

J. B. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thorouvilibred Oevons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

C. registered, is owned by Henry Pierce, San Francisco. 

H W. COWELL, Stockton, "Morrano Farm," breeder 
and importer (and agent for Leonard Bros., Mo.) of 
Aberileen and Uallowajs. Young stock for sale. 

T. E. MILLER, Beecher, III. Oldest and best herd 
Heceford Cattle in U. S. Cattle delivered in Calif ornia. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. K. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

W. J. MARSH & SON, Dayton, Nevada. Regis- 
tered Shorthorns of choicely bred stiains. 

H van der STRATEN, Hopland P. O., Durham 
Valley Farm, Mendocino Co., breeder of Shorthorn Cat- 
tle (registered). Young stock (or sale. 

J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal. , breeder 

of Registered Holstein Cattle. 

GEO. BEMBNT & SON, Redwood City. Ayrshire 
Cattle Southdown Sheep, Essex Swine. 


W. C. D&.MOS, Napa, §2 each for choice Wyandottes, 
leghorns, Lt. Brahmas, Uoudans. Eggs, ii. 


sale at all times of all the most popular and profitable 
varieties. Please inclose stamp (or new circular and 
price list to R G. Head, Napa, Cal. 

Box 116, Oakland, Cal. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouge and EmbdeD 
Qeese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

O. J. ALBBE, Lawrence, Cal., breeder and importer. 

D. H. EVERETT, 1616 Larkio St.,S. F., importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Laugshans and Wyandottes. 


400 e„'g8, $50; 160 eggs, $25. Guarantee satisfaction. 
For particulars address, 1. P. Clark, Mayfield, Cal. 

Cal.; send (or illustrated and descriptive catalogue, (ree. 

E. C. CLAPP. South Pasadena, Cal. Light Brahmas 
(Williams-Foot stock), Plymouth Rocks (Kieffer-Conger 
stock). Fowls and Eggs in season. No circulars; write 
for wants. 

MRS. M. B. NBWHALL, San Jose. White and 
Brown Leghorns, Laogsbans, Plymouth Rocks, Light 
Brahmas, Pekin Ducks and Bronze Turkeys. 

JAS. T. BROWN, 18 Georgia St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry of the leading va- 
rieties. Send for circular and price list. 


WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoiougbbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pies. Circulars tree. 

L L. DICKINSON, Lone Oak Farm, Senora, Tuol- 
umne Co., CaL, breeder of thoroughbred Essex Hogs. 
Pigs now reaily (or sale. Prices reasonable. 

JOHN RIDER, Saoramonto, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. Hy stock of Hog* ue all 
teoorded In the Amerloan Berkshire Reoord. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, CaL, breeder of 

(hnrouehbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

JACK, BBSS and REDWOOD imported 
strains; pairs and trios, not akin, at farmers' prices. 
Young boars, low . F. H. Burke, 401 M<inti,'omery St. 8.F. 


EASTON MILLS, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., thorough- 
bred Spanish Merino Sheep. Choice rams for sale 

A. G. STONBSIPBR, Hill's Ferry. Stanislaus Co., 
Cal., breeder ol pure blooded French Merino Sheep. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Ca!., imponer and 
breeder o( Shropshire Sheep; also breeds cross-bred 
Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams (or sale. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys & Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

B. W. WOOLSBY Si SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Imp'rs ti b'ders Thoroughbred Merino, Si Jersey Cattle. 

P. BULLABD, Woodland, Cal., Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep. Premium band of the State. 
Choice bucks and ewes for sale. 

B. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down of Long John Wentworth herd for sale. 

Ferry, Cal. , breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 

T. H. HABLAN, Williams, Colusa Co., breeder pure 
blooded Angora goats, & Merinos; young stock for sale. 

Durham Cattle for Sale! 


Cows, Heifers and Young Bulls. 



Will sell in lots to suit purchasers. Address 

Box 176. Vlsalla. Cal. 

Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

Baden Station. - San Mateo Co., Cal. 



Cove Creek, - Utah Territory. 




^VGuaranteeJ Purer and Finer than any in this 



120 Front SL, San Francisco. 


The Celebrated Dr. Fisherman's Carbol- 
ized Alkaline Lotion, 

A Specialty (or Stable and Farm. Is Booming. Why? 
Because i' has greater merits than any other remedy and 
ten limes cheaper. Order one quart or one gallon. 
Price. $1 per quart, $3 per gallon, making h>l( a gallon 
and two gallons o( Lotion. 3loney refunded in all cases 
o( dissatis(action. Ask >our Druggist to get it (or you. 
Send for rel able testimonials. 


116 OBllfornla St., S. F. 

A Treatise on the Horse and his Diseases 

By B. J. Kkndall, M. D. 

35 Fine Engravings showing 
the positions and actions o( sick 
horses Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and best treatment o( dis- 
eases. Has a table giving the 
doses, effects and antidotes o( 
all the principal medicines used 
(or the hfirse, and a (ew pages 
on the action and usee o( me- 
dicines. Rules (or tolling the 
age o( a horse, with a fine en 

graving showing the appearance 

o( the teeth at each year. It is printed on line paper 
and has nearly 100 pages, 7^x5 inches. Price, only 26 
cents, or five (or $1, on receipt of which we will send 
by mail to soy address. DEWEY Si CO.. 

KO Market St.. S P 


A complete sue- 
C'ss! Fire Prool. 
Host and cheapest 
For circulars send 

L. W. 
Si CO., 

San Jose, Oallfomla. 


226 Geary Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Member o( the Royal College o( Veterinary Surgeons, 
England; also Registered at the Ontario 
Veterinary College, Canada. 


Makes Five Gallons "{ a delicious, sparkling 
tumperunce beverage. Strenuthenii and puri- 
fies the blood, Itspurltyand delicac) commend it 
tuall. Sold by (Iruwists and storekuepersuverywherai 

Are you using Wellington's improved Egg 
hood for Poultry? 
Every Grocer and Merchant sells It. 


It Cures All Diseases o( Poultry. 
IWOCakes Eggs Plenty when Prices are High. 
I»revent8 Sickness among Young Chickens, 
^^ivals Every Production o( a Similar Nature. 
^>nly Try it Once and Prove its Merits. 
■\7'ery (ew Poultry Dealers are without it. 
Uvery Hen Lays that Eats the Improved. 
IDon't Pass Another Day Without a Trial. 




NOTE.— This Improved Kgg Food has been in 
general u<e in this and other countries ■ uring the last 
y ten years, and all the above repeatedly pruved ia 
thousands o( cases. Your neighbor usej it 

Headquarters for all Varieties of FANCY CHICKENS, 


Publisher o( "Niles* Pacific Coast Poultry and Stock Book," 

a new book on subjects connected with succcsshil poultry and stock raising on 
the Pacilic Coast. Price, 50 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp (or in(ormatiou. 


J'ox>s»ov ct3 ZXolstelxx Oetttle, etxxtX HSosei- 

Addres*. WILLIAM NILES. Los Angeles. Cal. 

Redwood Duke. 13,368. 


Prize winnerH at all the Fairs in California, and entire 
Dst of sweepstake premiums at State Fair, IbHS. Impor- 
tations made direct frum EuKland every year from the 
m^st noted breeders, selected from the best blood and 
most fashionable families of D'sbfaced Berkahires, re* 
f^ardle^s of cost, and all recorded in Eaglisli and Ameri- 
can Berkshire records. Young pi^? frum these importa- 
tions, male and female, from different families, for sale 
at reasftnable prices, and every pijc (ruaranteed. Address, 
ANI>KE\V SMITH, Redwood City, or 218 California St., 
San Francisco. 






Is recognized as 



Common Sense Evaporator 


Where known Drives all other Frult-Drlers 
out of the Market. 

Patented 18S6. 


And orders (or 34.000 more. Per(ection o( simplic- 
ity, cheapness and rapidity o( work. Thirteen Dol 
lars will Buv a Macblne that will do better 
work and more o( it ilian any ^50 Evaporator ever offered 
(or sale, and in like proportion to an indeliuite capacity. 

Remeiter tMs is an Enlirely New DeparlDre, 

Which completely revolutionizes the dried (ruit industry. 
All (ruits per(ectly cured in from one to two hours, and 

No Possibility of Burning and No Need 
for Sulphuring. 

It may seem incredible, but it is a (act. For circular 
anil (ull particidars, address 


Sole Proprietors (or C'alKornia, 

Kapa City, Cal. 

Agents Wanted— Best selling in ventinn of the age. 

The Cheapest and Best way to kill Gophors 
and Squirrels 



o = • 5 

PrUit FnnPfluinne The finest, be»t and cheap, 
null CngrdVmyS, est Photographs and Ed 
PHOTOOR.LFH8, KXC. gravings of Fruios, Vege- 
tablee. Houses, Farms, Landscapes, etc,, made by S. F. 
PHOToaiuYi.-iu.Co., 668 Clay St., 8 V, 

Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLK 
STRONG and DUKABLE In all parts. 
Solid Wrought-irun Crank Shalt with 
DODBLB BKAKiNss (or the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run In adjust- 
able babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating. 

with no otne springs, or springs c( any kind. No little 
rods. Joints, levers, or an}-thing o( the kind to get ont o( 
order, as such things do. Mills In use 6 to 12 yean In 
good order now, that have never cost one cent (or repftlrs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills (or the PaclHe Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether o( 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine exoept those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out (or this, as 
Inferior mills are being olfered with testimonials applied 
to them which were gives (or ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particuUrs (ree. Best Pumps, Feed Kills, 
etc., kept In stock. Address, 


aSNEKAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before 

San Pranclaco Agwncy^AMES LINFOBTB 
120 Front St.. San Francisco. 

1-Horse Power, $150. 


Shipman Coal Oil Steam 

1,2 3. 4, 5 H P. Highly recommended for 
pumping purDOsea. 

Requires no Engineer. Perfectly Safe. 

Consumes i gallon of cheapest coal or fuel oil per 
horse power per hour. In operation at our Machinery 
Department, 27 Post St. tS'CM and see it. 

628 Market Street, opp. Palace Hotel. S. F. 

Hardware and Mechanics' Tools. 


On Liberal Terms. 


My new improved Windmill; the whole right by States, 
or will lease on royalty. The (an can bo closed to protect 
it (rom heavy winds. Agents wanted. Address the 
inventor, J. B. SOBN, 

P. O. Box 3oa Vtealla, Cal. 

UuIIC I OC UU. 9 AGENCY Is the oldest esUb- 
lished and most 8uceees(ul on the Padflo Coast. Mo. 22Q 
Market St. Klevatei IS Front St., & 1. 

July 2, 1887] 



Awarded the Gold Medal 
at the State Fair, Sacra- 
iiieuto. and at the Mechan- 
ics' Institute Fair uf 1884 
1885 and 1886, overall com- 
petitors as the hest machine 
made. It will hatch any kind of 

' \^ . -7-^35*-; l£gg» better than a Hen. 

Pacific Coast Agency for the 

celebrated Silver Finish Galvan 
ized Wire Netting, The Wilson 
Bone and Shell Mill, and the 
American Meat Chopper. Poul- 
try appliances of every kind and 
every variety of Land and Water 
Fowl can be found at the Oak- 
land Poultry Yards, the oldest 
and largest establishment on the 
Pacific Coast. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand Book 
and Guide; price, 40 cents. Scad 2-cent stamp for illus- 
trated 60-page catalogue to the PACIFIC IN<'U- 
BATOR CO., 1317 Castro St., Oakland, Cal 


Manufactured bvthe PA- 
Oakland, Cal. Recipe, the 
result of 20 years' succe s- 
ful experience with poul- 
try. Its use insures plenty 
of Eg'g^ when prices are 
highest and keeps fov/ls in 
good health. For sale by 
! all see 'smen and grocers. 

309 and 311 Front St.. San Francisco 
Sole Agents. 

The Halsted 
Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St., 
Oakland, - - Cal. 

Price from $20 
up. Model Brooder 
from $5 up. 

Poultry and Eggs. 
Send for new Cir- 
culars containing 
much valuable in- 



Dressmaking, Tailoring and Gen- 
eral Manufacturing. 







108 & 110 POST ST., S. F. 

Worth's Patent Combined Screw and Tog- 
gle Lever Wine and Cider Press. 

First Premium awarded on Wine Press at Sonoma and 
Marin Agricultural Fair, Sonoma Agricultural Park As- 
sociation, Santa Clara Valley A;;ricultural Society and 
Metrhanifs' Itmtitntc, S. F. 

I desire to call the at- 
tention of wine and 
cider makers to my Im- 
proved Press. The fol- 
lower has a movement 
of 264 inches, the fiist 
revolution of the screw 
moves the follower IJ 
ins , the last revolution 
is but 1-lS of an inch, 
thereby the power in- 
creases in the same 
ratio as the resistance. 
The platform is 60 
inches wide and 10 feet 
long; is run back and 
fo th under- the press 
on a railroad track. 
Has two briskets, hy winch vou can fill the second basket 
while the first one is under the press, thereby doing 
double the amount of work that can be done on any 
screw or lever press in the market that use only one 
basket, for this reason: While my press ici working con- 
tinuously the other kinds are doing nothing during the 
time they are emptyine and filling their basket. 

Printed Testimonials can be had on application of the 
following parties, who have bought my press: J.B.J. 
Portal, San Jose; Wm. Pfefler, Gubserville; Joseph 
Walker, Windsor; Kate P. Warfield, Glen Ellen; Joseph 
Urummond, Glen Ellen; Isaac De Turk, Santa Rosa; 
John Hinkclman, Pulton; J. & F. Muller, Windsor; R. 
C Stiller, Gubserville; Lay Clark & Co.. Santa Rosa; 
Vaehe Frercs, Old San Bernardino; J. F Crank, San 
Gabriel; James Finlayson, Healdsburg; P. A, J. J. Gobbi, 
Healdshurg; Wm. Allen, San Gabriel; Wm. Metzger, 
Santa Rosa; J. Lawrence Watson, Glen Ellen; Walter 
Phillips, Santa Rosa; Geo. West. Stockton; Eli T. Shep- 
pard. Glen Ellen; Rancheto Wine Co , Rancheto, Los 
Angeles Co.; Downing Fruit & Wine Co., Downev; J. L. 
Beard, '"entcrville; Wm. Palmtag, Hollister; A. Burn- 
ham & Son, Santa Ros*; Paul O. Burns Wine Co., San 
Jose; E Emil Meyer, Santa Cruz Mountains, Wright P. 
O.; Marshall & Hill, Laguina Station; U. J. Nortbam, 

Also manufacture Worth's Patent Hand and Power 
Grape Stemmers. W. H. WORTH, Petaluma Foundry 
«nd Machine Works, Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

Are you using Welling- 
ton'slmproved KgR Food 
for Poultry? Ip not, why 
NOT? Every Grocer, Druggist 
and Hetchant Sella thla Egg 




Warehouse and Wharf at Port Oosta. 


Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR ORAIN BAGS. Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited- 

B. VAN EVERY. Manatrer. 

A. M. BBI^T Assistant Manaacer 



Univbrsitt of California, Nov. 3, 1886. 
Dr. J. KoKBio — Dear .Sir: 1 haveanalyzed yoursample 
of "Nltrogjenous SaperphospUate," with the 
following rebult: 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid 12.90 per cent 

Reverted i^hosphoric Acic 9.S *• 

Insoluble Phosphoric Acid 2.83 " 

Pota h 2.23 " 

Ammonia 1.87 " 

Nitric Acid 2.9S " 

The above amount of Nitric Acid is equal to 0.85 
per cent Ammonia, therefore, total of Nitrogen calcu- 
lated as Ammonia, 2.72 per cent. 

This Fertilizer is a Valuable Manure for vine- 
yards, orchards, gardens, farms, aiid I recommend its 
use by the cultivators of the soil generally, in Cali- 
fornia. \ours truly, DR. E. A. SCHNEIDER. 

University of California, College of Agri- 

Bkrkblet, Nov. 20, 1886. 
Dr. J. KoFBio, San Francisco— Dear Sir: I take pleas 
ure in .idding my testimony to that of Dr. Schneider as 
to the high quality of the "Nitrogenous Super- 
phosphate'' Fertilizer, analyzed by him at your re- 
quest. It is a high. grade article, and as such re- 
turns the user a better money value than a low-grade 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 309 

fertilizer. It is especially well adapted to use in 
California, on account of the predominance in 
it of Phosphoric Arid, which is generally In email 
supply in our soils. Yet it is desirable that **cotn- 
plete "fertilizers be used in our orchards and vinex ards, 
and yours is of that character in furnishing 
Potash and Nitrogen as well. Very respectfully, 


The value of this Fertilizer consists in the large per- 
centage it contains of FI»osphoric Acid — the chief 
element of all plant food— in combination with the 
necessary quantities of Potash and Ammonia, and 
the ease and cheapre^s with which it can be appli* d. 

In ordinary ^-oi's the following quantities will be found 
suthcient: For Wheat, Barley, Corn and Oats, 300 to 350 
pounds per acre. For Grass, Sugar Beets and Vege- 
tables, 250 to 300 pounds per acre. For Vines, Fruit 
Trees, from J pound to 1 pound each. For Flower Gar- 
dens, Lawnb, House Plants, etc., a light top dressing, 
applied at any time, will be found very beneflcial. 


On board cars ;it Sobranto, Station of the C. P. R. R., 20 
miles north of San Francisco, at $30 per ton, by the 
CO , H. DUTARD, President, room 7, Safe 
Deposit Building, or 

and 311 Sansome St., San Francisco. 




Real Estate and Insurance Agents, 



Superior Facilities for Buyino and Selling Real E.state. Money Loaned 
ON Approved Security. Agents for Insurance Companies 
Representing $20,000,000. 

To PreyeEl ilie Insidions Pavages of Mildew and Insects, nse 

Patented Jan. 26, 1SS6. 

Prior— 6-inch, J2.50; 8 inch, $3; 10-inch 
$3 50. 

Sent on receipt of Postal Order or Check, 
or by Express 0. O. D. 

All tinds ol Bellows Made to Order. 
California Bellows Manufacturing Comp y, 





T^HE H. H. H. Horse Liniment puts 
npw life into the Antiquated Horse I 
For the last 14 ye.ars the H. H. H. Horse 
Liniment been the leading remedy 
among F.armers and Htockmpn for the 
cure of Sprains, Bmiscs, Stiff Joints, 
Spavins, WindBalls, Bore Shoulders, etc., 
and for Family Use is without an equal 
for llhenmatisni. Nenr.altjia. Aches, Pains, 
Hnii.tiiq, Cuts an<l Sprains of all characters. 
The H. H. H. Liniment has many imita- 
tions, and wo caution tlio Public to see 
that the Trade Mark " H. H. H." is on 
every Bottle l>e£ore pnrnhasine. For sale 
everywhere for 50 cenUi audf $1.00 ner 

For Sale by all druRglstp 


Si\LE, is warranted to be the Sim|)Iest, Chcai est and 
Mcwt Vffective Trap in existence. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, 26 cents eacli; $2 50 per dozen. Address 


Soledad. Cal. 



Crockett, C!outra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

PortaWe Straw-Bnrnliig Boilers & EDglnes. 


Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

including; tirape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, W ine 
Presses and Pumps, and all appliances used in Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Draina^ce Pumps. Ueald's 
Patent Engine Governor. Etc. 



Finest Quality of Fruit at the Least 

Adapted to all kinds of Fruits and Raisins. Send for 
Catalogue. W. A MEBKEH, 

Plftb and Bryant Sts , S. F. 

California Inventors f~ 

AND FoKEioN PATENT SuLiciTOKH, for obtaiDiag Patents 
aud Caveats. Established iu 1B60. Tbeir loug exptirloDce as 
journalists and large practice aa Pateut attorneys enables 
them to otTer Pacific Coast Inventors 'ar better survico than 
tbey cau obtain elsewhere. Send for free circulars of infor- 
nation. Office of the Ml vino an D Sui kntifio Prkss and 
Pacific Ri;ral Prk^u No. 252 Market St., Stiu Francisco 
Elevator, 12 Front St. 


Commission Mercl\ants 



Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 

308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco. 

[P. 0. Box 1936-1 
^^Consignments Solicited. 




501, 503, 505, 507 and 509 Front Street 
and 300 Washington St , S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 


Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 



— AND— 

General Commission Merchants, 

310 California St., S. P. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

^^Personal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vances made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 

Obo. Morrow. [Establisbed 1854.] Oeo. F. Morrow. 




so Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street, 
San Franoisoo, Cal. 

J. C. Peiers. 

G. M. Cowis. 


Commission Merchants. 

Members Produce Exchange. 

591 .Sixth Street, San Francisco 

oTl. BENToir&"oai 
Commission Merchants, 

Wlioleflale and Retail Dealers in 
Poultry sn<l Wild Game, 65, 66,67 California 
Market, S. F, I^AU orders attended to at the 
shortest notice. Goods delivered Free of Charge to 
any part of the city. 



And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 4?2 Front St., and 221,223 
225 and 227 VVashinirton St., San Francisco. 

J. W. WOLK. 


W. H. WOLF. 


General Commission Merchants 

And dealers in California and Oregon Produce, 
321 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Honsignments Solicited. fi24 & S26 Sansome St., S. F. 

Fruit and General Commission Merchants 


408 & 410 Davl8 St., San Francisco 


Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Oreen and Dried Fruits. 



Mixes instantly with Cold Water. 


Pric*«« ^1.25 per Imperlnl Oallon. 

HiAd in irou drums containing 5 imperiul gal- 
lons, ( (jual to ueaiiy 6 American galluud. <Jne 
gallon mix*.ci wi'h tiO gallons of cold water will 
dill thoroughly 18U slieep, at a cost of less than 
juv cent each; easily applied; a uourisher of wool; a curtain 
cure for scab. 


PolHonouB I 

Mixes instantly with water; i)n-vents the fly from striking. 
Iu a 2-pound packsige there is aufficient to dip 20 sheop, aud 
in a 7'ponud pnckage there la sufticieut to dip lUO sheep 
Price, 17 ccni* per pouud. 

CATTON, BK!.!^ A CO., 

(Successors to Falkuer, Bell &Co.) 

40H Cnlirornla fit,, 8. F. 


A practical trnxtise by T. A. Oaret. 
giving the I9i ilts of long experi- 
ence in Suutourn California. 196 
AIII Timr l"'^^^' clotb b(jund. Sent post-paid 
I III IIIKr reduced price of 76 cts. per copy 
UUUI UIIU by UEWEY&C0.,Publi8lier», 8. F 


pACIFie I^URAId f ress. 

[July 2, 1887 

ii.'M* AJaF^KET J^EfOf^T 

NoTB.— Our quutatiODS are (or Wetlnesday, not Satur- 
day, th J date the pa|ier bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, June 29, 1887, 

The weatlier the past week has been hot, but there 
was an absence of hot winds, which are the dread of 
this State in the months of June and July. Harvest- 
ing is progressing favorably, although the grain in 
some sections is shelling out. The Eastern market 
has ruled fairly steady at low prices, about $1.20 per 
cental for August' options. European advices are 
virtually unchanged. To-day's cable is as follows: 

LoNDO.N, June 29. — Cargoes off coast, seems 
weaker; cargoes on passage and for shipment, 
weaker; red wheat, very dull; while, firmly held; 
French country market, dull; Liverpool wheat, spot, 
inactive; Liverpool wheat, Cal. 7s 7d to 7s lod. 
Eastern Wheat Markets. 

New York. June 26. — The collapse of the wheat 
deal and vigorous purchases of shippers here started 
an unusual movement of grain from the West. 
Walker, ex-s'atistici^n of the I'roduce Exchange, 
places the amount of wheat on the canal between 
Buffilo and New York at 2,570,000 bushels. Esti- 
mates of decrease in visible supply now range from 
1,500,000 to 2,000,000 bushels. A fairly active busi- 
ness in wheat was done within the two hours allowed 
to trade in on Saturday; purchases for export ex- 
ceeded 230,000 bushels, and the market was steady, 
without important variations. June closed firm, at 
92c. ^ Other deUveries closed weak— July at 85%; 
August, 85@89. 

Xew York, June 29. — 12 M. — 87c for cash, 
93kc@$i for June, 84^@84Xc for July. 84^® 
84HC tor August, and S5%c for September. 

Chicago, June 29— i P. M.— Wheat, firm; cash, 
69KC; July, 70c; August, 72^4c. Corn, about 
steady; cash, 35KC; July, 26c; August, 26 7-16. 
California Products at Cblcago. 

Chicago, June 28.— California green fruits are in 
good request and lairly active as follows: Apricots, 
ad it), boxes, $i.50@,t.75; Apricots, 5^ crates. $1.75 
(W.2: Pe.4ches, 20-tb. boxes, $i.75@2. The arrivals 
lo day were rather small. The demand, however, 
was also lighi. Fine goods could be sold, but the 
peaches coming in continue ol common quality and 
rule dull. The retailers regularly do not care to 
handle them, and stand-peddlers and dealers in 
fancy fruit prefer California goods. Plums are com- 
in" in to only a moderate extent. Really fine, 
U?ge are salable and steady; common and small are 
as usual, slow. Ten pound bo.\es of the cherry va- 
riety sell at $i@i.25 ^ box. Peaches, 2o-lt) boxes, 
$3@3 25 and W crates of Royal Hative, $2 75@3. 
Cherries are scarce. Choice cherries, either sour or 
sweet, find ready sale and command good prices, 
brang-s, $2.50(0(4.50 box, according to quality. 
The offerings and demand are both light. Beurre 
Giffird pears being $3.50@4. and Bartlett $4.50® 
5; stock in soft order sells at less prices. 

Of Californii dried fruits the supply is rather 
light and the mirket quiet; pitted plums, evaporat- 
ed, io@iic; pitted pluins, sun-dried, io!^@ioKc; 
apricots, evaporated, spot goods, 22@25c; future 
delivery, io@i5Mc; sun-dried, none here; prunes, 
9@lic; raisins, London layers, 20-n> boxes, $1.40 
(Oil. so: loose Muscatel, $1.25®!. 30; California lay- 
ers. $i.25®i.30. 

New potatoes $1.75® 1.9^ V 100 Ihs. 

California Products in New Yorfc. 

New York, June 26. — Green Fruits— Fine Califor- 
nia peaches, $1 doz; blue plums, 35c ^ doz; 
Tangerines 75c ^ doz; selected apricots, 25c ^ 
doz. Seeds — California yellow and brown mustard 
has met with increased attention, with sales report- 
ed made of 800 bags on private terms. It was 
quoted at the close at 4;^@5Kc, respectively. 
New York Hop Market. 

New York, June 26. — Holders of desirable goods 
are firm at quoted prices, but buyers are equally 
firm in holding back. There is no business worth 
speaking of. Coast crop, 1886, best, 22@23c; same, 
common to good, i6®20C; 1885, good to prime, 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, June 26. — The general tone of the 
market seems to be on the mend. The manufact- 
uring dem^ind is improving, but fleeces are slill 
scarce, and there is a decided difiiculty in finding 
de>irable parcels of mediums. Among sales were 
2x>olbs. spring California at 22c; 20,000 lbs. fall 
California at 14c; 10.000 lbs. scoured California, 
mostly at 56c; 10,000 lbs. Oregon at 26c; 15,000 lbs. 
Montana at 23 He. 

The Philadelphia market remains unchanged. Re- 
ceipts are light and sales lighter than week belore 
last. Among siles were 1000 lbs. of California fall 
at 13c; 29,000 Oregon fine at 28(0 28J^c; 7000 lbs. 
Territory scoured at S4c; 2000 lbs. coarse Territory 
at 28c; 2000 lbs. Territory at 36c; 2500 lbs. 
Territory fine at 19c; 2000 lbs. rerrilory fine at 21c; 
2000 lbs medium Territory at 22c. 

The Boston market is considerably mixed and 
prices quoted vary widely. Among sales were 107,- 
500 lbs. Territory at 2i>2@22}^c. 

Boston, lune 28.- Wool is in fair demand. 
Ohio and Pennsylvania extra fleeces, 33c; XX, 34 
®35c; Michigan extra, 3i@32C. Other grades are 

Philadelphia, June 28.— Wool is quiet and un- 

New York, June 28. — Wool is quiet and gener- 
ally steady. Domestic fleeces, 30@37c; pulled, 14 
@34c; Texas, 9@24C. 

Local Markets. 

B^Qs; — The market is not quite so active, with an 
easier tone, owing to the June contracts coming in 
on the market. Standard Calcultas are quotable at 
6^ to 7 cts. 

BARLEY— The market held to steady prices 
throughout the week lor actual barley. On Call, 
trading was (airly active, with only slight fluctuations. 
To day's sales were as follows: 

Morning Session ; Buyer 1887—100 tons, $1. 16^ ; 

200, $1.17; 900, $i.i6>i. Seller 1887, new — too 
tons, $i.o8,H; 100, $i.o8)i ^ ctl. Afternoon Ses- 
sion: Buyer 1887 — 400 tons, $1.17 ^ ctl. 

BUTTER— Gilt-edged high colored hard butter is 
very scarce, and wanted; but off colored and soft is 
in over-supply, with the market weak. 

CHEESE — The market is easy, under liberal sup- 
plies and a light demand. 

EGGS— Strictly choice fresh laid are wanted, and 
command 25 cts, while off qualities are in heavy 
supply and move slow at from 18 to 22 >^ cis. 

FLOUR — The market is steady at full prices. 
Several mills will .shut down for repairs. 

WHE.AT — The market is inactive for actual wheat 
here, although free sales of choice in the country are 
reported at lull figures. In options, trading was free 
throughout the week, with strong buyers taking all 
offered for sale. At to-day's Call sales were as fol- 
lows : 

Morning Session: Seller 1887 — 1800 tons, $1.- 
88H; 300, JI.88K ^ctl. Afternoon Session: Seller 
1887—200 tons, $i.88>^ ; 1900, $1.88^3; 600, $i.88K; 
300, $l.8S}'a; 100, $1.89; 100, $1.89}^; 100, Si.S^y» 



Market Information. 


The Revenue and Agricultural Departments of the 
Government of India have issued the following re- 
port, dated Simla, April 27, 1887, on the estimated 
out'urn of the wheat crop in the Lower Provinces 
of Bengal, for the season of 1886-87; "The culti- 
vation of wheat on a large scale is, in the Lower 
Provinces, confined to the Patna and Shahabad dis- 
tricts of the Patna division, and to the Bhagulpore 
and Monghyr districts of the Bhagulpore division. 
Excessive rain during September and October last 
made it impossible to prepare land for wheat in due 
time, and the crop has, moreover, suffered from rust 
brought on by the heavy rains in January. On the 
whole, it may be said that the area sown was less 
than tiie normal, and the outturn will be about three- 
fourths of the average." A cable from London says 
that the Indian Government's final crop estimates 
are received. They say: For the northwestern 
provinces and Oude the prospects of the wheat trade 
appear less lavorable for 1887 than was realized in 
1886, and far less than for 1885. First, because the 
outturn is 6 per cent less than in 1886; second, be- 
cause stocks are drained to their lowest ebb; third, 
other food crops are interior, causing a great con- 
suming demand. The central provinces, the report 
says, prove raiher worse than was expected. In the 
north, where some damage was reported done by 
the frost, this proves more extensive than was be- 

In this department the writer has given the utmost 
attention to the statistical situation of wheat, and by 
reference to back numbers of the Rural Press 
patrons will see that everything combines in forcing 
the conviction that before another harvest we will see 
higher prices than known for years. Briefly stated, 
the situation is as follows: The reserve supplies in 
England, France, Russia and Germany (India is 
noted above) is all of 50 per cent below the average 
of the past three years. Owing to the low price of 
wheat for the past two years, the acreage seeded to 
the cereal in Great Britain and throughout Europe 
is less than seeded the two preceding seasons. Owing 
to unfavorable weather in France, and also in Hun- 
gary, pArts of Russia, and also in India, the crop is 
below an average. In Great Britain the outturn, at 
this writing, promises a full average. The consump- 
tion of wheat-flour in Europe has increased to a 
most remarkable extent, and therefore the require- 
ments are much greater. Turning from Europe to 
this country, we find an unfavorable outlook, for 
under the most favorable circumstances the crop of 
the United Slates will not go above 400,000,000 
bushels, if that, against about 460,000,000 bushels 
last year, and an average lor the past five years of 
440,000,000 bushels. Not only will the crop be 
short, but the consumption will be larger. Aside 
from this, the carryover will be the smallest known 
for years. At the very outside it will not exceed, 
visible and invisible, 50,000,000 bushels against a 
carryover, from the season of 1885-86, of over 75,- 
000,000 bushels. The Argentine Republic had a 
larger surplus this year, as had Australia, but they 
combined will not export 300,000 tons — not as much 
as Washington Territory and Oregon will export 
this year. Still in the face of all this the San Fran- 
cisco Chronicle is advising such action on the part 
of the Produce Exchange of this city as it is claimed 
by the many will send the price of wheat down here. 
To give its remarks more force, the paper cites the 
action of the Chicago Board of Trade which brought 
about the recent panic in wheat at the East, and 
caus-d cash wheat in Chicago to sell at 675^0 per 
bushel (equal \o%i.i2% per cental), which is the low- 
est price within 25 years. The lowest price in 24 years 
previous to this was on December 15, 1885, and on 
October it, 1886, when cash wheat sold at 69^0 per 
bushel. The ChrotiicU has evidently overleaped it- 
self in trying to send the price of wheat down against 
farmers' interests, but then it is said ihit this is not 
the first time the daily papers wrote against farmers' 
interests. Last year when wheat was low. the RURAL 
Press gave all the information correctly and pre- 
dicted higher prices, but the da'ly papers only saw 
low prices and wrote against wheat. Patrons of the 
Press will bear the writer out when he asserts that 
No. I shipping wheat went from $1.30 per cil, at 
which it sold in July. i886, to $1.85 in last month— a 
difference in favor of farmers of sit per ton. 

Crop advices in this State are not quite so favor- 
able. The hot drying weather has matured the 
grain too fast, and more shelling is being reported 
than was last year at harvest-time. Aside from this, 
the crop of white wheat is less in some counties than 
is red wheat. This is particularly the case in Los 
Angeles county, where the mills will have to import 
white wheat for their use The crop in that county 
is about 20,000 tons, against 31,000 tons last year. 

The Oregon and Washington Territory crop is 
turning out well. The .surplus there promises to be 
fully as much as it was in 1885-86. when it reached 
a little over 300,000 tons against about 240 000 tons 
for the season drawing to a close. But then this 
does not include the flour exported. 

The visible supply of wheat at the East, as tele- 
graphed to S. S. Floyd & Co. of this city, was on 
June 27. 39,270,000 bushels, a decrease of 2,000,000 
bushels for the week. 

Advices from the different sections where harvest- 

ing is going on report that barley is brighter in the 
coast counties than it was last year. This probably 
is due to the fact that there was less fog this year. 
The crop this year will not exceed 335,000 tons 
against about 500.000 tons last year. The Los 
Angeles Express states that the crop in that 
county last year was about 1,000,000 bags, but this 
year it is placed at 600,000 bags, with the con- 
sampiioD more than double that of last year. Taking 
the consumption in Los .-\ngeles as a basis, it is safe 
to say that the consumption of the State will this 
season be all of 400,000 tons. In estimating the 
consumption it is hardly safe that the increase of 
the entire State will be more than 33^^ per cent, 
for in several counties there will not be any increase. 

The oat crop of the State is not up to an average, 
but the crop in Oregon and Washington Territory 
is above an average. The consumption of oats is 
light, owing to their high cost, but as supplies and 
receipts are light the market is fairly steady. 

Corn has a steadier tone at the low prices, owing 
to diminishing stocks at the East. 

Rye is inactive under light supplies and no de- 
mand, owing to the high asking price. 


Ground feed is in good demand, but supplies be- 
ing more liberal, values are barely steady tor bran 
and middlings; but for ground barley and feedmeal 
the tone is firm. 

The hay crop is about all cut. The yield is not 
up to last year, but the quality averages better. 
Owing to the large increased consumption and the 
poor pasture, farmers sell sparingly, which keeps 
the market strong. 


The market continues bare of dried fruits. All 
coming in are sent to the East, where there is an act- 
ive trade call 

Raisins are in light supply, but the demand is also 

-Apricots are in good supply. Canners are free 
buyers at from $30 to $40 per ton lor the more 

Cherries, currants and gooseberries are coming 
in more sparingly, causing a stronger market. 

Blackberries and strawberries are in liberal supply, 
with the market gradually easing off. 

Apples and pears are in free supply, but the qual- 
ity is, as yet, only fair. 

Peaches are in light receipt, but heavier supplies 
are expected to come in soon. 

Lemons are strong and higher, as are limes. 

Plums are coming in more freely, but as yet they 
are only sold to the trade. 


The market for beef cattle and mutton sheep con- 
tinues depressed, with more sellers than buyers. It 
is claimed that prices here are below those ruling in 
the country. Small calves are becoming scarce, and 
are wanted. Hogs for the block are more inquired 
for, but buyers do not quote a higher range. In 
work-horses the demand is qu-et, but for general 
utility horses and matched teams there is a con- 
tinued free inquiry. 

The following are the wholesale rales of slaugh- 
terers to butchers: 

BEEF — Extra. 7c; first grade, grass fed, 
6K@ — c per lb.; second grade. 6c; third grade. 

MU rrON — Ewes, 5@5K''; wethers, 6@— a 

L-AMB — .Spring, 7®8c. 

VE.-\L— liirge, 6@7c; small, 6@8c. 

PORK — Live hogs, 4 ^@4Kc for heavy and me- 
dium; hard dressed, 6.i4@7>ic per lb; light, 4Hc; 
dressed, 65i@7c; soft hogs, live, 3M®4C. 
On foot, one-third less for grain or stall fed. and 
one-half less for stock running out. 


Cabbages are lower, and weak at the decline. 

String beans and peas are strong, as is choice 
asparagus. Other vegetables are weakening off 
under more liberal supplies. 

Tomatoes are coming in quite freely, with sellers 
shading prices each day. Canners, it is thought, 
will soon be in, at least when the harder kinds come 
in more freely. 

It is impossible to give a fair index of the market, 
as prices are governed from day to day by the re- 


The mirket continues to hold to strong prices, 
with buyers still paying a slight advance for the 
better grades. The Philadelphia Commercial List 
just to hand has the following to say of the market: 
" Manufacturers have no confidence in present 
prices, and, while m.any of them are short of wool, 
they buy sparingly at ruling figures, or are holding 
off for a break in prices, which they feel must come 
later in the season, in which view they are strength- 
ened by the break in the coffee and wheat specula- 
tion of this week. Some Eastern dealers are with- 
drawing their buyers in the country, as they are un- 
willing to follow the upward tendency in prices, in 
the belief that a loss on wools bought at ruling rates 
in the interior is inevitable. The oldest houses in 
the trade cannot recall a time so near midsummer 
when there was such universal determination not to 
buy the clip at going prices, which appear to be on 
an average from 5c to 6c ^ lb above the opening 
pi ices of last year. In some sections where medium 
washed wools are grown, a greater advance has 
been demanded. One prominent Eastern house, 
whose agents had exceeded instructions and who 
had bought considerable wool at 35c in Ohio, resold 
its entire purchase to the agent of another Eastern 
concern at 36®37c on board the cars. We hear of 
other instances in which purchases have been resold 
for similar reasons." 


The tonnage movement compares with last year at 
this date as follows: 1887. 1886. 

Ontheway 271,133 306,803 

In port, disengaged 115,212 33.3'9 

In port, engaged 15.567 27,324 

Totals 401,912 367,446 

The above gives a carrying capacity as follows: 
1887, 643.059 short tons; 1886, 587,908 short tons; 
increase over last year, 56,151. 

No vessels have been taken the past week for 
wheat loading. As will be seen above, the tonnage 
here and to arrive is more than enough to take away 
this year's surplus crop. 

The hop crop of Washington Territory is placed 
at one-third less than last year, but in this State it 

is more. Bnyers are anxious and bid 20 cts for fair 
new hops. 

Beans are steady, although some dealers report a 
weaker lone. 

Honey is coming in more freely, with good grades 
in request at full figures. 

Poultry, under hght receipts and a good demand, 
is higher. 

San Francisco, June 2g, i88j. 

Domestle Prodno«. 

Extra choice In good packages fetch an adTHQce on top 
quotations, while very poor ^ades sell less than the lowei 
quotations. W iidv k<d< i, June 29, 1887 

Baycotl 1 90 id :2 25 

Butter 1 75 

Pea 1 80 

Red 1 40 

Pink ) 25 

Large White.... 1 90 

8maU White.... 1 75 

Lilma 1 75 

ndPe*a,blkere 1 00 

do neeo 1 00 

do Niles I 25 @ 


Soutbeni per ton 60 

Northern ptr ton 50 

Oallf omla 5^ 3 

German b*^ 


Paper shell 19 i_ 


Peoana 9 ig 

PeannU 4t«t 

Flllierta 10 dk 

Hickory 7 @ 



Oal. treah roll. It. 
do Fancy br'nda 

PlcUe roU 

Plrkin, new 

Eaatem — O — 

Obeese.Cal., lb.. 9@ lOi 
Eastern style... 11 @ 12 

Oal.. ranch, doi.. 24 M 25 

do, store. 2u m 22. 

Dncks — a — 

Oregon ~" 

Eastern IS @ — 


Bran, too a 00 024 00 

Oommeal 28 00 

Gr d Barley ton. 25 00 

Hay 9 00 

Uiddllnga. 25 00 

Oil Cake Meal. 26 50 

Straw, bale 40 @ 

Extra. City Mills 4 95 
ao Co'ntrT Mills 4 45 

Supenlne 3 70 

Barley, feed. otL 1 10 

do Brewing.. 1 15 

Ofaeralier 1 4S 

do Coast... 

Buckwheat 1 00 _ 

Com, White.... 1 16 » 1 25 

Yellow 1 10 e 1 20 

SmaU Bound. 1 20 @ 1 30 

Nebraska I Oim 1 15 

Oata, milling.... 1 85 @ 1 90 
Choice feed 1 70 « 1 75 

do good 1 60 S 1 70 

do fair 1 45 ® 1 55 

Burbank _ 

Early Rose — M — 

Ouffey Cove ~ ^ ~~ 

Jersey Blues... ~ @ — 

Petaliima — M — 

Tomales — Q — 

River reds — & — 

Humboldt - « — 

do Kidney.... — @ — 

6J Chile — a — 

7 do Oregon... — w — 

ETC. Peerless. - « — 

Halt Lake - « - 

20 Xew Potatoes. . . 50 @ 85 

24 Hens, dox 6 00 ^ 8 00 

Rooster* 5 50 

Broilen 3 00 j 

Ducks, tame.... 4 50 « 
do Mallard.... —i 

do Sprig — 6 

Oeese, pair I 00 « 

doOoaUugs... 1 25 
WUdOray.dos « 

Turkeys, lb 15 a 

do Dressed.. — i 

taU and wing.. 10 < 
Snipe, Eng., dai. — | 
do Oomwion.. — i 

Dovea. — k 

Quail - I 

<2£ 00 jiUbbiU 1 00 i 

Hare 1 M i 

Yeniaon — i 

Oal. Baoon, 

Heavy, l> 8it 

Medium 9 « 

Light 10 ^ 

1 17i Extra Light.. 11 Ct 

1 25 
1 50 

1 25 
1 60 

i 1 20 



Hams, Cal 

do EasteriL. 


- 9 

1 Sli-a 1 92J 
1 H-iM 1 87! 

do black , 

do Oregon 


Wheat milling. 

out edited.. 

do iholoe 1 S2kf 1 

d-t fair to good 1 77!i 1 
Sbippiiig choice 1 85 (d» 

do good 1 80 (<« 

do lair 1 75 # 


Dry 14 a 

Wet salted 7il 


Beeswax. 8> 20 @ 

Honey in comb. 9 @ 
Honey in corab, 


Extracted, light, 
do dark. 





Pickling — IS* 

Red 40 (oi 

Silverskina 50 (<? 


Walnuts, Cal.,t> IS^ 

do Chile. - a 

Almonds, hdshL 5 & 

Soft sheU 18 «t 

13 @ 

15 a 


14 Iff 


Clover red.. 

White 15 I 

Cotton , 



Italian RyeOn 

Perennial 7 « 

MiUet, Oermau.. Hi 

do OommoOL > < 

Mustard, white.. 2^1 

Brown 2) i 

Rape ii'< 

Kj. Blue Oraaa.. 1 : i 

id quallte II ( 

Sweet V. Orass. T6 i 

Orchard. » < 

Red Top Hi 

Hungarian..,. H 

Lawn X i 

Meaqull 10 i 

Timothy Hi 


144iOmde, t> 2 ( 

5 Refined 6 i 

*i\ WOOL. ETC. 

HPRINO — 1886 

224 Humboldt and 
224 Mendocino... 
Saot'o valley.... 
Free Mountain. 
Nliem defective 
S Joaqoln valley 
do mountain. 
, Cava'v ft rtbll. 
— Oregon Eastern. 

7 do vaUey 2u i 

19l|8outhem Coast. 11 

21 I 
18 I 
31 I 

13 I 
16 I 
16 I 
18 I 






Fruits and Vegetables. 

Extra choice in god pacHagea fetch an advan'^e on top 
nuotatious, while very poor Kradus sell less than the lowtjr 
inotatious. WieDKB)l>i», J " " 

Apples, bx com.. 30 @ 50 Pigs, kmse 

do choice 60 1 25 Neetarine* 

do evaporated 


do pared 

do evaporated. 
Pears, sUced. . . . 

do qrtd 

do evaporated 
Plump, pitted- . . 
do unpitted. . . 


do French.... 
2 50 (d 5 00 Zante Currants. 
24(rt 7j RAISINS. 
40 w( 75 DehesaClus, fey 2 40 @ 2 50 
70 P 1 25 Imperial Cabin- 


60 m 

30 & 

- at 

— M 

— « 

- @ 

Aprioote, bi.... 30 «* 40 

do Royal 36 W 50 

Bananas, bunch. 2 00 3 25 6 00 (§f 8 00 
CrtUtt-loupes. cr. — 
Cherries whit bl 10 (8 
no bUck bx. . . 
do Royal Ann. 
Cherry plums... 


Cranberries 10 00 (a 12 50 

Currants ch 

Gooseberries lb. . 

FiiiS bx 


do Rose Peru. 

do Mupcat 

do Tokays.... 



do flli;.8iuu — <! 

Limes. Mex 11 00 C< 

do Cal. hoi... - (s 
Lemons, Cal.,bz 2 00 ij 
do Sicily, box. 6 00 ti 
do Australian. — 
Neclariuee box. — 6 
Oranges, Com bx 1 25 a 

doOho'ce 2 00 I 

do NavcU 3 00 ^ 

do Panama... 

Peaches, bx 

do bask 

Crawfords, bx 
do bskt . . 

do choice 

Pears bx 

do choice 

do Bartlett, bx 

Jap, bx 

Pineapples, dox. 4 00 5 CO String beans It. 

60 I 

— (A - 

30 I 

- (Sf - 

et. fau'y.... 1 75 S — 
Orowu London 

Layers, fey. . 1 50 @ — 
do Loose Mus- 
catels, fancy 1 40 @ — 
do Loose Mus- 
catels 1 S5 ® - 

Cal. Valencias.. 1 25 ^ — 
do Layers ... 1 25 (3 — 
do Sultanas... 1 2S @ — 

— i Fractions come 26, 50 and 75 

— icents higher for halves, quar- 

1 50 ters and eigbtha 

4 SO Artichokes, dos. — — 

Asparagus $bx. 75 @ 1 2S 
do ex t'a choice 1 60 @ 2 50 
Okra. dry, tb... 16 g 20 
do green lb.... 6@ 8i 
Parsnips, ctl.... 1 60 ^ 
Peppers, dry lb.. 10 I 
do green, tb. . 5 C 
Pumpkins pr ton ~ I 
Sqnaah, Marrow 

tat. too 20 00 I 

do Summer bx 50 ( 
3 ( 

I 3 60 

1 25 



925 no 
k 85 

- ta 

plums box 
Pomegranates, b 

Prunes bx — OT 

Quinces bx ~ ^ 

Raspberries eh. . 5 00 @ 
Btrawberries ch. 4 00 @ 
Watermelons 100 — @ 
Apples. sUoed. t> @ 

do ermporated 124'^ 
do quartered ... ^ 
Apricots — « 

do evaporated 11 4@ 
Blaekbenrlas.... 13 S 

Oltioo WW 

Dates !> a 

Figs, pressed.... 6 @ 

— Tomatoes box. 

— |Tnmipa otl 

— Beets, sk 

— Cabbage, 100 Iw. 

7 OO IOalrot^ sk 

8 00 Caulifiower. dos. 

— Eggplant, ^ lb.. 
Qarlic. lb 

— Green Com, cr. 
13} do sweet cr. . . 
14 do large box.. 

— lOreen Peas, tti. , 
13 ISweet Peas lb... 
134 Lettuce, dos..., 
8U Lima Beans lb., 
10 Mushrooirs. lb., 

6 Rhubarb bx.... 

SO & 

85 (!i 1 25 

1 » 2 

2 @ Si 
10 « - 
- « - 

8 «• 201 
75 @ 1 26 

JuLT 2, 1887.] 

f ACIFie f^URAIf> f RESS. 





The Best I 

The Cheapest! 

The Most Durable ! 

The Most Economical! 

The Only One Absolutely Fire Proof! 

X8.000 JSOXjID : 

FIVE SJZBS made with capacity of from 3 to 50 
buRhels per day. 

Evaporated Fruits are now higher than they have 
been for years. 

FKBEI— Our Illu'trated Catalogue and Complete 
Treatise. Send for it now. Local Agents wanted. 


General Agent for Paclflc Coast, 


Plums, Apricots, Necta- 
rines, etc. 

Also a full stock of Apple 
Farers, Peach Parerg, etc, 

tWSend for Circular and 


17 New Monrgomery St. 
San Francisco. 


44 Third Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

This Fire-p'oof Brick Building is centrally located, in 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and close to all Steamboat 
and Railroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 


Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 






Single and Double Acting 


Rams, Cylinders, Footvalves, Etc. 


Illustrated Catalogue mailed free on application, post-paid. LOW PRICES and 
ESTIMATES furnished. Correspondence sclicited. 



WM. S. RAY & CO., 

12 and 14 Market Street, 

San Francisco, Cal., 


Pumps, Windmills, Stoves, Ranges, Metals, Sheet 
Iron, Stamped Ware, Tinware, Lanterns, 
Hose, Pipe, Fittings, Etc. 

of Uuns, Pistols, Carttidjies, Powder, Shells, Air Guns, 
Huntiug Coats, Lfir^ingB, Loading linpUmeiit^, Base Hall 
Ooo IS, Lawn Tennis, boxing, Fencing and Gymnasium 
Goods, Dumb Bells, Hammocks, etc. 
Flue Uun work done by first-claag smiths. 
525 Kearny Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Promptly F"ra»llcatcB 

I'lc kli s. Tan. Sujihurii, 
.Moth J'.'itclus and nil 
diHcolorattoiiB without 
injury, and iniTiarts to 
the skin Purity and Vel- 
vety Soflne-ss. 


Rf-mnvos Pimples, Fksli Worniti, Blackheads and cures 
Oily Skin. Either of the above articles sent post-paid for 
2^ets. earh. or 5 paclcatri'.s for SI- he sure anrf ineuii'mthis 

paper. Jhe^W. Mjllard Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

-yi^ ^/i^ -yi^ vi'C 

TU C In health, habits and disease. All breeda 

I nu UUU and treatment; 50 cuts; 25c. This office. 



















I— I 










c3 a 








CD ^ 






3 ^ 




O I 

5 a 


















I— t 


e8 OQ ce 
113 03 

X3 (D 

^ o ce 















CO cn 


S2 CJ 



3 S 

O S 



























































s for 


jsale A{ 








-I— • 

I— I 

I— I 










I— ( 












f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 

[July 2, 1887 

geeds, Hants, ttc. 

n. E. Anoorr, Pres. G. O. B»kkr. Sec'.v. 


120 Sutter St , San FraDCisco. 



And all kinds of Japanese Trees, Plants, Etc. 
Rpnd fnr C'irotilar. 


S. L. COLIt.MAN, Manager. 
120 Siittpr St. San Francisco, Cal. 


Trees, Plants, Ballis ui SeeSs, 





This is the last opportunity to secure PUKK TAHITI 
ORANGE SEED. Price is reduced so as to c!eati up at 
once. If you need any, please send your orders Imme- 
diately to 

413, 415. 417 Washington St., San Fran'co. 


39 to 51 Fremont St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Manufacturers of New and Dealers in Second-hand 

Boilers, Engines and Machinery 

Of Every Description. 




and Saw-Mill 


Mining, Quartz 


"Cuinmer" Engines, from Cleveland, Ohio. 

Porter Manufaoturuii; fo 's Engines and Boilers. 
Erie Enjjine Works Kngines and BoiUtrs. 

Whiting Bros. M'i'g C'o.'s Automatic EngineK. 
Castle Engines, from St. L <uis Mo. 

*'Baker" Kotary I*re»8ure Blowers. 

"Wilbrahani" Rotary Pibton Pumps, 

"Boggs & 1 larke" Centrifugal Pumps. 
The Volker & Kelthousen M f'g Co. 'a 

Buffalo Duplex S.eam Pumps. 

P. Blai dell & Co 's Machinists' Tools. 


l'(.Mtlv».ly i iin.clijl 11(1 ^l,vl»r. 
'rru(,»i.<-«»inhiin'd (iiiar anIf-edttiM 
only c>:i« in tli<' wt.riii trt'iicralnit: 
fi funi intions KIcrtrtr ,t Magnetic 
current. S<rientiflc. I*"nweriul, Durable, 
'.nri.lile .Ti.d EfTociivc. .Wuld fiand-t 
^ii*^ civ.r!),(ioo fiiv.-rl. Rin.l St .inn Inipnmililut. 

Ai.«« i;li;« ti£U' iiki.ts ynn imkkauks 
OR. horn:. INVENT0B,702 market ST.jSAM FRAMCISCO. 



309 and 311 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Aerents for Growers and Manufacturers. Charterers of Vessels for all Trades. Asenta 
for the Mexican Phosphate and Sulphur Company's Products. 
Oenernl Insurance Agents. 
Have correspondents in all the chief cities of the United States, Euroie, Australia, India, China and the princl 
pal islands of the Pacific. Purchase goods and sell California pro<Uicts In those coimtries. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of NATIONAL ASSDRANCB CO., of Ireland; 


At Last to "Pel fee' 



Api>roachcs nearer to the old method of hand rnbhingthan any Invention 
ytt introiinced t i the public. EASILY worked, and washes PEKKECTI.V 
clian. Owing to its intrl"»ic merits thousanils have been sold all over the 
United States, and all giving PKRI'ECT satisfaction. Il only needs to b« seen 
and tried to be appreciated. Awarded first prtinlnms ISSli, 1S84, l'«5 and 
1886. In localities where as ye* I have NO agent, I will ship sample Machine 
and Wringer on (iO days' trial, the ( arty to pav for them at WnOI.I-:.S\LF, 
prices and act as Agent, if found satisfactory. IF NOT, roturn them l)o act 
Irxe money hy waiting until sipmk ONK rusk orders samples and secures an 
ai'ency for your locality. Farmers make $;?no to $S0O during the ye r. Ladies 
have great success selling this washer. WRITE AT ONCE for" New Illus- 
trated and Descriptive Pamphlet, wiiich contains my liberal proposition. 
Mention this («per. lio NOT DELAY. 

E. W. MELVIN, Proprietor and Manufacturer. 
Oiiice, 806 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

X8e7. 1888. 

Mission Rock Grain Dock and Warehouses. 

Regular Warehouse for S. F. Produce Exchange Call Board. 

Storage Capacity for 75,000 Tons of Grain. 



W. C. GIBBS, Sec y 

Freight paid, fire insurance and loans effected, and proceeds forwarded free of commissions. Money advanced 
at lowest rates on grain in warehouse. Interest payable at end of loan. Storage !<eason, ending .lone ], l(i87, at 
reduood I'ates On a'l wheat shipped to Missim Rock by barges, freight ratps guarantaed ttie saoio as to Port Costa. 
All applications for storage or other huBiricss addressed to CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Superintendent. 

3X8 CAllfox-xilA. St.. XLooxxi. 3. 




Losses paid to date. - ■ $78,612,829.46. 


Deposits in California, value, 


BUTLER & HALDAN, Gen'l Agents for Pacific Coast 





Buggies. Spring Wagons, Harness. Saddlery. Robes and Wliips. 

132, 134, 136 and 138 Santa Clara St., opp.Post Office, SAN JOSE, CAL. 



319 & 321 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

One door from Bank of California. 

The above well known hotel offers superior ac- 
commorlatioDS to parties visitiag the city. 
The table is kept at top grade and 
the prices are within the 
reach of all. 

RATES-$1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 per day. 

Free Coach to and from the Hotel 


Anil iither;* dtiirtTinff from 
i.-iv..u= (l.hility l-Xh.tll^liUk' 
liri>iiic di^ea>es, prcm;il iiro 
li cliiii' of younif or old aro 
.< isi I i \v\y cu r»'d by l>r. 
_ J'.i iu 's faniutis Kli-otro* 

MaKiit tlc Hrlt. Thouf«and9 
in evi'i- V -f-"A^st;»te In the union Iiiivt- hern curt'd. 
ElcclrKI -'^if.^iy instantly iwit, Pan-nTcd and Hold 10 
v. iis. Wholu f.uiilly can w.iir sann- bflt. Electrlo 
■^n-pcnsorlfo Tn-e u itli male Ih U.s. Avoid ^vo^tllk■^^ im- 
ilri.iuii.-* ami t»'»i'U*< cotripAiiii-f. Flrrtrlc Trtin>rM fop 
Kiipttire. 7o<) iiirt'd nrnr,. .Send f-iamplot t>aiiiplil<-l. 

TU C health, habitu and diseade. All breeds 

■"t UUU and treatment; 50.cutfl: 26c This office. 


— FOR— 

Htaeamatlsm, Neural- 
gia, Pneumonia, Pa- 
ralysis, Asthma, Sci- 
atica, Gout, Lumbago 
and Deaftiess. 

Kverybody should have It. 
327 Nfontgomery St, S. F. 
Price, 11.00. Sold by all Drug- 
gists. t^TCtM and see 
OmoE— 426 Kaarny 8t. 
Sau Francisco. 


ColdWater Bleaching Soap 

Was Awarded the First Premium at the State Fair at 
Sacramento, for the year 18S6, L'PON ACTUAL MERIT. 

It can he used In Bath, Toilet or Laundry, and dis- 
penses with Fuel, as no Warm Water or Boiling is 
Necessary. Beware of Cheap Imitations. 

The Genuine Is manufactured only by 


No. 12 Bue^ Street, San Francisco. 









Consiitine of Wood and Iron Workinsr 
Machinery. Pumps of every 





Authorized Capital, - - $1,000,000 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $645,360. 

ReaerT«d Fund and Paid ap Stock, $81,178. 

A. D. LOOAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK Mcmullen SecmUry 


A. D. LOOAN, President Colnsa County 

H. J. LEWELLINO Nai« County 

J. H. OARDINER Rio Virta, Cal 

T. E. TYNA.^J Stanislaus County 

UKIAU WOOD SaoU Clara County 

J. C. MERYFIKLD Solano County 

H. M. LARUE Yolo County 

I. C. .STEELE San Mateo County 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento County 

C. J. CRE8SEY Merced County 

SENECA EWER Napa Comity 

CURRENT A000UNT8 are opened and conducted in the 

usual way, bank hooks balanced up, aod statemeuts of 

accounts rendered every month, 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS throuirhout the Country ar« made. 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
GOLD and SILVER dcp<wits reoeived. 
CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payahlo on demand. 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic .states bought 


Cashier and Manager. 

Sao Fmociaco, Jao. 16, 1882. 


Wrapping and Pacl(ing Citrus and 
Deciduous Fruits. 

Cut to any desired size. Full Stock always 
on band of Linings: 




- — -roR 

Raisins and Dried Fruits. 

We have facilities for executing large or Rpecial ordors 

at. short notice. 

S. P. TAYLOE & CO.. 
No. 416 Clay St., San Francisco, 



"Oreenbank" 08 degrees POWnERK» CAUS- 
TIC SOOA (tcs.s 99 .1-10 (cr cent) recommended by 
the highest authorities in the l;tat<*. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc., for sale hy 

Manufacturers' Aitents, 
104 Market St. and 3 OaUfornla St.. S. F. 



1332 Market St., opp. Od<l Fellows' Bulld'g 
aan Francisco, Cal. 
All kinds of Ladies' and Uents' Garments Cleaned anil 
Uyeil. WE EXCEL. Send for Circular of Prices. 

C>iA8. J. HOLMES, Manager. 

Jdly 2, 1887.] 










ONS BOX CAR §600 » 1 

i'Uf^'isni BESTSMALl 


Any yoxing man can earn more on an investment, nt 
S500 in this press tlian can be earned in exiiendin{!r $2000 
tor any other machine. We have a Monarch Press, which 
we se'i for ?600, but bai been used a very little and is 
just as good as new, which we will sell for 3450. 


tVff^ Weight, 2200 

' ' ' ' ' r^ifid itig. A crew of 

three men— four 
can be used to ad- 

Five ropes are 
used on the bales. 
Capacity, 10 to IS 
tons per day. The 
best press 'or the 
money in the 

TliG Celeliratei Petalnma 


Weight, 2000 lbs. Price, 
$3r>0, delivered at ilie factory. 

.Size of bale, 22x22x48 inch- 
es. Capacity, 28 tons per day. 
Weight of bale from 225 to 
400 lbs. This remarl<atile ma- 
chine still stan''8 at the head 
of all vertical baling presses, 
and probably bales three- 
quarters of ail the hay west 
of the Rocky Mountains. 


Whitman's IMPROVED New 



Do not ooniuuud our Nkw Press with that made two 
years since. Evbrt Press Fully Warrantbd. For one 
or two horses. The most powerful in use. The most 
rapid and durable, and the most perfect. Makes the 
most perfect bale. The most simple to operate. Least 
expense for repairs. NO STOPti FOR TYING BALE. 

The Greatest Success of the Age. 

Victorious in every contest. Double-acting, with new 
concentrating power. Do not buy a Press uiitil you 
have seen the Improvkd New Whitman with concentrat- 
ing power. Puts from 10 to 15 Tons in a Car. 

16x18 Mounted, weight, 3600 Itis $400 00 

lisx22 Mounted, weight, 3i00 tbs 450 00 

All make bales of variable size. 

Hay Forks, Hay Carriers. Harpoon Forks, 
and «ll kinds of Haying Tools m great variety. Inbaliig 
your hay, use our .steel Baling Ties. Cheaper than 
Wire — Better than Rope. 

421—427 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Issued Sept. and march, 
each year. 313 pa^es, 

8)^xHJ4 Inches, with over 
3,500 Illustrations — a 
whole Picture Gallery. 
GIVES "Wliolesale Prices 
direct to cnnntinipra on all goods for 
pergonal or family use. Tells how to 
order, and gives exact cost of every- 
thing you use, cat, drink, wear, or 
have fan with. These INVAXUABL.E 
BOOKS contain Information gleaned 
from the markets of the world. We 
will mail a copy FREE to any ad- 
dress upon receipt of 10 cts. to defray 
expense of mailing. Let us hear ft-um 
you. Respectfully, 


827 A- 229 Wabash Avenue, Chicago, II' 



Quickly oikI Perruiun-ntly 
'(^ired by tli.i Cl)U■l>rat^d 
^. ^ 1)U. PIEKCJi'fil'AiENT 


Original and Only Qentjinb 
— 'ectrlcTruss. Perfert Retainer 
Kasy to wear. Inntantly relieves every 
case. Kfts cured thotisan*ls. Estiib.1875. 
rSend for Free Iliustr'd Piimiihlet No 1. 


Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
iug, Electrotyping and Stereotyping 
doof at the office of this paper. 





Best and Strongest Explosiyes in tlie Worll 

As other makers IMITATE our Giant Powder, so flo they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a second-grade, inferior to Judson. 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO, General Agents, San Francisco 

The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bmk Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
out of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 



Using tie Benolt Corrngatei Kollers. 

STILL AT The front. 

This Mill has beeo in use on this Coast for 6 years, 


Four J ears in succespion, and has met with general favor, 
thero now hein^r 

Over 200 of them in use in California, Nevada & Oregon 

It is the most economical and durable Feed Mill in use. I am sole nianii- 
tacturer o( the Corrugated Keller Mill. The Mills are all ready to mount 
on wagons. 

I thank the public for the kind patronage received thus far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 


S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

'Free Ooacb to and from the Honse J. W. BECKER. Proprietor. 


A. BLATCHLY, manufacturer of all kinds and sizes of Driers, from the smallest Family Stove Drier to the 
huge Raisin Drier, holding 100,000 pounds of fruit at a charge. Also, all Machinery required in building Driers, 
as Steam Engines and B oilers. Steel Fan Wheels — the strongest and lightest running made. Heaters— a great 
variety. Iron and Wooden Cars of all sizes, with wheels running equally well on a track or floor. Trays, large or 
small, with Wood, Metal or Wire Cloth Bottoms. Car Tracks, Thermometers, Hygrometers, etc. 

Being the first to make in Fresno, in 1884, a machine-dried Raisin that sold for as high or higher price 
than the sun-dried, and having the experience of the Isst three years, renders it possible to build a Raisin Drier 
guaranteed to be superior to any now iu use in cheapness and erticiency. Estimates and prices furnished on 
application to 





la offered to the citizens of California as the 
Most Perfect Windmill in Use. 
The .Simplest, .Strongest, most durable, 
easiest controlled and cheapest ever offered to 
the public by the inventor of the Cyclone, 
Saunders, Hercules, Eureka. It is a recent 
invention, combining the best points in wind- 
millp, after years of experience. AGENTS 
Wanted in every town on the Coast, to whom 
a liberal commission will be allowed. A dis- 
count will be allowed on the first order from 
places where there is no ageat. 


12-ft 865 00 16 ft B SUO 00 

14 ft 75 00 18 ft 120 00 

16-ftA 90 00 20 ft 135 00 


06 Montgomery St., San Jose, Cal. 

DEWEY & CO..{^B°ieli?o^^a''F^^n^tlt^] PATENT AGENTS. 


A Mounted Double-Ender Baling Machine, 
capable of baling 40 tons per day. 


For the first year of its existence is as follows: Four 
tons in one hour, nineteen and Mire»--quar- 
ters tons in a half day. thirt.v-»«ven and one- 
quarter touB iu one day, and 18O0 bales iu 
six successive days. 

Two (•izes: Compres-ed bales and common bales. Ini • 
proved this year so tliat it is nearly one- 
quarter faster than before, and the back- 
and-forth movement of the horse lever is 
made to bring the hay across the stack and 
hoist the bales into a pile. 

Has three or four times the capac-ty of Eastern-made 
presses, with the same number of men and horses. 

Price, at factory, San Lean-iro, Cal., $1000. 


Does its own Tramping. Feeds at Side, 
near the Bottom. 


33 tons in one day; 10.5 tons in 3J days; 
20 tons, and over, daily averag^e for the 
season; tons with one press in one 

season ; 23 sold in one valley last season. 

Price, at factory, San Leandro, Cal., $500. 


Genuine Price Petaluma, 

With Latest Improvement's. 

Made under the supervision of the inventor, JACOB 
PRICE. Too well known to need further description. 
First-class material and workmanship Capacity, from 
10 to 18 tons per day. Hay must be tramped in press. 

Price, at factory, San Leandro, Cal., $350. 

iSrSend for large illustrated Catalogue of above 
presses. Office and tactory, SAN L.EANUKO, 
CAL. Address 


t«HlHii Well Knc.vclopfdla coo- 
taius near 70U eLgriivings, illiLstrating 
and describing all the practical tool.s 
and appliauces used in the art of well 
Biukiug; diamond prospecting ma- 
chinery, windmills, ar- 
tesian engines, pumps, 
etc. Edited by the 
"American Well 
Works,*' the largest 
manufacturers in the 
"I world of this class of 
machinery. We will 
send this book to any 
party on receipt of 2^ cents for mailing. Expert well drill- 
ers and agents wanted., Th» American 
WrII Works. Auror». Ills.. IT. N. A. 

"9 S 

^ ■ o 

and all kinds of Fumping Machinery built to order. 
.4. warded Diploma for Windmills at Me- 
chanics' Fair, 1886. Windmills from $66. Horse 
Powers from S.TO. p. W. KROGH & CO., 51 
Beale Street. Ran Pranclsoo. 

Tnia papt3r is printed ■with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Cbarlee Eneu Johnson & Co., 500 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch OIB- 
cea— 47 fioae St., New York, and 40 La SalJe 
St., Oblcaso. Agent for the Paclflo Coast- 
Joseph H. Dorety. 528 Oommerdal St., 3. P. 



[July 2, 1887 



Reducing' Cost of Production Equals Increasing Market Prices, 


Utilizing: Your Farm Help and Stock to Thresh and Grind Your Grain and Feed. 


Complete in Every Particular. 

Thresber and Cleaner Lif^aded luslde nf Power on tbe Road. 

One of these popilnr outfits will enable small farmers, and even large ont a, who have long nuflerod in virioiia 
ways by entrusting' their threshing to dher parties, t i accomplish the same worli and in a much more satisfairtory 
manner, without any special >early outlay, besides doing it when most convenient to tiikmuilvbs, instead of at 
some one else's pleasure. 

The "Sc. a1 ans " arc the most powerful Powers and reliable Threshers made; have the greatest s^paratinsr 
capacity, most |ierf:ct cleaning facilities and are the most pupular ni thu market, costing less, although accomplish' 
ing more than any other make Write fur prices of complete uuiflts. 

1 i .-i 

Outfit Attached. Ready for Service. 

Reduced Price List, deiiver-ed in San Francisco ready for shipment. 

The following prices are fully 2i) per cent less than the same quality of gocds were ever offered in this market 
before : 

One H irse Thresher, Separator and Cleaner, small belts, wrenobes, etc (23x16 inch All Iron Cylinder) |175 00 

One-Horse Tread St. Albans' Power for driving tne above 17/i qo 

Two-Horso Thresher, .Separator and Cleaner, small belts, wrenches, etc. (28x18 inch All Iron Cyiinder). 300 00 

Two-Home Tread St. Allans' Power tor ilriving the above goo 00 

Thric Horse Throfh-r, Separator and Cleaner, small belts, wrenches, etc (32x13 iiicli Ail Iron Cylinder).!.'. 888 00 
Three-Horse Tread St. Albans' Power for driving the above 285 CO 



Oretln for F"eoci. 

No. 4 MI LL SET UP. 



iPOK. sxjoh: woK/IC it h:a.s iTO equa-L 

X*l£«.tos Aro a. St^ooIaX ilVTolfvl , H«x"cl. ixf* Stool, Ovi£vr-o.ntoocl to Orlxxcl OOOO 
to 0000 ^Bixsliols loofoxre VV ort-i-liift' O-iit. 

THE BKARTNGS ."vre in one castin'j:, conscrjuently arc always in line and cannot pet out of true. 

THE .lOUll.VAI.S are in half boxes babbittcii with the best metal and <-an be adjusted to take up all wear. 

THK .SHAFT is of the finest cold rolled steel of ample size and perfectlv true 

THE FI.Y-WHEEL ANO PULLEY are turned, and, with the Kiiiinins Plate, are put on shaft and 

balancecl accurately, so when in mill they run perfectly true, withnut anv sliakin? or undue strain on it. 
THE VIBKATOK keeps moving i-onstantiv when grinding ear corn, so tbit it cannot clog in the hopper. 
THE HIGH DI.SCHAROE is most convenient for delivering the feed, and as it draws a current of air 

through, it prevents heating, as is frequently the case with Iron Mills, 
THE PIN IiKE.\KEK provides against damage to mill should iron, steel or any hard substance accidentally 

go Iwtween the plates. 


THE FEEDER provides a successful uwans of regulating the feel when grinding small grain ani cotton seed, 
NO OTHER COB MILL has any such pro ision. In fact Ih3 "S:;ientiSc" is superior to other mills of this 

THE .SIMPLEST. Can be taken apart and put together in a short time with lut the aid of a mechanic. 

THK STICtl.N (i F:sT. All parts are heavy and well liraced, and especially adapted to the work. 

THE LIfiHTKST RU.NNING. Having but one thaft, running in bearings, whith are always in line, with 

Fly Wlieel, Pulley anil Plates accurately baltn-ed, it follows it must run witti l«ast poNHiblif friction. 
THE MO.ST DURABLE. Can be run in either direction by sim^ily changing the spout and crossing the belt. 

This gives double wearing capacity to the plates, as they sharpen themsxlves each time they are reversed. 
THE BEST MILL ON EARTH, of the best material through' ut, and every pirt made especially lor its place. 



It is much easier to REDUCE EXPENSES by these means than increase profits by any known rule, 



REMOVED TO 3 and 5 Front St.. near Market, 


Southern BranchlStore, 517 N. Main St., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Vol. XXXIV— No. 2.1 


I $3 a Year, In Advance 

( SiNOLE Copies, 10 Cts. 

The Long and Short Haul. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission took 
the ground recently that competition existing 
between any road and any outside carrier not 
amenable to the law constituted dissimilar cir- 
cumstances, and therefore allowed such a road 
to charge less for a long haul than a short one 
if it were necessary to secure a share of the 
business. Now Judge Deady of Oregon has 
given a decision to the same effect and in har- 
mony with a judgment which he pronounced 
two years ago when 
a case came before him 
under the Oregon law 
to regulate railway 

Judge Deady takes 
this ground: The rail- 
way manager "is in- 
structed that he is 
authorized to make a 
less rate for a long 
haul than a short one, 
in conjunction with 
connecting lines or 
otherwise, whenever, 
by reason of competi- 
tion with other lines 
or means of transpor- 
tation, the same is nec- 
essary to enable the 
Oregon & California 
road to retain or ac- 
quire business." In 
his decision two years 
ago, Judge Deady laid 
down the principle 
that a railroad corpo- 
ration has the right 
to live, and in his re- 
cent decision says: 
" This opinion has 
been before the world 
for more than two 
years, and on account 
of the importance of 
the subject it has at- 
tracted some atten- 
tion, but, so far as I 
am aware, it has re- 
ceived no unfavorable 

criticism, and time and reflection have fully 
satisfied me of the correctness of the ruling." 

The deduction from this, on the face of it at 
least, seems to be that transportation com- 
panies are not to be restrained from entering 
into competition, and that to get a share of the 
business, may charge low rates for competing 
points, irrespective of distance. Few would 
contest this proposition, because to permanent- 
ly restrain from competition until one party 
thereto was ruined would in itself destroy com- 
petition and leave the public at the mercy of 
the surviving carrier. This would not be de- 
sirable to the public, and it would work in- 
jastice to the party whose business should be 
rained and capital idle. Competition is the 
cure of high tariffs and competition should be 
preserved, not destroyed. 

But there is another side to the question, and 
that is the injustice done to shippers from or to 
non-competing points by charging them enough 
to cover the loss of profit on business done to 
competing points. This is the evil which has 
been complained of, and it should certainly be 

looked to. The interests of interior points 
should be guarded. It is wrong to carry at a 
nominal rate to a competing point and make up 
the loss by charging " all the traffic will bear " 
at non-competing points. The only way to 
reach this is the adoption of a maximum rate 
which shall be fair to carriers and shippers, 
either for short or long distances, and then 
allow competition to adjust rates at any figure 
below this limit. 

Herbaceous Grafting. — A very interesting 

The King Orange. 

Among the curiosities at the Riverside Citrus 
Fair of 1880, our special correspondent noted a 
trio of the *' King orange from Imperial Gar- 
dens, Saigon, Cochin China," obtained through 
Hon. John A. Bingham, our Minister to Japan. 
Those specimens had a thickly wrinkled and 
dark brownish-yellow skin. On being cut, they 
proved to have uncommonly large juice-bags 
and to be very sweet, though quite lacking in 
"character," which latter fact might have been 


article by Mr. Wheeler, Chief Executive Viti- 
cultural Officer, may be found upon another page 
of this issue. It gives a detailed description of 
the Hungarian method of setting grafts in grow- 
ing canes, or herbaceous grafting as it is called. 
It must, of course, be understood that Mr. 
Wheeler does not advance this method as one 
to be adopted by our vine-growers, but merely 
for experimental purposes, to determine if it be 
applicable and valuable here. It is probably 
late in the season to make much use of the 
suggestion, but it is possible that enough can 
be done in an experimental way to gain some 
points which may be of use at least in shaping 
future experiments. It seems to us that Mr. 
Wheeler's suggestions, if used as they are in- 
tended, can hardly fail to draw attention to 
methods of propagation, and perhaps draw out 
some original methods of working which will be 
of especial local value. 

Efforts are being made to complete the Pa- 
cific Coast railway in San Luis Obispo county 
in time to handle this year's crops. 

due to the length of time that had elapsed since 
they were picked. Dr. Magee, the exhibitor, 
then intended to plant their seeds, and if they 
came true thereto to propagate the exotic. 

Mr. J. E. Cutter — who we understand has now 
three bearing trees of this variety, and several 
hundred young budded trees — has just sent us 
several samples of the fruit. His accompanying 
note says it is " of strong acid, late (June) ma- 
turity, high flavor and remarkably refreshing 
quality, all of which fit it for a summer orange." 

The specimens at hand are shaped somewhat 
like a Rhode Island greening apple— slightly 
flattened at the poles. The skin is thickiah and 
has rather a lumpy surface; the pulp is of 
deep hue, with very delicate membranes, juicy 
and highly piquant in flavor. 

SoDTHBRN California. — We have received 
from the Expositor of Fresno a reprint of Mr. 
B. Marks' letters to that journal concerning his 
recent vint to Southern California. Mr. 
Marks' writing is never dull, and in these let- 
ters he has reached a high mark for raciness. 

A Grand Animal. 

It is some time since we have given our first 
page to something massive in the way of horned 
stock, and lest the growers of such animals 
might think as negligent of their favorites, we 
give a portrait of a famous imported Shorthorn 
bull Von Tromp, brought from Scotland by a 
Canadian importer, and now owned by Wilcox 
& Liggett of Benson, Minn. Von Tromp was 
bred by Mr. Amos Cruickshank at the fa- 
mous Sittyton farm in Scotland, and traces 
through a pedigree of 
blue blood. He was 
calved December 11, 
1881; sire Barmpton, 
one of the most fam- 
ous bulls at Sittyton, 
of the justly celebrat- 
ed Townley Butterfly 
family of prize-win- 
ning fame; his sire, 
the Royal Duke of 
Gloster (29,864) ; dam 
Barmpton's Flower by 
Allen (31,172). Von 
Tromp is a half broth- 
er to Col. W. A. Har- 
ris' famous Cruick- 
shank bull. Baron Vic- 
tor, and his dam, Vic- 
toria 45th, was also 
dam of Victoria 63d, 
whose daughter, Lin- 
wood Victoria brought 
at a public sale in 
Kansas City the hand- 
some sum of $1000 ; 
Csesar Augustus, the 
sire of Victoria 45th, 
was got by Champion 
of England, whose 
fame has become 
world-known. With 
such a pedigree, we 
may well say that 
Von Tromp is the in- 
heritor of blue blood. 
Like his sire, he is 
of a deep red color, of 
great substance, and 
a sire that places his 
characteristics upon his progeny. Von Tromp's 
laurels in the prize ring during his career in 
this country show the value placed upon him by 
judges. The Grandview herd of Shorthorns, 
owned by Messrs. Wilcox & Liggett, contains 
blood of such noted families as Young Mary, 
Rose of Sharon, Lady Bates, Helpa, Victoria, 
Oomilla, Bloom and Dewdrop. 

The Pure-Wine Law. — Mr. Henry Kohler 
is now under arrest for violation of the Pure- 
Wine bill, in not stamping his wine when no 
demand had been made by the purchaser and 
complainant for wine bearing the stamp. The 
Wine-dealers' Association will test the consti- 
tutionality of the law in this case, and if it is 
decided to be constitutional, will force the 
growers to carry it out to the letter, thus hop- 
ing to make it unpopular. 

The District Land Office of Wathington Ter- 
ritory is to be removed from Olympia to Seattlfe, 
where it will be more accessible to moat of the 
people of the Territory. 


f ACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 

[July 9, 1887 


CorrespoDdent-8 are Alono re!*pon3ible for their opinlODS. 

Batte Coanty Notes. 

Editors Press: — Having seen but little of 
late in your valuable paper relative to this part 
of the State, I take the liberty of sending you 
a few items which may be of some little inter- 
est, not only to yourselves but to your many 

The ingathering season is upon us, both in 
the matter of fruits and cereals, and our city 
and its environment present one continual 
scpne of activity. 

The barley crop is being rapidly harvested, 
and so far as we can learn farmers are quite 
well satiefipd with yields and quality. The 
oracles of the community say that this article 
is in larger supply than usual this year, and 
that, locally, prices will rule lower than pre- 
vious seasons. 

The wheat yield promises well, and while 
perhaps, owing to a smallnr rainfall than usual, 
there will not be a lanj'', crop, yet there will 
be a good average and the lack in quan- 
tity will be made up in quality. Butte 
is one of the banner counties of the State in 
that line, and has not forgotten her cunning. 

But while agriculture is the principal re- 
source of this part of the county, it is not the 
only one; and Chico, " loveliest city of the 
plain," is surrounded by orchards and vine- 
yards, large and small, which are but promises 
of the fruition that is to come. 

The largest of these, of course, and the most 
noted of all, are those of General John Bidwell, 
which, together with his mansion and beautiful 
grounds, form a paradisaical suburb to the town . 
On this magnificent place fruits in their season 
are ripening and being marketed in numerous 

Large quantities are being shipped into the 
mountains and interior in all directions; car- 
loads are being shipped to Chicago and other 
Eastern cities; quantities are being dried; and 
last, but not least by any means, the cannery 
in being run to its fullest capacity, and is daily 
absorbing tons of luscious fruit. 

This cannery is a veritable model, and we 
venture to say has scarcely a compeer in the 
State. It is a valuable adjunct to the orchards, 
and the quality of fruit that ispues from its 
doors is unsurpassed. About 150 men, wom(>n, 
girls and boys are at present employed in this 
department, and the greatest of care is exer- 
cisrd that everything shall be neat and clean. 

Chico is at presf nt experiencing the incipi- 
ency of a " boom," which will, we trust, ere 
another year has passed develop into full- 
fledged prosperity. 

The Branch Normal school has beenadjudced 
to us, which when completed will, together 
with our numerous other school buildings, fur- 
nish an abundance of galleries wherein " the 
voung idea " may be taught how " to shoot." 
For onr success in getting this school we are 
largely indebted to General Bidwell, who made 
a princely donation in the way of a site, as has 
already been mentioned in the Rural. 

Id anticipation of the hosts that are to come 
seeking for homes, etc., some of our large farms 
are to be cut np this coming fall and winter 
into 5, 10 and 20 acre lots; which segregation 
will become the genesis of a new era, we hope. 
The fait has become public property that Gen- 
eral Bidwell will put about 1200 acres of his 
best land upon the market this winter in small 
tracts. This land is only half a mile from town 
at its nearest point; and those desiring beauti- 
ful spots for homes upon the best land iu Ciili- 
fornia, where everything grows without irriga- 
tion, have only to seek and they shall find. 


A Visit to the Chabot Observatory. 

Editors Pres.>3 : — A friend having arranged 
for us to visit the Chabot Observatory on the 
evening of the 30th ult., we set out, though the 
night was most inauspicious for star-ga/ing. In 
the city here it was cold and windy, and one of 
our characteristic fogs hung thick aud wet over 
everything. Not a star was to be seen, but the 
moon was in its first quarter — the best time to 
observe it — so we concluded to go, especially 
as we had been told to come even though the 
evening was not clear in the city, for we could 
see the instruments and learn something about 

So across the bay we journeyed, and right 
glad were we all that we wen*^. Mr. Chas. 
Burckhalter, one of the gfntlemen in charge of 
the observatory, received us, and was in- 
defatigable in trying to make things as 
pleasant and instructive as possible. It 
was not so cloudy in Oakland, still it was 
no night to look at the stars. We got a sight, 
however, of the moon through the telescope, 
and of the larg" mountain on it, Coperaicns. 
This immense crater, which is 55 miles across, 
looked like a small ant-hill. Ou one side there 
are a number of irregular streaks which look 
like tracings on sand; these, we learned, are 
supposed to be large canyons. When we con- 
sider the distance of the moon from us, about 
240,000 miles, we wonder that we can see ob- 
jects on it even as well as we do. Becmse of 
the bad weather on this evrnine, Mr. Bunk- 
halter could only magnify 200 diameters. We 

wanted to see Saturn and his brilliant sister 
Venus, but they were not in a favorable po- 
sition for telescopic observation. We saw Ju- 
piter, though, with his moons, and were much 
impressed with bis appearance. I shall 
never look at the planet again with the 
nakrd eye but in imagination I will see his 
satellites grouped about him. After this we 
looked at the telescope and transit instruments, 
but the short time we stayed was not enough 
to fully acquaint us with the working of both. 
We did a eood deal of talking on astronomy, 
and Mr. Burckhalter pointed out the position 
of some of the stars for us. All he said was 
very interesting. While feeling strongly the 
fascination and sublimity of the science of as- 
tronomy, he is nevertheless very practical He 
told us an amazing story about the star Vegs, 
ivhich is supposed to be a young, vigorous sun. 
To him it is one of the most beautiful objects 
in the be;tvens<f what was his indignation 
on being told once by a "smart young man," 
whose hair was plastered in a curve down on 
his forehead, that Vega — lovely Vega— looked 
like a ham sandwich as seen through a tele- 
scope ! It was too much for Mr. Burckhalter's 
f quanimity; he exploded, to the utter discom- 
fiture of the smart young fellow. 

Astronomy has always been a fascinating 
study to me. But until I looked with the aid 
of the telescope's powerful eye at some of the 
objects in the heavens, I never fully realized 
the majesty and beauty of the science. I do 
not wonder that astronomers are content 

" Through the long night hours while we rest 
To read the history of the skies." 

I can understand how one could forget for a 
time all about earthly things while contemplat- 
ing the sublime spectacle that night discloses 
to us. 

" The heavens bend to us as the night comes down." 
S. F., June S3, 1887. V, H. A. 

Beardless Barley. 

EuiTORs Press: — In your issue of May 2l9t, 
I find a short article in regard to "Beardless 
Barley," and wishing to have a clearer under- 
standing myself, as well as for others, in regard 
to the two barleys that resemble each other so 
closely, I will forward to you today, by Wells, 
Fargo & Co. 'a express, a small bunch of each. 
The " beardless,'^ as we call it here, is a fine 
barley for farmers to raise for hay, equally as 
good as the "bald," and one great advantage 
it has over " bald " is this: that if you do not 
wish it for hay or only a portion of it, the re- 
mainder can be harvested for grain. It cannot 
be distinguished from bearded bar'ey when 
thrashed and cleaned, and we have no beards 
to contend with. Another great advantage, it 
does not curl or crumple down as does the 
bearded barley. The seed we have came from 
the .South here, and I do not think the Agri- 
cultural Department ever distributed any of 
the seed on this coast, or not to my knowledge, 
as it did the "bald barley." On examining them 
closely you will find the " bald " barley will 
hull clear of any covering as does wheat; the 
" beardless " does not, but is just the same as 
bearded barley. 1 hope the bunches will arrive 
in good condition, and tha*; you will give us 
some more light on the subject. 

Lathrop, Ual. 0. Litchfield. 

[Our correspondent is correct in his state- 
ments and we are not sure but some confusion 
has crept into the mentions which the subject 
has had in the Rukal. There are beardless or 
awolesss barleys which have a kernel covered, 
as common barley is, and there are beardless 
or awnless barleys which have a naked kernel. 
The latter is the one usually known as " bald 
barley," which is now quite widely known as a 
jjood hay grain, and which was distributed by 
the University several years ago. The Univer- 
sity collection has beardless barleys with cov- 
ered kernels, and one two-rowed variety, named 
by Mr. Klee " Bsrkeley hybrid barley," origi- 
nated on the University grounds, and is very 
promising. The sample sent by Mr. Litchfield 
is a handsome six-rowed beardless variety 
which must prove very valuable in the way he 
describes. We would like to hear from him 
fully as to its origin, growth, bearing quality, 
etc. — Eds. Press.] 

"Simple Truth His Highest Skill." 

Editors Press: — I think it would be well to 
suggest to some, who are writing up favorable 
descriptions of California, that there is danger 
of doing harm by exaggeration. It is a fault 
altogether too common, and I know that confi- 
dence is often forfeited thereby. Beside the 
exaggeration that consists in statements which 
are partly true and partly false, there is a way 
of so weaving together certain favorable facts 
as to leave out of sight other equally pertinent 
but unfavorable one*, and doing it so skillfully 
as to leave the impression that what is given 
covers the whole ground. Some descriptions 
of the climate, soil and productions of Califor- 
nia are the most perfect specimens of this form 
of misrepresentation that 1 have ever noticed. 
I could admire the talent were it rightly U9td, 

but I do not believe in using the truth to make 
false impressions. 

Beside these I have seen statements in refer- 
ence to my own section, touching its most im- 
portant interests, that I know to be thoroughly 
false. Whether made through ignorance or in- 
tention I cannot say. While I would like to see 
our State reap all the benefits of a deserved good 
reputation, I wcu'd not like to see it stand 
upon a fictitious one. 

Some of the efforts to secure the attention of 
Eastern land-seekers remind me of the story of 
the man who, in trying to accustom his saddle- 
horse to meet surprises properly, directed his 
boy to go and secrete himself by the roadside 
till he should ride along, and then jump up and 
shout " Boo :" The program was carried out, 
but the rider was thrown; whereupon, gather- 
ing himself out of the dust and getting his 
breath, he exclaimed: " My son, you said 
' boo ' too much ! " 

I think some of these writers say " boo " too 
much. Thouohtooraph. 

Cleanliaess ia Dairy Utensils, Food and 

Editors Press:— Can you inform me of the best 
article to wash milkcans with, so as to have them 
sweet and clean and keep milk a reasonable time ? 
Some say, ".Sal-soda is best;" others say, •' Uon't 
use s,al-soda, as it will leave a sediment on the tin 
which will sour milk every time." A reply through 
your paper will very much oblige— A Beginner, 
Los A>i!;eles. 

Sal-soda or any strong alkali will cut the 
grease or oil in milk aud cleanse the can, but it 
is very important to thoroughly rinse the can 
in clean water, in order that all of the soda is 
removed. The effc^ct of soda left in the can, as 
a sediment or fine powder, is that it unites 
with the fatty portion of the milk and forms a 
soap which is highly obnoxious to the taste and 
smell, though not sour. 

Soap, both hard and soft, is mainly used for 
can-washing; while soft soap is used principally 
by the largest milkmen, tor the reason that 
they make it themselves, from the refuse grease 
of their places, aud because it is more conven- 
ient to work into a strong suds and its strength 
and effectiveness are better gauged by the mak- 
er, as well as being less expensive. 

If milk curdles and is yet sweet, it is a sure 
sign that the leaven of old decaying milk has 
not been thoroughly washed from the can, and 
it will sour very soon after curdling. 

It is claimed that milk from alfalfa — bay or 
grass — will not keep nearly so long as that 
made from other feed, excepting, of course, 
milk made from brewers' and distillery slops, 
or the refuse from the kitchens and wharves of 
the city. In a city like San Francisco there is 
always a large quantity of decaying hay, po- 
tatoes, turnips, beets, pumpkins and grain dam- 
aged by water, as well as much other vegetable 
matter, that either goes to the cows or hogs, 
which will naturally keep the stomach of a cow 
in a state of ferment. So much cheap food of 
this nature is the reason why so many cows 
are kept within the city limits. One would 
naturally suppose that it would cost more to 
keep a cow in the city than in the country, but 
the reverse is true. The city assessors' returns 
for the present year show over 7000 cows, 
while perhaps 10,000 would be nearer the mark 
if all were found. The milk from these cows 
must be in many cases unwholesome, consider- 
ing their feed, water, want of exercise and foul 
air. This milk will not keep nearly so long as 
good, sound country milk; but this is not im- 
portant, as the milkyard is only a short distance 
from the consumer, and the cows are milked at 
an hour that will insure sweet milk, no matter 
how filthy the yards, utensils, water and food 
from which it comes. 

From a late examination made into the mat- 
ter of the milk supply of San Francisco, it was 
found that a large number of the cows were 
using the water from wells sunk in the lowest 
portion of the milkyards, where the drainage 
from the filth of the whole yard concentrated 
into the wells, and where the same water was 
used for washing the utensils, watering the milk, 
and for cooking purposes. These places were 
generally conducted by ignorant foreigners that 
leased small places between the sandhills, and 
with a few dollars' worth of improvements, 
were enabled, in their s<|ualid filth and brutal 
economy, to compete for the milk trade of the 
city successfully. 

All the animal heat must be driven from milk 
as soon as posf>ihle after drawing it, to have it 
keep well. Milk should not be exposed to the 
atmosphere more than absolutely necessary, 
as the floating bacteria find it the very best 
material in which to propagate their kind. 

CleacslDir Appliances. 

The main essentials for cleaning milk-vessels 
are strong, hot soapsuds (kept hot until through 
with the work), and enough of it, so that the 
suds do not become foul. Then hot, clean 
rinsing water to carry off the soap and dirt; 
and then boiling hot water to scald with, in a 
receptacle deep enough to cover the entire can, 
which should then be hung up and exposed to 
the sun for 2-1 bourn before using again. 
Uncleanly Mills Again. 

We have touched on this city's milk supply 
more, perhaps, than the query at the opening of 
this article justifies, but we do not consider an 
apology necessary in trying to abate one of the 

moot grievous and serious evils existing now as 
a constant menace to the Uvea and health of 
our citizens. 

Much depends upon the press of the country 
as well as city, in preventing illegitimate and 
fraudulent methods of gain from being success- 
ful. Our work is largely with the agriculturist 
whose dairy interest is aseailed by a fraudulent 
imposition upon the public of a cheap, unwhole- 
some, and nasty article sold as milk, to the 
great detriment of a large city; and if we can 
transfer those 10,000 unhealthfnl cows from the 
filthy slums of the city to green pastures and 
wholesome feed in the country, we shall feel 
that we have not only saved the lives of thou- 
sands of innocent and helpless children, but 
have placed the production of milk where the 
Creator intended it, and where our friends, the 
agriculturists, will have a good market for all 
their produce at home, in the production of a^ 
health-giving milk. 

This business of supplying the city with 
milk belongs to the country farmers within, 
say, .SO miles of San Francisco, and not a drop 
of it should be made in .San Francisco. The milk 
of 10,000 cows, say two gallons each or 20,000 
gallons now made in the city daily, if in coun- 
try milk would be worth about 15 cents 
per gallon on the farm, or a total value to the 
farmers of $1,095,000 annually— a sum that 
would give employment to a large number of 
respectable families and build up the surround- 
ing country with respectable homes, in the in- 
terest of good society. 

The best appliance for washing is a range of 
square tubs made of boiler iron, say 10 feet 
long, .1 feet wide and 20 inches deep, made into 
three or four compartments and located over a 
furnace with the flue running underneath 
lengthwise. The water directly over the furnace 
would be boiling while at the other extremity 
it would not be too hot to handle. Nothing 
but stiff brushes should be used in washing; 
cloths or sponges become foul and cannot be 
cleansed readily. 

Most milkmen use but one large round kettle 
over a stove frame in which all the water used is 
heated, and that used for washing transferred 
to tubs from time to time, while the scalding 
is done in the large kettle in the remaining hot 
water. This process is faulty, becaose the water 
in the tubs gets cold and greasy before the cans 
are all washed. 

A good can-washer G:ets much higher wages 
than the ordinary milker, for the reason that 
the business requires very thorough, regular 
and honest work. 

Such large dairies as the Jersey Farm Dairy 
and a few others do all their washing with 
brushes revolved by machinery, which is at 
all times thorough and quite economical in a 
large business, where many hundreds of cans 
are washed daily. 

An income of, say, $1,000,000 annually to the 
farmers means a good living to 400 farmers 
with their families, or :J2500 each, for the prod- 
uce of 25 cows in milk all the time; which 
means, also, that they will require at least four 
animals, young and old, to each cow in milk, or 
100 head. These will require attain about .300 
acres of good land, or 400 to fiOO of ordinary 
land; or, in other words, the 400 farmers re- 
quired to furnish 20,000 gallons of milk daily 
would need, say, .SOO acres each, or 120,000 
acres of fair land, upon which their hay, grain 
and grass could all be raised, besides some 
horses, hogs, chickens and family supplies. 
Quite likely, too, they would grow some, high- 
bred horned stock, which could be turned off 
annually and by which the revenue could he 
raised to perhaps ?4000 yearly. Taking the 
average fam'Iy to be five persons, and the help 
of three farm hands in addition, and you have 
ample provision for 3200 persons respectably 
paid, housed and fed, by transf-rriog the milk 
business from the slums of the city to the 

We are pleased that this inquiry about milk 
has called up the points we have made. We 
desire to speak nn this ques'ion, especially in 
relation to the city supply, as often as we can, 
and the country as well as the city press can- 
not put their columns to better use than in 
attitating this question energetically nntil a re- 
form is brought about, by driving out the city 
milk and introducing a wholesome article from 
the country. Spurious butter has gone; spuri- 
ous wine is going, and why not save our 
children by driving oat spurious milk ? 


The Mohair Industry. 

EDITOK.S Press : — Daring the season of 1886 
this industry has been depressed, mohair was 
low; the growers had reason to be discouraged, 
as the industry has been very uncertain. Now 
let us look at the past and the present, and may 
be we can learn therefrom what the future 
will be. 

We have added in the United States to the 
few establishments of former years nntil we 
now have 3!t factories using mohair in different 
ways, but the domestic mohair only furnished 
about one-sixth, while Turkey mohair furnished 
all the balance of our consumption. The low 
tariff on Turkish and Cape mohair is against ns; 
besides toat, the unprecedented clips of 1886, 
both from Turkey and the Cape, as shown here- 
after, reduced prices considerably. 

If our tariff should be fixed permanently to 

July 9, 1887.] 

pAciFie f^uraid press 


foster, uphold and protect our home product, it 
would also encourage our manufacturers to 
buy at home first all that quality of mohair 
suited to their wants and purposes, therefore 
benefit both classes of producers and mauufact- 
urers. The uno"rtain condition of tariff keeps 
our own mill-owners out of the markets, except 
for immediate use upon orders or standard 
goods in constant demand. 

The reports show the Turkish and Cape mo- 
hair imported into England during six years 
preceding and up to 1885 was 55,802 bales per 
year. In 1886 the imoort reached 76,690 bales, 
being an increase of 20,888 bales, equal at 220 
pounds per bale, of 4,595,360 pounds over the 
yearly average of the past six years; this in- 
crease alone is 12 times the quantity of the do- 
mestic mohair of 1886 consumed in the United 

The consumption of mohair in this country in 
1886 is reported as follows: Foreign, 1,915,694 
pounds; domestic, 355,373; total, 2,271,067 

Now as to the English trade and consumption 
of mohair in 1886, the reports say: The prices 
ruling low, manufacturers have been using mo- 
hair for new purposes to such an extent that at 
the end of the year the quantity on h%nd was 
considerably less than at the end of 1885. 

This together shows clearly, and it must be 
admitted, that the consumption of mohair in 
different ways of manufacturing in the United 
States and England is increasing faster than the 
production of the raw fiber ia the different parts 
of the world. If the Government will protect 
our industry, we can use a large territory now 
valueless for profitable business in raising An 
gora goats and build up our country. We can 
spread out here while Asia Minor cannot, and 
the only real competitor in the future of mo- 
hair growing will be Cape Colony. 

It is claimed that somn fi^jcks at the Cape are 
comparing well to the best in the woild, and 
that those engaged in the business am prosper- 
ing. According to report of U. S. Consul- 
General G. H. Heap, published by Fmk & Co. 
at Leon Springs, Texas, last fall, there were paid 
at auction at the Cape, for bucks, average 
price of $4-17 50 per head; for ewes, average 
price of $267 per head, showing their faith in 
the business. 

Wm. Macnaughtan's Sons, under date of 
April 5th last, stated in their circular to mo- 
hair-growers that, owing to severity of the win- 
ter and the scarcity of water, Angora goats 
were suffering in Asia Minor, and the report 
goes on to state that the cbp this season will 
not be up to the average of quality or quantity. 

This report is in part confirmed by the fact 
of a famine now reported in Asia Minor, the 
Saltan having provided for measures of relief 
to the sufferers on June 22. As the Turkey- 
Russian war has been in progress, and an ex- 
tremely severe winter has followed, the goats 
have probably become reduced or perished, 
and in that case mohair will again advance to 
correspond to the demalid, aud the outlook for 
this industry, therefore, is at present more 
hopeful than ever before. 

The Registry. 
To advance the material interests of goat- 
breeders, the matter of establishing a registry 
demands our consideration. The American 
Mohair-Growers' Association at Srvn Antonio, 
Texas, organized and adopted rules and regula- 
tions for establishment of a register of Angora 
goats pure bred as Class 1, and graded as Class 
2. The standard excellence is 50 points. Those 
entitled to registry shall score 30 to 40 points 
for Class 2, and 40 to 50 points for Class 1. 
Class 1 shall be the pure blood, Class 2 the 

The aim of the 2d Class or grade register is 
based upon the opinion held by many breeders 
that in proper localities, and by proper care, 
our grades are advancing very fast, in produc- 
ing long, fine and lustrous mohair, and that un- 
der continuous good management the time will 
soon be that there will be no visible difference 
in the mohair product of pure bloods and grades. 

For the benefit of grade-breeders who have 
the faith and the energy to advance their stock, 
the registry of Class 2 provides the system by 
which tlieir labors can be fully tested aud 
proven, and the cause of the industry be 
helned along. 

No one can deny that the breeding of any 
stock to registered males gives better satisfac- 
tion than to breed to those not registered, be- 
cause certain points of excellence in the young 
can be estab'ished only by the upe of selected 
males having those points of excellence bred 
into them, and a warranty for excellence can 
only be based upon a record and a registry. 
For the best of the industry, this question of 
registry should be discussed at the next annual 
meeting of the California Angora Goat-Breed- 
ers' Association on the last Thursday of the 
State Fair at Sacramento, and it will be of im 
portance that the members all attend. All 
other bree.ders are hereby invited to join us, 
and be with us at Sacramento, hoping that the 
plans determined upon will be for the benefit 
of all concerned and the State at large. 

JuLiu.s Weyand, 
Sec. Angor« Go»t Br^iederb' Association. 

Colusa, June 25, 1887. 

It has hitherto been supposed that the high- 
est mountain in the world wa" Mnint Everest, 
one of the Himalayan range, 29,000 feet high; 
but this honor is now claimed for Mount H-^rcu- 
les in New Guinea, which soars to the tremen 
douR altitude of .32,786 feet, or five times that 
■of Mount Washington in New Hampshire. 

II[hE "V'lJ^EYAf^D. 

Herbaceous Grafting. 

The following circular of instructions to the 
inspectors and officers of the Board of State 
Viticultural Commissioners has just been 
issued : 

Herbaceovis grafting, as applied to the vine. 

Fig. 1. 

opened a new and short way to the establish- 
ment of resistant vineyards, as well as afford- 
ing improved facilities for changing objection- 
able varieties to others of better quality. 

The many novel methods of grafting the vine 
which have been proposed of late years, and 
their common failure in practice, have led me 
to believe that such announcements as that of 
our esteemed contemporary, Hermann Goethe, 
must undergo a certain practical test in the 
vineyards of this State before being generally 
accepted as fully adapted to our climate. 

Firi. 2. 

Fi.j. 3. 


consists in grafting on the growing wood in 
midsummer. It is a method which ha<i been 
known for 50 years past in Central and Eistern 
Europe, and has recently become common in 
the region of Hungary. So valuable has the 
method here described been found, that during 
the past year Von Hermann Goethe, director 
of the Royal School of Viticulture at Marburg, 
has issued a work largely devoted -to the sub- 
ject. Other and more common systems are 
treated by Professor Goethe, but preference is 
given to the above-named method in that it has 

Before, therefore, proceeding to announce to 
our vine-growers the value of herbaceous graft- 
ing, I have thought proper to ask our inspect- 
ors and others working with us to this year 
make a test of the method described in the fol- 
lowing — so far, at least, as the lateness of the 
season may permit — and transmit to this board 
the results of their experiments, that another 
season may find us able to adopt or discard the 
system altogether. 

The many advantages obtained from its use, 
if successful, will become evident to our vine- 

growers as they proceed; advantages which, if 
the method prove successful in California, our 
vineyardists cannot afford to be long without. 

Believing that the method must depend to a 
large extent on the care and accuracy with 
which such delicate work is executed, I have 
illustrated fully the operation in Figs. 1, 2 
and 3; these, if followed closely with a care- 
ful study of the following text, will, according 
to our friend Hermann Goethe, lead to success. 

The period chosen for performing the opera- 
tions is of thegreatest importance. Themostpro- 
pitious epoch found in Hungary ends about the 
middle of July. As our vines put forth earlier 
and are now further advanced, it may be plain- 
ly seen that there is no time to lose. The in- 
formation here reprodoced came to me so late 
that instructions could not be issued sooner. 
In consideration of this fact it is to be hoped 
that the experiments will be performed imme- 
diately and that our experimenters may be par- 
ticularly careful to use only delicate and rap- 
idly growing shoots for both scion and subject. 
(The term " subject" is applied to the cane into 
which the scion is inserted.) 

Experiments in this work have already been 
begun by me with fair indications of success, 
but it is still too early to judge their value. 

To operate, choose that period in the growth 
of the vine when the shoots show daily advance- 
ment, selecting the most vigorous canes for the 
purpose. The union should be made at a point 
on the green shoot, so near to the growing end 
as to exhibit no white pith when cut. In fact, 
that part of the cane in which the pith is 
scarcely distinguishable from the wood and 
bark is the surest to unite with the scion. It 
must, however, be strong enough when wound 
to maintain the scion well in position. 

Fig. 2 exhibits the graft when complete — 
natural size. Fig. 1 shows the parts enlarged. 
The last of June has been generally selected 
for the work, although some work performed 
the 1st of .Tuly has shown a loss of only two 
per cent. When late spring frosts prevail a 
later period is chosen, as the rapid growth then 
comes later. This graft cannot be made to suc- 
ceed on canes attaining a woody appearance, 
but both scion and subject must be elastic and 
yet not too soft. 

The bud on the scion at 6, Fig. 1, must be 
examined and found good, and in selecting the 
scion it is generally safe to choose that bud at 
the base of the first well-opened leaf found on 
the growing cane. Lower and more woody 
scions will not answer. Laterals which show 
slow growth will not answer for the subject, but 
may be selected if still growing vigorously. The 
original canes proceeding direct from old spurs 
are most commonly selected for the subjects, 
particularly those which show a bright, sappy 

Warm growing weather favors much herba- 
ceous grafting. A cold wind is harmful in 
checking growth, likewise a dry hot wind, and 
it is well in hot weather to suspend operations 
during a few hours in the middle of the day. 

Do not graft vines showing a sickly appear- 

The preparation of the scion is clearly shown 
in the cuts, only be careful to preserve the 
scions fresh. If necessary to keep them some 
time, place them in water, thoroughly shaking 
off the water at time of grafting. Let the cut 
of the lower end of the scion (a, Fig. 1) be made 
through the bud that the point of the wedge 
may possess the enlargement necessary to fit 
the base of the cut in the subject as shown at c. 
The knife in entering the subject should split it 
just through the middle and descend half-way 
through the center of the enlarged part c, Fig. 
1. Let the s'ze of the scion be near that of the 
subject, never larger. The leaf joining the bud 
of the scion at h. Fig. 1, should be cut off, leav- 
ing the stem as shown in the cut. 

In inserting the scion, see that the bark of the 
two parts come smoothly at the points and that 
the tender bark is not broken or slipped. A 
safe precaution is to spread apart the subject 
when pushing home the scion. 

To tie the graft, use a cotton string; begin to 
wind at the top, and, by drawing it close and 
tight at the bottom near the bud, you will pre- 
vent the scions being forced from place. 

This dene, six or eight days will determine 
the measure of your success. By this time the 
scion bud should have begun to grow, follow- 
ing which all suckers and laterals drawing from 
the cane on which the graft is placed should be 
carefully removed, and this latter operation re- 
peated as often as may be required to force all 
growth to the new part. 

The success of the graft is early indicated by 
the falling off the leaf-stem which was allowed 
to remain on the scion. As the union grows 
the string must be loosened. The short time 
necessary to determine the success of this 
method gives ample opportunity to repeat the 
operation several times during the season, if 
success does not attend the first efforts. 

Grafts made on growing canes of riparia 
vines two years old have shown good resultf, 
though older vines are equally good. Fig. 3 
shows an old riparia vine grafted on its growing 
parts at a, thus prcduciog resistant grafted cut- 
tings well united above to a better variety, 
which may be planted in the new vineyard the 
following spring or layered and rooted as shown 
by the dotted line. 

Many other advantages growing out of this 
method will be explained later if we can deter- 
mine the success promised by Prof. Goethe. 
In the meantime we call upon you to experi- 
ment carefully and forward your results as 
early as Dossible. John H. Whef.ler, 
Chief Executive Viticultural Officer. 



[July 9, 1887 


Correspondence on Orange principles and worl< and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Gran^^B are respect- 
ully solicited for this department. 

la and About Sacramento. 

Editors Press : — A visitor passing through 
our city caa always find some general improve- 
ments to note. A stroll from Front street up 
the R-street railroad to the outer limits of the 
city shows the boom has advanced. 

Passing up on the south side of the levee, we 
notice extensive vegetable gardens, run by 
Portuguese mainly, which supply the wholesale 
merchants at various points eastward, and ship 
direct to Eistern firms, especially potatoes. 
The soil is a dark, rich loam, which is kept 
composted with material drawn daily from the 
city, and irrigated by steam-power. 

Along the eastern side, within the limits, 
property has gone np and nice cottages of latest 
style and suitable for family use are being 
erected, gardens and green plats surrounding. 

At Twentieth street is the old Richmond 
park, fitted up for pleasure-parties and recre- 
ation. At Twenty-second street Mr. M. S. 
Nevis' new winery ia drawing to completion 
upon the ground where the former was de- 
stroyed by fire some years ago. The build- 
ing is of brick, large and cDmmodious, with a 
number of wings, and well ventilat<>d. His 
present winery, on Twentieth, P and Q streets, 
also of brick, is full of last year's wine, and not 
sufficiently roomy for his business. Sales are 
good here and Eist. 

At Twenty-eighth street there is being 
erected, on the block known as Snow-Flake 
park, a large stand for the use of the Sacra- 
mento base-ball club. This widespread national 
craze will have its run among the yuonger class of 
humanity similar to the skating-rink; then 
something new will be developed and run its 

Sunday was a general christening of the park. 
Trains came in from different points, making 
the day appear like some les^al holiday, rather 
than the quiet sabbath of New Eogland times. 
It draws from the church, Sunday schools and 
Y. M. C. A. with corrupting influences. The 
wine and beercup is passed from hand to hand, 
and profane language uttered in the busy com- 
petition with opponents, bringing shame on the 
heads of families who allow their sons to be 
drawn into the paths of sin and vice in this 
Christian and enlightened land. 

Abave Thirty-first near Gatheries street ia 
Kohler & Van Bergen's winery, also a building 
erected especially for the making of concentrated 
grape must. They use grapes from the Natoma 
vineyard at Folsom and other points. 

On the line of rail above the Homestead is 
the new fine edifice of Robert Williamson, of the 
firm of Strong & Williamson. At present that 
gentleman is at the Sauth enjoying recreation as 
well as pursuing businesd in his line. The firm at 
this point has a fine orchard and nursery inter- 
spersed with email fruits. 

He irrigates by steam-power, running four 
pumps in reservoir, whence water is carried by 
pipes underground to various points. He culti- 
vates after irrigating, keeping the ground loose 
and free from weeds. 

Rsal estate from here to Brighton will be cut 
up into small parcels, and, under the manage- 
ment of the Sacramento Improvement Associa- 
tion, sold for country homes, whence business 
men may take the local train daily for their 
business center. 

Along the line from Brighton to Folsom, fine 
orchards and grain lands lie on both sides. 
Among the fruitiots are Dr. W. S. Manlove, 
R. D. Stevens, Lubin, Russell, Routier, and 
many others whose orchards, grown without 
irrigation, lie along the American river. 

Then comes the large Natoma vineyard in 
the vicinity of Folsom. Throughout this re- 
gion way stations are built for the accommoda- 
tion of fruit-shippers and wayside passengers. 
The morning and evening local trains — a new 
feature — are very acceptable to the traveling 

Farmers coming in at the Grange quarters 
are feeling in better spirits since their grain has 
been thrashed and hay baled. The grain yields 
far better than at first expected, and at some 
points where the laud is heavier and holds 
moisture the kernels are nut so shrunken. The 
millers had previously engaged the crop in the 
field at a certain price, and may get cinched at 
present rates. Some think it will be better to 
hold on to the grain till fall, when better 
prices may rule the market. 

As a larger acreage than usual was sown to 
grain, the hay crop will be short, and the de- 
mand and price are advancing, and all the hay 
brought into market is quickly taKen up. The 
alfalfa stands are reported good and command 
a good price. Those who raise stock, pasture 
from it, and ua the animals become marketable, 
they are brought in and sold. Some tire pas- 
tures are found along the Cosumnes river, fol- 
lowing up the stream within the foothills; and 
owners are making money in the sale of stock. 

When the farmers, fruit and stock-raisers do 
well, the merchant, mechanic and tradesman 
-"ceive the benefit, and encouragement is felt 
. all branches, for their success lies in the 
hands of the producer. 

Grange teachers have brought the tillers to a 

higher standard than in former years, and they 
have become more advanced in the line of 
trade and business tact. 

I learn from the Grange house that the trade 
for the past month is good. June trade is apt 
to be slack, as farmers generally are busy secur- 
ing their crops, and but few come into the city. 
Other houses no doubt felt the pressure, but 
shipping orders in the interior of the State, 
Nevada and Utah are kept up as usual. 

The grape outlook from various points is fair. 
Vineyards lying along the river-borders, with 
deep, loamy soils, are not so much hurt as on the 
red lands of the plains. The second crop of 
the Muscat is forming well and may make up 
to some extent for the first. On the plains 
some are taking the precaution of capping their 
vines with cloth or sacks, the cost of which 
will be well repaid in saving the crop from the 
heat, which may come in spells during this 
month and next. Where the vines grow long 
it is well to curl them round the sunny side, 
making a protection. Some trim early, then 
the side branches and leaves grow out, forming 
a closer shade. Still, if not well protected, 
better cap them. 

The hop crop is advancing. Early in the 
season growers complained of the cold snap; 
but since the weather has become more genial 
the prospect is good, both as to quality and 

The managers of the State Agricultural Ss- 
ciety are moving in all directions to make the 
approaching fair a success. Supervisors of the 
various counties are interviewed to get their 
aid, and all classes who feel the importance of 
supporting so good a cause, and showing up the 
products of the land, will come prepared to fill 
up the space set aside for them. 

Our county has a committee of three from 
the Grange to work up the interest of Pomona's 
department. Aid them, all who can. Do it to 
the extent of your ability, in what you have. 

The upper Stockton road took the initiative 
last year in sprinkling, and the lower Stockton 
has taken steps of late to go and do likewise. 
All who market fruit find it a great improve- 
ment over its former state, and fruiterers resid- 
ing at Florin come forward and help to cover 
the expenses. Both roads will find a great 
benefit from the outlay. Sacramento county 
should not be behind in having good roads. 

Let the boom extend throughout the State, 
taking in all points that will build up, and in- 
crease our population from the large immigra- 
tion coming, and success will be ours ultimately. 

To day patriotism is at a fervent heat. The 
city is gaily dressed and its streets filled with 
America's sons and daughters, and comers from 
all lands, commemorating the sires of '76. 

Sacramento, Cal., July 4tJi. G. T. R. 

Why a Farmer Should be a Patron. 

The American Orange Bulletin has been 
publishing a series of short articles under the 
above title to assist its readers in securing new 
members. Here are some of the reasons ad- 
vanced why a farmer should be a Patron : 

Because if merchants, lawyers, doctors, 
preachers, teachers, workingmen, and all other 
classes, can be benefited through an organization 
in their own interests, so can the farmer. If 
they thus become better posted about their own 
business, so can the. farmer. If they thus are 
better able to protect all their rights and inter- 
ests, so can the farmer. If they can thus se- 
cure legislation in their own behalf, so can the 
farmer. If they can thus receive benefits — edu- 
cational, social and financial — so can the farmer. 
An individual farmer is able, to a certain ex- 
tent, to advance and protect his own interests, 
but " strength united is made stronger." A 
farmer can " paddle his own canoe," but it is a 
slow way of traveling in these days of float- 
iog palaces and ocean steamers. A farmer can, 
with axe, spade and pick, cut his own road 
to market, but united strength builds the 
railroad. A farmer can worship God or edu- 
cate his children in fiis own house, but united 
strength builds the church and schoolhouse. A 
farmer can, like the barons of old, protect his 
own -castle from those who would pillage and 
destroy, but united strength raises the strong 
arm of the law in his defense. Everything of 
any importance, every great undertaking, in 
these days, is accomplished through united 
strength. Let the farmer, then, who in num- 
bers exceed all other classes combined, adopt 
this long-tried and proven plan; let him no 
longer fight his battles single-handed and alone; 
let him unite hin strenqtk with his neighbors', 
and they with the other farmers of the county, 
then with those of the State and Nation; and 
this great class, that feeds and sustains all other 
classes and callings, will not only protect and 
advance its own interests, but build up all 
others, even the Nation itself; for all history 
teaches that just in the proportion that agri- 
culture is protected or depressed does the Na- 
tion advance or decline. 

Yuba City Granoe was sued some time ago, 
by Milton McWhorter of the Marysville Dem- 
ocrat, for an alleged libel contained in a resolu- 
tion adopted by the Grange. The case was re- 
cently dismissed, and costs assessed to plaintiff, 
and on the 30'h ult. the Grange levied an at- 
tachment for $125, the amount of costs, and a 
creditor also attached for the amount of a 
judgment, S300. A mortgage for SITOO was 
also unsatisfied, and the paper has suspended 

The Order in New England. 

The Worthy Lecturer of the National Grange 
makes a mission leaflet out of the following ex 
tract from " one of the largest city papers 
out West." It shows how the Grange has won 
respect and appreciation all over the country : 

The New England farmers are undoubtedly 
the most enterprising and energetic of the 
Granger fraternity on this continent, comparing 
well in progressive spirit aud action with their 
ingenious brethren in other respects. They 
cultivate the least productive natural soils, 
combat with the most rigorous climate, and yet 
by dint of industry and skill their labors an- 
nually produce the most liberal returns. The 
science of farming is well respected and follow- 
ed in " Yankee Land " from Nova Scotia to 
New York. Agricultural societies and insti- 
tutes and Granges are well distributed and gen- 
erously supported. The local press of Maine, 
Massachusetts and other New England States 
bears evidence of the earnest zeal with which 
the farmer and horticulturist pursue their hon- 
orable calling. They look into the rationale of 
every department of their industry, whether 
they are devoted to vegetable production or 
animal thrift. There are now about 40.000 
members of the Grange organization in the New 
England States alone, and these are earnestly 
devoted to agricultural improvement and not 
merely to factional advancement. More prog- 
ress was made by them in 1886 than during sev- 
eral preceding years. They favor tariff' reform, 
but believe in dividing the " reform " among 
other fraternities as well as the farmers. They 
have 750 reading circles who are studying 
political economy and other kindred subjects, 
and can give a reason for the faith within them. 
They repudiate the theories of Henry George 
about land, and win the rights due to labor by 
manual exertion. In fact. New Englanders 
have demonstrated themselves " the salt of 
the earth" in all that pertains to essential 

Eden Grange. 

The Hay wards Joui nal of last week mentions 
that Eden Grange is rapidly increasing in mem 
bership, and applications to join are pouring in 
from all sides. Saturday, June '25th, the 
fourth degree was conferred on three young 
people — Fred Russell, Amelia Gading and Miss 
Cowing. There were a number of distinguished 
Patrons present from outside Granges, and the 
meeting was one of the largest yet held by this 
Grange. Then followed a feast, and afterward 
the orators had the floor; but the most exciting 
part of the proceedings was a renewal of the 
debate on " Woman Suffrage." 

The benefit concert tendered the Grange in 
Oakea' hall the same evening by Miss Roxy 
Dennis of Mount Eden, assisted by Misa Ellen 
Coursen and others of S. F., was well attended. 
All of the selections rendered were highly en- 
joyed. The audience appeared to be in an ap- 
plauding mood, and every warbler received an 
enthusiastic recall. At the close of the concert 
the floor was cleared and dancing indulged in 
until midnight. 

A Patron' at Home. — The Creston corre- 
spondent of the San Luis Obispo Trihune begins 
to speak of Brother Webster, and then goes off 
about the g. c. as follows: Hon. J. A'. Web- 
ster is here on his sweet home ranch. He has 
laid aside the purple and fine linen and donned 
the rancher's garb of shirt and overalls. He is 
busy at work in his young orchard shortening 
the monstrous growth of limb that the trees 
were developing. He was fearful if they were 
not taken in hand right off, that they would 
attain such a hight by another season th^t he 
would have to send to France for the flying 
balloon, and thereby have a vehicle wherewith 
to gather the fruits. There is no doubt that in 
the course of time, if trees and vines continue 
to make such rapid growth as they are doing in 
this wonderful climate of ours, there will have 
to be a Hue of fruit-packing eetablishmeuts 
built between here and the moon, and a line 
of aerial ships run between the two points, to 
snpply the Moouites with the delicious fruits of 

Preparing for State Grance. — At the last 
meeting of the fruit-growers at Santa Rosa, 
President Whitaker expressed the opinion that 
it was a seasonable time to take into considera- 
tion the State Grange meeting to be held in that 
city in October. He thought it would be 
proper for the association to assist the local 
Grange in malting a display of the products of 
the county. The suggestion was approved by 
the association, and on motion of Mr. Roberts 
a committee, consisting of L. F. Chinn, N. G. 
Finley, A. F. White, E. H. Smith and J. 
Roberts, was appointed to make arrangements 
for the occasion. 

The Grangers about Placerville. the RepuUi- 
can says, are astir to get all the El Dorado peo- 
ple united in making a county exhibit at the 
State Fair this fall. It is proposed to appoint 
committees in different parts of the county to 
secure exhibits and stir up interest. The plan 
will be of general benefit to everybody in the 
county, and there should be no lack of contri- 
butions to aid it. 

Danville Granoe lately conferred the 
fourth degree upon a class of 12, and at last ac- 
counts was preparing to initiate a class of five. 

Grange Work and Progress. 

(Pr«i)ared Weekly by M. WiiiTuiiEiD, National Lecturer.! 

The recent decision of the Supreme Court of 
the United States, pronouncing va'id the fa- 
mous driven-well patent of Nelson W. Green, 
is attracting much attention, and farmers, who 
most of all are interested in the matter, where 
literally, millions to be paid by them are at 
stake, should study the subject, aud then unite 
with their brother farmers in securing the just 
amendments to the patent laws that have been 
asked for by the Grange these many years. It 
is hinted also that these late decisions, which 
reverse those of the lower courts, have not 
been fairly obtained. One good authority says: 
" It is to be feared that these decisions have 
been made without full knowledge by the 
court of the facts in the case, and that in the 
case upon which the decision was rendered, the 
opponents of the driven-well patent either 
neglected, or were not permitted to present 
the full evidence which exists." 

Again this cbaree is made and should be 
thought about: "The Supreme Court decision 
which has just been rendered suggests the pos- 
sibility of a prearranged case, from the fact 
that W. D. Andrews, a respondent in the case 
under which the decision was rendered — Harris 
Eames vs. VV. D. Andrews et al. — was the com- 
plainant with Col. Green in the case decided 
adversely to the validity of the patent in 188,3 
by Judge Shiras of the United States Circuit 
Court in Iowa. The full testimony in this 
latter case — Aodrews et al. vs. George Hovey 
— constitutes the evidence upon which farmers 
and other users of driven wells must rely for 
protection against the exactions of agents of the 
Green combination. The practice of making 
arrangements for half-way defenses in cases of 
alleged infringement, which operated with such 
notable results in favor of the Bell Telephone 
Co. in its manifold litigations, has not been 
lost sight of by the driven-well patentees. In 
numerous instances, and largely throuph a 
United States Judge in Southern New York, 
they have secured favorable decisions upon 
evidence that must be regarded as evasive and 
incomplete. Coming thus fortified before the 
Supreme Court, the way to a driven-well 
monopoly has been quickly cleared for these 

"The Iowa case, with its mass of conclusive 
and uncontradicted testimony against the rieht 
of patent in driven wells, and the lucid opinion 
of Judge Shiras, must have been sedulously 
roncealed from the notice of the Supreme Court 
Judges. It is ditfiault to imagioe how other- 
wise a decision could have been rendered which 
gives to a few men power to harass and annoy 
the farmers of those large sections of the 
country where driven wells furnish almost the 
only source of water supply for domestic use." 

Thoughts o.n Organizations. — Farmers are 
^oing into some kind of an organization, and Patrons 
ol Husbandry should make strong efforts \o have 
them organize upon the Immovable foundation of 
the true principles of the Grange, with the righteous, 
laudable purposes of the Order as the end to be ac- 
complished- There are otherorganizations of farm- 
ers besides the Grange; and while we would not 
attempt to detract in the least from tbeir value to 
the agricultural interests of our country, yet we, as 
Patrons, believe that there is none so good as the 
Order to which we belong; and believing thus, we 
should show our faith by our efforts to get those 
farmers, who are ready for organiz.ation, to come 
into the Grange. Farmers are engaged in the same 
ancient, honorable, honest occupation; their in- 
terests are one and the same; their enemies are 
united, cunning, strong and common; then it is 
plainly evident that farmers should guard their in- 
terests by organizing into one compact body, and 
concentrate their efforts to accomplish the same 
grand purpose. There is no need of or room for 
division, even in name. — Koan^ike Fatron. 

FoK awakening thought and arousing the farmers 
to action upon the great questions of the day — those 
which never could have been reached in any other 
way — the Grange has made additional proof of the 
idea that our education is by no means entirely a 
product of organized schools, or employed teachers 
and printed books. While they occupy a very im- 
portant part, they are not all that act on our powers 
to develop them. " Life is one grand school, and 
its every circumstance a teacher." The Grange, 
with its beautiful and practical lessons, has power 
to raise men and women from the humblest walks 
of life to positions of influence and power. — A. J, 
Rose, Miisler Texas State Grange. 

M.\NY pass through life without a'consciousness"of 
where there are, and what they are doing. They 
gaze on whatever lies directly before them, " in fond 
amusement lost." Human life is a watch-tower. 
It is the clear purpose of God that every one — the 
young especially — should take their stand on this 
lower. Look, listen, learn, wherever you go; wher- 
ever you tarry, something is always transpiring to 
reward your attention. The Grange is a great 
educator, and teaches us to see new beauties in 
nature and to take a broader and belter view of life. 

Suggestion for the Good of the Order. — 
I think that a carefully arranged literary program, 
with a dive rsity of subjects in the course of the year, 
is productive of about as much real good as any- 
thing, as in this way all are encouraged to speak 
and think more upon such things as they are per- 
sonally interested in and receive new ideas from 
each other. — Xellie Hussey, Sandy Stream, Unity, 

Progress. — We have reorganized forty Granges 
this year. 1 think our next State Grange meeting 
in October will be the most interesting and instruct- 
ive ever held in the State. — Ava E. Page, Secretary 
Missouri State Grange. 

County Deputv-Holw ay of Me. writes:"Skow- 
hegan is taking in numbers, two to five each meet- 
ing. .'\thens IS new applications last meeting, and 
more coming. Bingham 13 last meeting and more 
coming. Solon, or North Somerset, is much 

July 9, 1887.] 


strengthened. E^st Madison and St. Albans do- 
ing some good work. I am now trying my luck 
with some of the dormant Granges. I have a peti- 
tion for names at Pittsfield and MaJison Bridge, 
and for a new Grange at Carratunk and Moose 
River. ' 

" Many of the Granges in the State are live, ac- 
tive, workmg Granges, and are advancing the inter- 
ests, elevating the characters of their membership, 
and practicing the precepts of the Order, thereby nc- 
complishing good."— y. D. Clardy, Master Ken- 
tucky State Grange. 

If the souls of Patrons overflowed with tolerance, 
sympathy, charity and brotherly love, there would 
be no dormant Granges in this Union. 

The prospects of the Grange in Indiana are 
brightening and a number of reorganizations are 

" Creekville, North Carolina, is in a very good 
farming section, and since the orgMnization of the 
Grange it has added to the cultivation of both mind 
and soil. If the improvement continues for the 
next seven years as it has in the past seven, o r peo- 
ple will not have to go elsewhere to find a good 
place to live." 

"This is the age when thought is growing, 
Fires of noble purpose glowing, 
Streams of knowledge strongly flowing." 



A Lion in the Way. — Livermore Herald, 
June 30: It has been supposed that the sport 
of hunting California lions had ceased to be one 
of the attractions of Livermore valley. Only 
last Saturday, however, one of these ferocious 
beasts of large size was shot on the Dublin road 
about four miles west of Livermore. Some one 
was driving along near the Devaney place, when 
he saw a large beast in the road in front of him. 
The animal trotted along in front of the wagon 
for half a mile, stopped and lay down beside 
the road. The team also stopped — people didn't 
care to drive by. Finally, Wm. Gal way, with a 
shotgun, started after the lion on horseback. 
The beast started off on a sharp trot, turned 
into the grain, and squatted down. Galway 
rode up to within five paces and gave him both 
barrels. The animal was instantly killed. 

Editors Press : — Most other sections have 
had their boom, and it is about time we were 
having ours. A number of real estate men 
have been visiting this section lately. Their 
report is very favorable. They think our 
county compares favorably with Los Angeles 
and other well-known districts. Several com- 
panies are endeavoring to buy large tracts of 
land in our immediate vicinity. The grain 
crop is good for the year — better than was ex- 
pected. The fruit crop is very good. Our 
town has about 750 inhabitants and is rapidly 
increasing. Since the disastrous tire here last 
July, new brick buildings have taken the place 
of the frame ones that were destroyed, and it 
has now assumed quite a business-like aspect. It 
commands the[major part of the mountain trade. 
The lumber yards of the Madera Flume and 
Trading Co. are connected with their mills in 
the mountains by a flume some 60 miles long. 
The mountain mill averages about 100,000 feet 
a day. A fine Masonic Temple will soon be 
erected. It has been very warm here for the 
last few days, the thermometer marking over 
100° several times. Large fires have been rag- 
ing in the mountains near by, doing some dam- 
age. — Jr., Madera, July 1, 1887 . 

CuTTiNO 'Cots. — Expoiitor, June 29: Some 
idea may be formed of the quantity of apricots 
raised in this section, when it is known that 
one firm alone has employed an average of 75 
hands for the past two weeks simply splitting 
open the fruit and laying it on traye to dry. 
Eich employe cuts from 8 to 12 boxes, of 50 
lbs. each, per day. 


Progress in Antelope Valley. — Rosamond 
Cor. L. A. Herald: Ernest Schrada, from Iowa, 
put in 10 acres of trees, vines, bulbs and garden 
stuff, to B«tiafy himself as to the productiveness 
and adaptability of the soil. He joined J. B. 
Titus, who also put in 10 acres just below him 
on the mesa half a mile east of this station, in 
sinking two wells, 24 feet deep, from which 
they pump by horse-power a three-inch stream 
for domestic and irrigation purposes. As they 
plowed and put in their land since the last rain, 
and were delayed in getting their pumps to 
work, they were fearful their entire plant 
would perish before the water could be got on. 
To their astonishment, however, not eight per 
cent of their plant failed to come up in good 
shape and is now doing handsomely, notwith- 
standing they have not yet irrigated one-fourth of 
the area planted. The figs on Mr. Titus' place 
are as large as an English walnut, while the 
trees are no larger than an ordinary cane. Both 
gentlemen are enthusiastic over their success. 
Their alfalfa has come up in good shape without 
any irrigation. The stand is thin, as is always 
the case the first year, but the stalks are from 
6 to 12 inches in hight, while the tap-root has a 
firm hold. 

Irrigation Scheme. — BakersGeld Cor. Chron- 
icle, July 5: Parties owning about 30 sections 
in what is known as the " weed patch," lying 
east and north of Bikersfield, have just com- 
pleted surveys for canals by which the flood 
waters of Kern river and Walker basin creek 
can be made serviceable for irrigating this large 
body of really line land. Estimates based on 

the surveys just completed show that the work 
will be much less expensive than originally sup- 
posed. There are two or more natural reser- 
voirs, which can be made to hold flood water 
sufficient, and the water is had free of cost from 
Kern canyon. It will be piped high enough to 
cover the foothills between the river and the 
main body of land mentioned, and thence by 
canal. Under Jiate decisions the flood waters of 
a stream are public property, and the proprie- 
tors of the lands have secured their claim to a 
share of the surplus water, and the land can be 
irrigated. The " weed patch " is in the thermal 
belt, and will produce all kinds of citrus fruits. 
The company is backed by Los Angeles capital, 
and proposes to commence work at once. 

Los Angelea. 
Honey Short. — Anaheim Qazette : Herman 
Koster, who has a bee ranch in the canyon 
above the oil wells, reports that the hocey crop 
will be small this year. The wild flowers and 
clover blossoms withered early, owing to the 
heat that has prevailed. 

The O.striches at Washington Garden. — 
Los Angeles Herald : One of the birds was 
plucked yesterday and another will probably 
undergo the ordeal to-day. It will be two 
months, however, before the majority of the 
feathers are in the required stage of fitness, 
and then the proprietors expect to reap a hand- 
some revenue for their enterprise. The aver- 
age gross receipts from each bird is $300 every 
seven months, a'bout 50 large plumes being ob- 
tained from the wings and about 12 ounces of 
body feathers. The incubator, manufactured 
at Petaluma, is in full blast, and in six weeks 
more a brood of chicks is expected. It is kept 
at a uniform temperature of 103 degrees, and 
as each fnllgrown bird is worth about $1000 
there is no doubt that all possible vigilance is 
observed. As a curious fact about the ostrich's 
powers of abstemiousness, it is stated that one 
of the birds, at present on view, went without 
food during six weeks of its transit from 
Africa here. 

The Grain Fields. — Los Angeles Express, 
July 2: J. B. Lankershim of the L. A. Farm- 
ing and Milling Co. says: So far as I know, 
Los Angeles county will do as well this year as 
any in the State, both as regards the quality 
and the quantity of its yield. Samples from 
the San Fernando ranch are very promising, 

but it is a little early to judge of the crop 

J. Loew of the Capitol Milling Co. remarks: 
I should estimate that the barley produced this 
year in Los Angeles county will be about 60 
per cent of last year's crop, and wheat about 
the same ratio. Home consumption is just 
about double what it was a year ago, therefore 
the export will diminish in the same proportion. 
The quality of barley and wheat will be much 
better this year, both as regards weight and 
color; consequently better prices may be ex- 


NoMADio Nuisances. — Adin Argus: Migra- 
tory stock is becoming a great annoyance to 
our stockmen and in fact to all the farmers of 
our county. It is an outrage to have the cat- 
tle, sheep, etc., of other counties teed on the 
ranges of our county and rob our taxpayers of 
the ranges they are beginning to greatly need. 
But how are we to get redress? Since the late 
decision of the Supreme Court it seems that all 
counties which have imposed migratory stock 
licenses did so illegally, and now we can feed 
foreign stock free of charge, save the owners 
the tax on their stock, and suffer the damages 
thus occurring without the interference of a 
migratory stock license. 

Sagebrush Rye. — Elias Fletcher, who owns 
a sagebrush ranch a few miles north of Alturas, 
brought to the Independent office, Saturday, 
some samples of rye, merely to show what can 
be done without irrigation. There were two 
stools of the grain, one of which contained 45 
and the other 32 stalks — 87 stalks from two 
kernels of grain. The rye was about four feet 
high and well headed. Mr. Fletcher sowed his 
grain last fall, and it has never had a drop of 
water except that which fell on it from the 

Alfalfa. — Ga,\t Oazelte: John Bindeen, five 
miles east of Gait, has a 20 acre field, border- 
ing on Dry creek, seeded to alfalfa. The past 
year he has kept 200 head of hogs, 11 head of 
cattle and 5 horses on the product of this field 
alone. As proof that his stock has thriven, he 
takes pride in showing a fine two-year-old filly 
that weighs 1325 pounds. Alfalfa is a profit- 
able crop, and can be raised in this section 
without irrigation. 

San Bernardino. 
Apricots. — Riverside Press, July 2: Dr. J. 
Jarvis has commenced harvesting his apricot 
crop, which will amount to 150 or 200 tons, 
from about 40 acres of orchard. The doctor 
will have about 30 tons of dried apricots, which, 
at 20 cents per pound, will give an income of 
$12,000— or $.300 per acre, from which the cost 
of drying must of course be deducted. The 
doctor is taking out his Moorpark trees, as they 
do not bear satisfactory crops. 

Orange and Raisin Shipments. — Riverside 
Cor. Los Angeles Times, June 29 : The orange 
shipments for the season of 1887 are ended, 
and aggregate 376 carloads. The raisin ship- 
ments of the year ending .June 1st will amount 
to 175 carloads, making the total of these two 
productions shipped from Riverside 551 car- 
loads. Prices have ranged exceptionally high, 
and the total receipts are very satisfactory, 
notwithstanding the orange crop was not much 

over two-thirds of what was anticipated early 
in the fall. 

Lively Times at the Cannery. — Semi- 
Tropic, June 30: Fruit continues to pour into 
the Colton cannery. This morning there was 
a large addition to the working force of the es- 
tablishment. But fruit is coming in so rapidly 
and in such quantities that more help is wanted 
to care for it. It must be handled at once. 
The proprietors of the canneries are, therefore, 
anxio'js to have all who are in need of employ- 
ment come to the factory to-morrow morning 
prepared for work. 

San Joaquin. 
New Wheat. — Independent, July 3 : New 
wheat is coming into the Stockton market in 
large quantities and of varying quality. Much 
of the new crop appears to be shrunken, which 
will make it No. 2 quality. The New Hope 
grain, however, is above the standard and some 
of it averages 62 pounds per bushel, but the 
general county average is said to be about 58 
pounds. Smith & Wright bought a few weeks 
aoo from Powell, Jordan & Hurd 700 tons of 
New Hope wheat, to be delivered as harvested. 
Yesterday 2000 bags of this crop were ship- 
ped from New Hope landing to S. F., and it is 
expected that the wheat will attract consider- 
able attention at the bay, as it is large, plump 
and far better than average No. I grain. It is 
said to be a fair sample ot the crop of the 
" Pocket." 

Santa Barbara. 
Mustard. — Lompoc Record, June 25: Mus- 
tard thrashing has begun on the Jonato rancho. 
There will be thrashed between 1500 and 2000 
sacks from the present crop. The yield is esti- 
mated to be about eight sacks per acre. Mus- 
tard yields much better nearer the coast in the 
region of the fog belt. 


They Meant Business. — Cor. Redding Free 
Press: A few miles from where I write, some 
.30 months ago a new settler with a family of 
six and a couple of jaded nags, arrived and 
pitched his camp on a piece of as rough-looking, 
bushy red-land as could be found in the whole 
region. He simply knew it was vacant — vacant 
because nobody would have it. Strangers in a 
strange land, with no friend to counsel or aid 
them, they paid freight at the depot on a little 
miserable dunnage, hauled it out to their spot 
in the wilderness, and had just 60 cents left 
and nothing coming. What now ? The saw 
came out of the wagon first, next the ax, and 
a load of wood is cut and hauled to town, and 
means raised to buy flour. Soon the brush 
came up, the trees fell, a field was inclosed, a 
cabin and barn, rude but serviceable, appear, 
and on that spot there is a handsome orchard 
of 25 acres, cleared and inclosed, two years old, 
beginning to bear fruit, and in two years more 
it will yield the family a handsome support. 

Good Barley. — Suisun Bcpublican, Ju]y I: 
The most prolitic crop of barley we have heard 
of was grown upon the Hidden ranch by A. L. 
Reed. There were 100 acres in the field which 
averaged 26 sacks, and Hale & Danielson say 
it is the finest and heaviest barley they ever 

Alfalfa Pastures. — Modesto Herald, June 
30: J. H. Carpenter, a well known stock- 
raiser on the San Joaquin river, informs us that 
he has been compelled to remove 150 head of 
cattle to the alfalfa fields on the west side of 
the river, where the supply of feed is equal to 
all demands. Mr. Carpenter owns on the east 
bank of the San Joaquin river about 2500 acres 
of pasture land, the average quality of which 
is probably as good as any in the county in a 
state of nature. On this land, he informs us, 
he makes an allowance of six acres of pasture 
to each head of kine; but this year, owing to 
drought, that allowance is not sufficient, hence 
the necessity of removing a portion of his 
stock. On the irrigated alfalfa fields the al 
lowance for pasture is one-fourth of an acre to 
each head of kine, or four head to the acre. 
Therefore one acre of irrigated land planted to 
alfalfa will furnish as much pasturage as 24 
acres in natural grasses without irrigation. 

The Cannery. — Farmer, July 1 : Tuesday 
morning we made a call on this splendid Sutter 
county institution. We cannot give a detailed 
account of what we saw — the reader should go 
and see, and he will be greeted with one of 
the pleasantest sights he ever beheld. There 
were about 135 operatives at work, chiefly 
women, both young and old, and boys and girls 
of tender age, all busy as bees, and earning $1 
to $1.65 a day. The cannery is running on ap- 
ricots and has more than it can do; but this 
fruit will soon disappear, then peaches and 
other fruit will receive attention. The com- 
plete success attending this venture has stimu- 
lated the production of choice fruits and been 
the means of starting any number of new or- 
chards; some of these coming into bearing this 
year has already demonstrated the lack of ca- 
pacity of the cannerj- to handle the fruit. If 
the cannery pays expenses, it is to many of the 
operatives a positive blessing, as it utilizes all 
the available labor, teaches the young business 
habits, disburses annually several thousand dol- 
lars to our own people, and last, but not least, 
furnishes a ready market for our fruit. We 
say, enlarge the cannery. 

Combined Harvesters. — There are now 18 
combined harvesters in operation in Sutter 
county. The Shippee — Berg Bros., A. H. 
Wilbur, S. H. Graves, J. E. Plaskett, Eli 

Davis, W. H. Parks, I. N. Brock and C. A. 
Glidden. The Houser — Hedger & Sons, Mar- 
cuse Bros., W. T. Wilson. The Best— B. F. 
Walton, H. Walton, Jr., and Suel Harris, 
The Myer— W. T. Bevin. The Holt— Stafford 
Bros. All are working well and giving satisfac- 
tion, and cut, thrash and sack about 25 acres 
daily upon an average. 


Orange Orchards. — Record- Union, July 4: 
G. W. Hancock, who has just returned from 
the upper Sacramento valley, says that the re- 
sults of planting citrus trees during the last year 
or two are most gratifying and successful. At 
General Cadwalader's, Red Bluff, there is a 
grove of 50 or 60 orange trees, set out since the 
first Citrus Fair was held here, and every tree 
has made a strong growth. There are shoots on 
all of them, of the present year's growth, from 
IJ to 3 feet in length, and dark and thrifty 
in appearance. At Joseph Cones', about four 
miles east of Red Bluff in the edge of the foot- 
hills, can be seen about 75 orange trees, some of 
which are seven or eight years old, and are now 
loaded with young fruit. The trees look very 


Jack-Rabbits. — Visalia Timen, June .30: R. 
T. Priest, a large farmer near Pixley, estimates 
that jack-rabbits are now destroying 1000 
pounds of wheat per day for him. He keeps 
several greyhounds that kill from 20 to 50 
rabbits per day, yet he sees no decrease in the 
pest. .. .Ranchers living along the Lakeside 
ditch and at the sink of Cross creek are rejoic- 
ing over the fact that an epidemic has broken 
out among the jack-rabbits in that section. 
The disease appears to affect them suddenly, 
when they fall over, make a few struggles and 
die. The banks of Cross creek and the Lake- 
side ditch are lined with thousands of dead 
rabbits. It is hoped the epidemic may spread 
over the entire country, as they are ravenous 
destroyers of grain. 

A Bio Runaway. — Twenty-two horses at- 
tached to the combined harvester of T. W. 
Johnson indulged in a runaway Monday, at 
the ranch of E. D. Maxon. The machine, 
which had been in use on Mr. Maxon's farm, 
was being removed. In crossing the road, just 
after leaving the ranch, the horses became 
frightened, and, being on hard ground, were 
enabled to pull the harvester at a rapid rate. 
The driver was thrown from his seat, but es- 
caped uninjured; two of the animals were run 
over and killed, and five or six more were seri- 
ously injured. The harvester was not damaged 
to any great extent. 


Nice Lemons. — Sutter Farmer, July 1 : 
While we were at the Immigration rooms in 
Marysville the other day, W. G. Murphy 
brought in about two dozen lemons grown in 
his yard near the Episcopal church. They 
were Sicily budded on orange stock, and seed- 
lings, both of extraordinary size and quality and 
very thin rind compared to any lemons we have 
ever seen. Twoot them measured 11 Jxl2^ inches 
and 10x12 in circumference. Mr. M. cut one 
and squeezed the juice by hand into a measured 
druggist's glass, when it measured three and 
one-half ounces — a bulk almost as large as the 
fruit before it was cut — thus proving the thin- 
ness of the rind. Mr. Flint converted the same 
into delicious lemonade, which was tested and 
eulogized by a number of gentlemen present. 
The samples were all large, of a beautiful yel- 
low, and almost transparent in their purity. 
The trees are excellent bearers, and the fruit 
keeps coming and going the year round. 


Egyptian Wheat. —Florence Enterprise: 
There is on exhibition in our sanctum a speci- 
men gathered at random from the field of Mr. 
John Guiliani, a short distance above Florence, 
on the Alamo Amarilla canal. The sample, 
grown from a single seed, has 52 distinct stalks, 
each bearing full heads of grain, while more 
than one-half the number of heads are double 
or triple, the auxiliary heads having sprouted 
from the base of the main head. A few years 
ago Mr. Guiliani found a stray plant of this 
grain growing in his fields, and he carefnlly 
watched its growth and protected it from 
harm. The yield is simply enormous, and the 
grain is heavy and produces good flour. It 
grows to a hight of five feet, with strong straw 
that is not easily broken down by wind or rain. 

Luxuriant Alfalfa.— Mr. Fuller has pre- 
sented the Enterprise with a bunch of alfalfa, 
cut on his ranch above Florence. It measures 
from seven to nine feet in length, and is but a 
sample of the growth in his entire field. Much 
difficulty is experienced in cutting such heavy 
grass, and the mower makes slow progress not- 
wiihstanding the care taken to remove the cut 
grass from its path. 

The Clyman Plum. — Mr. Leonard Coates of 
Napa sends us samples of his new seedling 
plum, the " Clyman." The variety ripens in 
Napa with the Cherry plum. It has the ad- 
vantage of much greater size, though Mr. Coates 
writes that the specimens are below the average, 
as the tree is overloaded. The specimens show 
a roundish plum of about 4g by 4i inches in cir- 
cumference; light red, shading to dark, with oc- 
casional yellowish blotches, the whole covered 
with a delicate violet bloom; flesh, light green- 
ish-yellow; flavor, rather pleasant acid — not 
rich. For so early a fruit its size and general 
appearance bid fair to make it desirable. As a 
new fruit we may have an engraving of it later. 



[Jolt 9, 1887 

"Two Sinners." 

There was a man, it was said one time, 

Who went aslr.iy in his youthful prime. 

Can the brain keep cool and the heart keep quiet 

When the blood is a river that's running riot ? 

And the boys will be boys, the old folks say. 

And a man's the better who's had his day. 

The sinner reformed, and the preacher told 
Of the prodigal son who came back to the fold, 
And the Christian people threw open the door 
With a warmer welcome than ever before. 
Wealth and honor were his to command 
And a spotless woman gave him her hand, 
And the world strewed their pathway with flowers 

Crying, " God bless lady and God bless groom! " 

There was a maiden went .istray. 
In the golden dawn of life's young day. 
tihe had more passion and heart than nead. 
And she followed blindly wh>.'re fond love led, 
And love unchecked is a dangerous guide, 
To wander at will by a fair girl's side. 

The woman repented and turned from her sin, 

But no door opened to let her in ; 

The preacher prayed that slie mis;htpje forgiven, 

But told her to look for mercy in heaven. 

For this is the law of the 

earth, we know, 
That the is scorned, 

while the man may go. 
A brave man wedded her, 

after all. 
But the world said, frown 

ing, " We shall not call. 
—Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 

two by two, while the little girU joined hands and 
marched in and out, in and out, as though they 
were weaving around the sticks of a basket. 
One of the boys was a naughty little stick and 
would not stand where he ought, so he had to 
be taken out till he promised to be a good 
straight stick. 

" Now what flowers shall we put in our bas- 
ket ?" asked the teacher. 

"Roses," "Buttercups," "Heliotrope," they 
said, and twenty voices echoed " Heliotrope," 
because they thought it a hard word and were 
rather proud to think they knew it. 

" Let us have wild flowers this morning," 
said the teacher, as she set a vase of buttercups 
and California poppies in the center of this 
lively little basket and asked them the real 
name of the poppy. 

" Eschsuholtzia 1 " cried some of them, eager 
to show how well they remembered what had 
been told them. I wonder how many country 
children, who have the flower growing in their 
fields, could have told the name. 

After this they had the song and play of the 
" Little Worm " which suddenly turns to a but- 

A little worm is on the ground, 
It creeps, and creeps, and creeps around, 
'Tis spinning now a little nest 
That it m ly find a place to rest. 
Dear little worm, we'll say good-by 
Till you come out a butterfly. 

When the song ends the children who have 
been hiding their heads for the wortn, spring 
up and wave their arms like wingf>, and seem 
to feel for a minute that they are really beauti- 
ful butterflies. 

We did not stop hero to see the little ones com- 
mence their work, but went on to the .Jackson- 

We also visited the kindergarten known as 
Stanford No. .S, which is away out near Twen- 
ty-third and Mission. Here they have quite a 
large yard for out-of-doors play and a small 
flower-garden very well cared for. At this 
school we saw another kind of work, which 
was, molding in clay any figure they were 
capable of forming. Of course, such little tots 
could not do much; they seemed to spend their 
energy making balls like marbles, though a few 
under the teacher's guidance tried to make 
bowls, chairs and dog-houses. The youngest 
child in school, a wee sweet girl, only two and 
a half years old, touched clay for the first tiihe 
that day, and as she was a neat little thing, she 
seemed quite shocked to find it daubed her 
hands. It was laughable to see the haste with 
which she got out her handkerchief to wipe her 
fingers. She had to be encouraged before she 
would touch it again; then nature showed it- 
self she could soon make balls as fast as any of 

I must tell you about some of the games they 
playt^d here. The children sat in a circle ou 
the floor and chose one of their number for the 
baker. So away he trots, puts on his white 
cap and apron, rolls up his sleeves, sets a little 
table in the center of the ring, and lays on it a 
molding-board and rolling-pin. The teacher 
then played the piano and they all sang: 

Here comes the merry baker. 
He makes us good sweet bread; 
He wears a neat white apron, 
A white cap on his head. 
He rolls, he rolls, he rolls, he rolls 
Good pies and cake and bread. 

Here comes the merry baker. 
Good flour does he use; 

The Kindergartens. 

iWritten for the Ki-rai, Prkss 
by L. J. Daki.v.1 

All the children in Cal- 
ifornia will like to hear 
about the kindergartens 
of ,San Francisco. Every 
little boy and girl who 
lives on a big ranch or in 
a little mountain town, 
among the foothills or in 
the broad valleys, will 
like to hear about chil- 
dren who have teachers 
to learn them how to play. 

Just think of it I Do 
you wonder that the little 
city children love to go to 
such a school as that ? 
Quite a long time ago I 
V ent to call on a lady and 
found her little daughter 
on the doorsteps crying 
because she was locked 
out. "I've been to the 
tinderdarten, and our dirl 

has locked me out 'cause mamma's gone. Wis't 
I could stay to the tinderdarten all the time !" 
sobbed the poor little thing as she hid her face 
in her long white bonnet, refusing to be com- 

1 began to wondor what the kindergartens 
were like; and now, boys and girls, I have been 
to see them and will tell you what I saw. 1 
went into a poor part of the city, where the 
streets were narrow and dirty. Such a sad 
place as that would be to play in ! but it was 
all the little children had till the good people 
who started the kindergarten provided two 
large, sunny rooms, way up above the dirty 
street; and here were 50 happy little boys and 
girls learning such nice ways to play games and 
to play work. In one room there were broad 
circles painted on the floor, and the children 
came marching down the center and then upon 
the big outside circle. The piano was played 
and teachers and children sang: 

Let your feet go tramp, tramp, tramp. 

Let your hands go clap, clap, clap, 

Let your finger beckon her; 

My dear Lulu, dance with nie — 

Tra la la, tra la la. 
You would have laughed to see them clap 
their hands or roll them one over the other as 
they marched, each lifting the right foot high 
and bringing it down with a smart tap of the 
litile heels. 1 hey were like a long row of Kate 
Greenaway flgures, but all alive and smi.iag. 
When they bang " My dear Lulu, dance with 
me," one little boy who had stood in the center 
walked up to one who was in the circle and 
they made their little bobbing bows to each 
other and then danced away together. After 
this was repeated a few times, the teacher 
asked what game they would have next. 

"The Blacksmith," called oue sturdy fellow 
who had two grand muscular little arms of his 

"The Bootblack," called another. 
" The Basket," said the girls. 
" The Bastit, the Bistit." echoed the smaller 
ones. So they had the Basket, the boys atandiog 

if they were tight, they pounded on the bottom 
to see if it was firm, tliey shook and thumped 
the staves till one nf them decided it was not 
made well enough to keep meat in, so he would 
not take it. Then the boy who wanted it for 
nails offered 50 cents for it. But the cooper 
said that was not enough; he could not support 
a family if he sold barrels for .^O cents. So 
finally it was sold for SI. 00. They pretended 
to pans the money from one to the other, and 
the barrel was carried away. 

Now is it not a grand thing to have all 
these children trained to methodical habits, 
and taught to make pereiatent effort every 
day in Eume direction? Why, probably some 
of them never had clean clothes or clean 
faces till they came to the kindergarten ; 
but here are little rooms with plenty of 
water, soap and towels, so if any come without 
a wash they will be sure to get it here. They 
are not allowed to use bad language as they 
would do if left to run in the streets, but learn 
to have self-respect, and to feel that all honest 
work is honorable. Don't yon think they will 
be happy in making teal barrels some time, and 
being real blacksmiths ? Or making real bread, 
and sweeping real rooms? 

Bles.nugs on the kindergartens that save dear 
little children from learning wicked ways, and 
teach them truth, charity and loving-kindness 
instead. And blessings on the kind, noble 
women who started them, and all who now 
work for them. 

LL-t other cities do as well as San Francisco 
has done in this respect. And now if any boys 
and girls y>\\a live in country places, and have 
broad fields, or great orchards, or beautiful gar- 
dens to play in, would like to help eome poor 
street child to go to these scho ils, let them 
tell US what they think 
about it in their letters 
to the Rtral Prks;}. 


street Kindergarten. As we came into their 
room we saw a pretty scene like a picture. 
First, there was a row of boys and girls sitting 
in a large circle on the floor. In the center of 
this circle were four little girls with white 
work-aprons on, their sleeves rolled up, and 
cunning white caps ou their heads. They were 
learning to wash clothes. They had boxes for 
wash-benches, and three of the girls had each a 
nice little tub just big enough to wash doll- 
clothes in; but the fourth girl had a cute little 
btove with a tiny wash-boiler on top of it. 

" What do you do to your clothes first ? " 
asked the teacher. " Do you rub them on the 
washboard ? " 

" Yes," said the little one who had the 
clothes and a rubbing board in her tub. And 
then she began to rub them and pretend to 
wring them out, for there was really no water 
in the tnb; they were just learning how 
they must do when they did have water. 
When they were all rubbed clean they took 
them over to the stove and put them into the 

" What do you do after the clothes are boil- 
ed ? " they were asked, 

" We rinse them," said the little girl who 
had the rinsing tub. 

" And then we blue them," added the little 
girl who had the bluing tub. 

" That is right, and now they have boiled 
enough, you may do your part." 

So they made believe to rinse and blue them, 
and then the teacher gave each a little bag of tiny 
clothes-pins and stretched a line for them, and in 
a few minutts they had their dolls' washing all 
hung up. This finished their games, and they 
all marched to their seats to begin their work. 
One class wove red and yellow paper into pret- 
ty and even difflcnlt patterns. Another prick- 
ed leaves and other figures on cardboard, 
coloring them with tinted pencils. Others 
formed squared, angles and triangles of bits of 
painted wood about the size of matches. Still 
another class learned to sew through holes 
pricked in cardboard. 

He rolls it into pies and cakes. 
Whichever you may choose. 
He rolls, he rolls, he rolls, he rolls 
Whichever you may choose. 

Every one made the motion of rolling with 
their bands just as the baker did with his roll- 
ing-pin, and when the song was ended the 
teacher asked: 

" What do you choone of all things the baker 
makes ?" 

" Blackberry pie !" said one, and then they 
all said " blackberry pie," like so many little 
mocking-birds. So the baker pretended to 
take a basket and deliver to each child a black- 
berry pie. 

Four little maids then had a game of sweep- 
ing the room with four little brooms while a 
fifth little maid took up the dust with dustpan 
and brush. After Ibis came a little cooper with 
nails in the pocket of his apron and a hammer 
with which he pounded the hoops on his barrel. 
They all seemed to like this and sang with a will: 

Oh, I am a cooper and barrels I make, 
Some wood and some bands of strong iron I take; 
So merry and happy I always am found. 
As with my big hammer I pace all around. 
Kap a tap, rap a lap, rap a tap a toe. 

Oh, I am a cooper and earn my own bresd. 
And by my hard labor my children are fed; 
.So merry and happy I always am found. 
As with my big hammer I pace all around. 
Kap a tap, rap a lap, rap a tap a toe. 

When the barrel was finished the cooper said 
he wished to sell it btcanse he must have money 
to support his family. 

" How many children have you ?" asked the 

" Five," said the little cooper. 

" Do you want to buy a barrel? "she asked 
of the class. " It is very usefnl; can yon tell 
me what you would put in it?" 

"Meat," said one; " Apples," said another; 
and "Nails," said a third. 

Fonr boys now came to the cooper and exam- 
ined hia barrel. They pulled the hoops to see 

The Wav She Cored 
Him. — "What brings you 
here, Mary ?'' said Trues- 
dell to his wife, as she en- 
tered the liquor-shop. " It 
is very lonesome at home, 
and your business seldom 
allows you to be there," 
replied the meek but res- 
olute wife. " To me there 
is no company like yours, 
and as yuu cannot come to 
me, I must come to you; 
I have a right to share 
your pleasures as well as 
your borrows." "But to 
come to such a place as 
this !" expostulated Tom. 
''No place can be im- 
proper where my husband 
18," said poor Mary. 
" ' Whom God hath join- 
ed together, let not man 
put asunder.' " She took 
up the glass of spirits 
which the bhopkeeper had 
just poured out lor her 
liusband. " Surely you 
are not going to drink 
that?" said Tom in huge 
abtonishment." Why not 
You say that you drink it 
to forget eorrow, and 
surely I have sorrows to 
forget." " Woman, wo- 
man, you are not going to 
give that stuff to the children!" cried Tom, 
as she was passing the glass of liquor to 
them. "Why not? Cin the children have a 
better example than their father's? Is not what 
is good for him good for them also ? It will put 
them to sleep, and they will forget that they 
are cold and hungry. Drink, my children; 
this is fire and bed and food and clothing. 
Drink; yon see how much good it does your 
father." With seeming reluctance Mary suf- 
fered her hubband to lead her home: and that 
night he prayed fervently that God would help 
him to keep a newly-formed but firm resolution. 
His reformation was thnrongh, and Mrs. Trues- 
dell is now one of the happiest of women, and 
remembers with a melancholy pleasure her first 
and last visit to the dramshop. — Selected. 

Used to EARTHQrAKES. — The pressman in 
the Martinez Item office is a man of muscle, 
and when the old Washington is going the 
building quivers like an aspen. A getvtleman 
evidently not accustomed to printing tstablish- 
menta was seated in a neighboring office, the 
other day, just about the time it was usual to 
work off the outdide. His reveries were sud- 
denly disturbed by a low rumble, a quiver of 
the house and a tremendous thump. He sprang 
from his chair and ejaculated: " Jewhilikens !" 
Seeing the attorney, whom he was consulting, 
looking all serene, he got over his nervousness 
and settled down a^ain, onlv to be again 
aroused by a r-r-r-r BUMP! This was more 
than he could endure, and in terrified tones be 
asked: "Have yon so many earthquakes 
around here that you get used to them ?" 

AxciEST EoYPTiAN Ci.oTH.s — The selvages 
of the ancient Egyptian cloths generally were 
formed with the gr. atest care, and were well 
calculated by their strength to protpct the cloth 
from acciJi-ut. Fillets of strong cl'>th or tape 
also secured the emls of the piices from injury, 
showing a knowledge of all the resources uf 
modern manufacturing. 

July 9, 1887.] 

pAciFie i^uraid press. 


What the Geranium Heard. 

iWritten for the Rural Pkkss by Faskie H. Avert. 

'I he flowers were holding a conclave, 

Ocii radiant summer day, 
On a Very weighty subject, 

All liaving much to sjy. 

'Twas on the matter of color — 

Why were vioU ts blue? 
And why should the rose so stalely 

Be of A crimson hue ? 

Why was the lily snowy white, 

I he marguerites so lair ? 
How came the heliotrope's tinting 

So dtlicate and rare? 

Long they debated the question, 

Instancing every flower 
And pondering on its shading — 

Whence came the lovely dower? 

At length a tall geranium 

Said, as it swaged and bowed, 
" Perhaps 1 can tell you something 
To dissipate this cloud. 

" I^ast night our master was walking 
Among us, alter tra. 
With a friend he called ' Professor' — 
Grave, dignified was he. 

"They paused for awhile beside me, 
Convtrsing about light — 
The beautiful, dear sunlight 
We love, so warm and bright. 

" When suddenly the Professor 
Neaily took my breaih away. 
By saying the flowers' colors 
Are due to sunbeam's ray; 

" That our chemical construction 
Makt s each ol us absorb 
Particular parts ol the spectrum 
Of daylight's glowing oib; 

" While that we cannot gather 
Is thrown oack to man's eye. 
And makes us appear possessed of 
One or another dye." 

The geranium paused, unable 

To add a lurther wort. 
Nor could a blossom comment on 

J he story it had heard. 

A hush fell o'er the assembly, 

Each flower was v^-ry siill. 
While from a tree on the roadside 

Rang out a wildbird's trill. 

Anti-Saloon Resolutions. 

The Anti Saloon Republican National Con- 
ference, held in Chicago, September 16, 1886, 
declared as follows: 

1. That the liquor traffic as it exists to-day 
in the United States is the enemy of society, a 
fruitful source of corruption in politics, the ally 
of anarchy, a school of crime, and, with its 
avowed purpose of seeking to corruptly control 
elections and legislation, is a menace to the 
public welfare and deserves the condemnation 
of all good men. 

2. That we declare war against the saloon 
and hold it to be the supreme duty of the Gov- 
ernment to adopt such measures as shall re- 
strict it and control its influence, and at the 
earliest possible momentextioguish it altogether. 

3. That we believe the National Government 
should absolutely prohibit the manufacture and 
sale of intoxicating liquors in the District of 
Columbia and in all the Territories of the 
United States. 

4. That we believe the best practical method 
of dealing with the liquor traffic in the several 
States is to let the people decide whether it 
shall be prohibited by the submission of consti- 
tutional amendments, and until such amend- 
ments are adopted by the passage of local option 

5. That inasmuch as the saloon business 
creates a special burden of taxation upon the 
people to support courts, jails and almshouses, 
therefore a large annual tax should be levied 
upon the saloons so long as they coutinne to 
exist. And that they should be made responsi- 
ble for all public and private injury resulting 
from the traffic. 

6. That the Republican party, wherever and 
whenever power, should faithfully enforce 
whatever ordinances, statutes or constitutional 
amendments may be enacted for the restriction 
or suppression of the liquor traffic. 

7. That we approve of the action of Con- 
gress and of those Stales that have done so, in 
providing for teaching the physiological effects 
of intoxicants in our public schools, and that 
we earnestly recommend to every State Legis- 
lature the enactment of such laws as shall pro- 
vide for the thorough teaching of such effects to 
our children. 

8. That we demand that the Republican 
party shall take a firm and decided stand as the 
friend of the home and the enemy of the saloon, 
in favor of this policy and these measures. We 
pledge ourselves to do our utmost to cause the 
temperance men and friends of humanity — of 
whatever party or name — to join with us in 
securing these objects and in support of the Re- 
publican party, so far as it shall adopt them. 

A leaf of the giant water-lily ( Victoria regia) 
has been known to measure 24 feet 9;^ iuchea in 
circumference, its weight being nearly 14 
pounds. One of the flowers was lonr feet two 
inches in circumference, with petals nine inches 
in length, and weighed 3^ pounds. 

" Silotwot" is a new explosive ten times the 
strength of gunpowder, exploding without 
Bmoke or noise. A Russian invented it. 


flow S'manthy Managed. 

" Yes, Patty, you're going to have them 
hair-ribbons, if there isn't anything else got. 
You deserve 'em, I'm sure." " Bat I'm having 
my new dress, mother, and it seems as if I 
hadn't ought to." " Never mind that. I ain't 
forgot how you worked side by side with Jim 
at the husking. Here's 30 cents I've been 
saving up just for them ribbons." "The last 
you've got?" asked Patty. "No; there's 
15 cents more in case of a letter to be writ- 
ten, or any extra call." "You're real good, 
mother," said Patty, taking the money grate- 
fully. " I'll get dark red, I think. It'll go 
lovely with the green stripes on my dress," 
"Yes." " I'll go and buy 'em this afternoon, 
then I can get back before S'manthy comes to 
loop up my dress. And then they'll both be 
ready for the magic lantern." " Yes." 

And Patty went up the ladder to her little 
half -story room, to put away the three precious 
dimes, feeling richer than ever before in her 
12 years of life. Upon a pine shelf under the 
rafters lay btr nearly finished new dress, a cot- 
ton and wool delaine, brown, with the admired 
green stripe ; and she turned up a corner to 
give it a satisfied pat before hurrying back to 
her work. Nothing quite so grand as this 
dress had ever come to Patty before. It had 
been bought new on purpose for her, not cut 
down from her mother's, and S'manthy Van 
Patten had been hired for half a day to cut and 
fit it, and was coming in again, now that Patty 
had made it, to put some mysterious finishing 
touches to it, for it was cut after a new and 
stylish pattern, a " Polly Nay," S'manthy 
called it. Patty had read of a thing in fashions 
called Dolly Varden, and concluded that 
" Polly Nay " must be some kin to her. 

" I'm to speak a piece at the magic lantern ! " 
said Jim, rushing home from school at dinner- 
time. "Dear me — you Jim?" Patty opened 
her eyes wide at hearmg of such distinction. 
"Yes; and iny neck -tie's all wore out." "Per- 
haps we can rub it up with turpentine," said 
his mother, with a troubled look. " I don't 
believe you can. Last time it was rubbed up 
it rubbed through; and it's all bare and fuzzy 
just under the chin." 

Jim brought the article. It had done duty 
for a long time, and there was no denying its 
shabbiness. " P'raps I'd best not speak a 
piece, then," said Jim, in a discouraged tone. 
" Oh, you mustn't give it up," said Patty, very 
positively. " They want to make it a great 
success, you know, Jim." Patty's loyal little 
heart entertained no doubt of Jim's piece ren- 
dering the magic lantern exhibition a success. 
"No, it's for tne missionaries, and we must do 
all we can," said mother. " If you could hold 
your chin down a little," she suggested, trying 
to pull the neck-bow into better shape. " How 
could I, and speak a piece ? " asked Jim. " No, 
he couldn't," said Patty, shaking her head. 

She knew Jim could not be relied upon for 
anything of l,he kind. She remembered well 
the time she had set a patch in the back of 
his coat which would show in spite of her best 
care. How she had cautioned him when he 
was going to spelling-school, to move a Utile 
sideways when he was chosen, so that the 
patch would not be seen by the audience. And 
now that boy had forgotten every word she had 
said, and had, on every opportunity, turned 
his back, if possible, squarer than ever before. 

" I can't buy you one, my boy," said mother. 
"There's only enough money for Patty's hair 
ribbons, and she needs 'em just as bad." 

In the afternoon Patty set out on her two- 
mile walk over the prairie to the one store in 
the small village. The roadways in the thinly 
settled country were not well tracked, and as the 
mud was deep, she found the walk a rough one. 
But her mind was too full of weightier concerns 
to dwell on the difficulties of the way. It was 
hard on Jim not to be able to have a new tie. 
If she could only get him one ! but of course 
she couldn't. If it was a longer time ahead, 
she might contrive to get hold of a bit of 
money, but it was just now, so he must wear 
the old one. Sbe pulled around a braid of her 
hair. How shabby and faded the old ribbons 
looked I They had been washed time and 
again, and were now fraying into strips. She 
had been looking forward for weeks to this ex- 
hibition, and her new dress was done, and she 
must have those ribbons. She bad told all the 
girls about them. 

Slowly she weut into the store. There was 
no use in asking to look at the roll of ribbon. 
She had examined it more than once, and knew 
exactly its quality and width and its price— 
15 cents a yard. Two yards would make 
two generous ties, good loopi and ends hanging 
well down. "Neck bows? Yes, Patty; some 
high-styled ones, just in. Look a-there now." 

In a small store, containing everything from 
a barrel of salt to a gilt breastpin, the assort- 
ment of neckwear could not be large, but the 
bright satin bows were all Patty could have 
desired. At the last moment she cast a linger- 
ing look at the roll of ribbon; but no ! Jim was 
to speak a piece, while she had nothing to do 
in the exhibition except singing with the other 
scholars. She trudged home, her unselfish 
little heart warm with the thought of Jim's 
surprise, but wondering within herself if 
nothing could be done to render her ribbons 
less shabby in the light of the tallow candlea 

with brass reflectors, which made in the school- 
house the finest illumination she bad ever 

" Yes, here I be a-waitin' for you," was 
S'manthy Van Patten's cheery greeting, as she 
stepped into the house. " S'pose you've got 
your dress done splendid, hey? Such a smart 
little thing as you be." 

The dress was put on, and looped and draped 
with a painstaking which brought a look of 
gravity over S'manthy 's broad, good-humored 
face, rarely seen there. "There, now," she 
exclaimed at length, relaxing, " I call that the 
stylishest ' Polly Nay ' I've cut this season ! 
Got your new ribbons, I s'pose ? " 

" No," said Patty, stopping short in her ef- 
forts to see herself in a looking-glass no larger 
than a dinner-plate, " I got a necktie for Jim 

Mother expostulated, but took down and dis- 
played the old tie. "It is most fearful shabby, 
sure enough," said S'manthy, with a critical 
look, "But, bless me ! the wonders I've done 
a-makin' over old ties! Let me see." In a 
twinkling her nimble scissors tore apart the old 
loops. " My ! " exclaimed Patty, as their 
backs were turned. They were almost as 
bright as if they had been new. 

S'manthy snipped, and folded, and stitched, 
her tongue moving as rapidly as her fingers. 
The loops had to be a trifle shorter, and it 
needed very skillful contriving to bring out the 
brightest streaks in the cross-piece ; but in ten 
minutes she laid before Patty's eyes a tie which 
set her dancing about the room in delight. 
"Jim wouldn't know it from new," S'manthy 
declared, " if you don't let him see the new 
one. Now, Patty, you ao back and change it 
for your ribbons the first thing to-morrow." 

Patty put on her new ribbons before supper 
on the night of the magic lantern show. Jim 
looked admiringly at them, but could not for- 
bear a rueful thought of his old tie. " Let me 
fix your neck, Jim," said Patty. She had ironed 
his collar with special care. " Now look !" 
she said, leading him to the glass. " Hello I 
A new one? Jolly! How did you get it, 
mother ? And why did you get it like the old 
one, anyway ?" In great glee, Patty told the 
story, ending with a hug, wnich Jim energet- 
ically returned. And in a glow of happiness 
they all set out for the exhibition, listening to a 
few gentle suggestions from mother. " Now 
you speak your very best, Jimmy, my boy. 
And, Patty, you be sure and sing up loud. VVe 
that's got so much to be thankful for, 'd ought 
to do all we can for them that has so little," 

Zymotic Diseases. 

The S. F. Bulletin last week contained an in- 
teresting article on the causes of what are 
termed zymotic dis lases, from which we give 
the following extracts : 

In 1876 there was a curious outbreak of 
typhoid fever in the suburbs of Syracuse, N. 
Y. The doctor who had been called on under- 
took to solve the mystery. He first applied 
him-elf to the sewers as the propagating 
medium, but he found that houses which were 
not connected with the sewers had the disease 
just the same as those which were. At last be 
discovered the circumstance that all the houses 
that drew water from a certain well had the 
fever. There was a second well in the district. 
The houses which drew their water there were 
tree from the complaint. Further investigation 
established the fact that the well which was 
now clearly the cause of the outbreak had been 
infected by a neighboring cesspool. 

Dr. Klein, in a recent lecture before the 
Royal Institution of London, stated that the 
"epidemics known as milk scarlatina, milk 
diphtheria, and I may also add milk typhoid, 
have this in common — that almost simultane- 
ously, or at any rate within a short time, in a 
number of houses having no direct communica- 
tion by person or otherwicc with one another, 
there occur, sometimes singly, sometimes in 
batches, as it were, cases of illness — scarlet 
fever, diphtheria, or typhoid fever, as the_case 
may be; and it was this peculiar character 
which pointed to a condition which must have 
been common to all these households. On 
closer examination it was indeed found that all 
these households had this, and only this, in 
common — that they were all supplied with 
milk coming from the same source — that is to 
say, from the same dairyman. Other houses, 
supplied with milk from a different source, es- 
caped; and further, it was shown that as soon 
as the consumption of the suspected milk 
ceased, the epidemic, as such, came to an end, 
except, of course, the cases due to secondary 
infection from person to person." 

This statement can be assigned only to the 
position of circumstantial evidence. But Dr. 
Klein, perhaps, advanced to the citadel of the 
secret when he stated that it had been shown 
at a certain farm in England, Hendon by name, 
that " there existed certain cows afl'ected with a 
communicable disease, which on many points of 
its pathology bears a great resemblance to hu- 
man scarlatina; further, that the milk of these 
cows gave scarlet fever to human beings; and 
lastly, that a particular microbe was obtained 
from these cows which in calves produced a 
similar disease to the disease of these cows." 
The lecturer added: " It has been shown that 
in the blood and tissues of persona affected 
with scarlet fever there occurs the same micro- 

coccus as was present in the cow, both being 
identical in microscopical and in cultural char- 

But Dr. Klein is not simply destructive. 
Milk is a general article of food — in some cases 
of necessary food. If there are such dangers 
attending its use, there would be a disposition 
to abandon io altogether. There is, he says, 
fortunately, a simple remedy in case of suspicion 
— that is to say, scalding. Dr. Klein says: 
" I have found that heating milk to 85° C. or 
185° Fahrenheit, that is coubiderably under the 
boiling point, is perfectly sufficient to com- 
pletely destroy the vitality of the microbe of 
scarlet fever." The case cannot be said to be 
absolutely made out. But it is not very far from 
it. It stands upon infinitely higher grounds 
than the interested speculations that are so 
common. Bad sanitation is something to be 
avoided. The old belief ascribed stagnant 
pools and foul places to malignant spirits. We 
translate them in modern language into various 
diseases. There ought to be cleanliness inside 
and outside in all communities. 

DojviESTie QeofJojviY. 

Potato Balls With Crkam Sauce. — Pare 
any uumbor of potatoes, and out balls from 
them with a vegetable scoop. From a dozen 
potatoes you should get about 60 balls. Cover 
them with boiling water, and cook 12 minutes 
without salt. Pour off the water; add to the 
potatoes one pint of boiling milk, into which 
stir two tablespoonfuls of butter, mixed with 
one level teaspoonful of salt, one-third of a tea- 
spoonful of pepper, and, if liked, a teaspoonful 
of chopped parsley. Use white pepper alto- 
gether. This sauce is fur a quart of balls. 

Black Spice Cake.— The yolks of four eggs; 
mix 2^ teaspoonfuU of baking powder in 2^ 
cups 01 flour, one cup of brown sugar, one half 
cup of syrup, one-half cup of milk, one-half cup 
of butter — the butter must be melted after be- 
ing measured and stirred with the sifgar — 2J 
teaspoonfuls of powdered cloves, one teaspoon- 
ful of cinnamon, the same of allspice; the 
spices must be put in the flour, the syrup added 
after the sugar and butter are stirred together, 
then the eggs and milk; lastly, the flour. 

Strawberry Fritters. — Beat two eggs 
well (the whitts ana yoiks bcparattly), then add 
to them a teacupful of cream and a pinch of 
salt, stirring in enough flour to make a thick 
batter. Now beat the mixture well, and when 
thoroughly smooth throw in a pint of straw- 
berries. Have plenty of boiling hot fat in the 
frying pan and fry the same as ordinary frit- 
ters. When done to a golden brown color take 
them out, drain them and serve on a napkin, 
with sifted sugar strewn over the tops. 

Citron Cake. — Three cups of sugar, one of 
butter, one of sweet milk, four cups of flour, 
one-half teaspoonful of soda and one of cream of 
tartar. Cut up one-half pound of citron fine 
and thin and the whites of ten eggs. Cream 
ihe butter and sugar; sift the flour and add 
gradually, then the citron. Beat the eggs un- 
til stifi' and add last; sift the cream of tartar in 
the fluur and dissolve tiie soda in a little tepid 
water. Beat all thoroughly before stirring in 
the eggs. 

Kidneys Saute.— Cut three kidneys each 
into five piecet; put an ounce of butter into the 
saute pan (frying pan); when very hot put in 
the kidneys, stir round for a few minutes with 
a spoon till they are set. Add a teaspoonful 
of flour, a quarter of one of salt and the third 
part of that of pepper. Mix well; add half a 
gill of broth and a few mushrooms. Do not 
let them boil. A f«w minutes is enough to do 

Baked Pie Plant. — Cut two pounds of pie- 
plant into a pudding dish, sprinkle over it half 
a cup of sugar and two tablespoonfuls of flour, 
or, what is better, half a cup of rolled bread- 
crumbs. Add water until the plant is two- 
thirds covered. Bake in a quick, warm oven 
.30 or 40 minutes. This method of preparing 
rhubarb or pie plant removes the medicinal 
taste and makes an acceptable spring dish. 

Cheese Cake. — Take two cups of cottage 
cheese, mash well, add three eggs, not beaten, 
one at a time, sugar to taste, one tablespoonful 
of flour, a little nutmeg, a little salt and milk 
enough to make a little thicker than custard. 
Bake with an under crust. When ready for 
the oven, sprinkle cinnamon on top. Make it 
about an inch thick. 

Bread Griddle Cakes. — Soak a small bowl 
of bread over night in milk. In the morniof; 
mix half a cupful of flour, into which is put IJ 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder, with one quart 
of milk, three well-beaten eggs and a little salt. 
Beat up the bread with this baiter until it ia 
very light and fry a delicate brown. The bat- 
ter should be thick. 

Ginger Snaps. — Mix one pound of flour and 
three quarters of a pound of white sugar. Rub 
into it half a pound of butter, two eggs well 
beaten and an ounce of ginger ground fine. 
Beat all well together, roll out the dough to 
the third of an inch thick, cut out the cakes and 
bake them. These are far superior to ordinary 
ginger snaps. 

White Cake.— One cup of milk, two cups of 
sugar, i cup of butter, two eggs, three cups of 
flour, 1^ teaspoonfuls of baking powder and a 
little nutmeg. 



[July 9, 1887 


W. B. EWER. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, 220 Market St., N. E. cor. Front St., S.F. 
or Take the SUvater, Ao. li Front St."^ 

Our Subscription Rates. 

Oi"R SrBSCRiiTioii Rates ire trrbb DOLLtRS a year, in 
advance. While this notice ap(>ear8, all aubsoriberg pay- 
ing $3 in advance will receive 13^ months' (one year and 
six weeks) credit. For $1.50 in advance, aix months and 
three weeks. All agents and clerks are required to 
adhere to these terms. No new names entered on the 
liat without payment in advance. Our premium offer- 
ings are subject to these terms. 

Advertising Rates. 

1 Week. 1 Month. S Months. 1 Tear. 

Per Line (agate) « .'26 $.80 $2.20 $5.00 

Half inch (1 squareX . . 100 S.OO 8.00 24.00 

One inch 2-00 6.00 U.OO 45.00 

huTze advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordiiiar J type, or in particular parts of the paper, 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

DEWET & CO., Patdti SouciToaa. 

A. T. DBWKT. W. B. SWSR. Q. ■. RnONS 

Our latent forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at S. F. Post Office »■ second-daas mail matter. 


Saturday, July 9, 1887. 


EDITORIALS.— The U)ne and Short Haul; The King 
Orange;"A Grand Animal, 21. The Week; A Political 
Scare-Crow; New Vork Auction Sales of California 
Fruit: University Notes, 28. California Seedling 
Cherries; t'oiso- ous Milk, 29. 

ILL.OSTRATIOM8.— Imuortei) Cruickshank Short- 
horn Bull Von Tromp, 21. Hungarian Method of 
Herbaceous Vine Grafting, 23. Scene in a San Fran- 
cisco Kindergarten — ''Weaviiig," 26. Tliree New 
California Seedling Cherries Origmating in Napa 
County, 28. 

COR Kiss FONDBNCE.— Butte County Note'i; A 
Visit to the Chabot Observatorv; Beardless Barley; 
"Simple Truth His Highest Skill," 22- 

THB DAIRY.— Cleanliness in Dairy Utensils, Food 
and Surroundinirs, *^2- 

SHEBP AND WOOL.— Tlie Mohair Industry, 22. 

THE VINEYARD.-Herbaceous Grafting. 23. 

Sacramento; The Order in New F.ngland; Yuba City 
Urangc; Danville Grange; Why a Farmer Should be a 
Patron; Eden Orange; A Patron at Home; Orange 
Work and Progress, 24. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES-From the various 
countie'^ of California, 24. 

THE HOME CIRGLB.— "Two Sinners;" The Kin- 
dergartens; How She Cured Him; U«ed to Rarthtjuakes, 
26. What the Geranium Heard; Anti-Saloon Itesolu- 
tions, 27- 


Managed, 27. 
GOOD HEALTH.— ZN-motic Diseases, 27. 
DOMESTIC EOON'OMY.— Potato Balls with 

Cream Sauce; Black Spice Cake; Strawberry Fritters; 

Citron Cake; Kidneys Saute; Baked Pie Plant; Cheese 

Cake; Bread Griddle Cakea: Ginger Snaps: White 

Cake 27. 

HORTICULTURE.— The Apricot in California; 
State Board of Horticulture, HO. English Gooseber- 
ries, 31. 

THE LUMBERMAN.— Acacia vs. Hickory; Lum- 
ber in Southern California, 31. 
ENTOMOLOGICAL.- Paris Green vs. Arsenic, S3. 

Baslnesa Annonnoements. 

Windmills— Pacific Manufacturing Compiny. 
Pumps— P. C. Lewis, Catskill, Y. 
Diviaend Notice— Hiberna Sanngs & Ix)an Society. 
Heal Estate— E K. Alsip & Co., Sanramento. 
Dividend Notice — German Savings & Loan Society. 
Hopkins Ac»demv— Rev. H. E. Jewett, Oakland. 
Bull Punch— Frank U. Burke. 

tWSet Advertising Colvmnt, 

The Week. 

The Fourth has come and gone, but the city 
is still somewhat dreary over the thoasands 
who are ensconced beside the sea, or stream, or 
spring, or mountain lake, reveling in rural rest 
and pleasure seeking. The community recov- 
ers slowly from a great holiday, especially when 
the day comes as this year, iu such position 
that it drags two others with it into the charms 
of idleness. Practically, the city rested from 
Friday night until Tuesday morning and has 
not yet regained its appetite for trade and 

Rural notes are rather pleasant. The grain 
crops are turning oat rather better than ex- 
pected, in some districts at least. Fruit is 
beginning to arrive in vast quantities, but is in 
the main disappearing from view quite satis- 
factorily. The canneries and drying establish- 
ments are running at their full capacity, and 
nearly all hands large enough to grasp a 
knife are " splitting 'cots " with the utmost 

Preparations for the fairs continue with vig- 
or. The rivalry between the two great insti- 
tutions, the State Agricultural Society and the 
Mechanics' Institute, is leading to extra efforts 
on the pirt of each to draw out counties and 

individuals to do their duty. If effort will do 
anything we shall have two grand displays this 
year. Such opportunities for setting forth the 
resources of the State should not be passed by. 

New York Auction Sales 

of California 

It is with no small satisfaction that we note 
the success of the first sales of California fruit 
at auction in New York City. We have a 
special and general satisfaction. First, becanse 
through the wise and timely effort of Capt. H. 
Weinstock of Sacramento, who went Eist as 
the Honorary Commissioner of the Rural 
PRE.s.s,to study the marketing of California fruits 
in the interest of the growers, we were enabled 
first to proclaim the auction method as the key 
to the situation. Our second and greater satis- 
faction is that the auction method, so far as it 
has been tried, bids fair to vastly widen the 
Eastern outlet for our green fruits and thus 
benefit either directly or indirectly every man 
who has an orchard or vineyard in the State. 

As was announced last week, the first auction 
sale was held in New York on Tuesday, Jane 
28th. The fruit was shipped by the California 
Fruit Union, and the sale was under the auspices 
of Sgobel & Diy, the New York agents, R. 
B. Blowers, the Eastern manager of the Union, 
also being present. It was a carload of assorted 
fruit which left Sacramento by ordinary fruit- 
car attached to the regular overland passenger 
train. The fruit arrived in good order. The 
gross returns of the sale were $1500, of which 
$625 was paid for freight and a small amount 
for commission. The average net amount which 
the fruit brought por pound was 4^ cents — i. e., 
the growers receive 4^ cents per pound for this 
fruit placed on the car at Sacramento. The 
peaches and apricots brought the best price, 
selling for from $2 to $2.50 per crate of 20 
pounds. Pears and plums did not bring so 
much. The cash returns for this sale are now 
on the way to the producers, whereas, under the 
old commission system, they would have had 
to wait a month or more. The members of the 
Union are naturally jubilant and declare that 
the auction plan of marketing is a great success. 

Returns of the second sale, which was held 
in New York on Thursday, Jane 30th, were 
also satisfactory. The new order of things is 
naturally attracting much attention. A tele- 
graphed paragraph from the New York Herald 
of July 1st is as follows : 

Uow is it that fruit is so much finer and so 
much cheaper this summer than last year ? is 
the question which has puzzled New York 
people for some days. Peaches, pears, plums 
and magnificent apricots are found now, even 
on every stand in the streets. ♦ ♦ • xhe 
California Fruit Union has entered into an 
arrangement with Sgobel & Day of New York 
which is likely to revolutionize the fruit trade. 
It will no longer take 15 days to transport the 
fruit, whish will now come direct from Califor- 
nia by fast express trains of 5 or 10 cars, run- 
ning on trucks such as are used under passenger 
cars. The time from California over the Cen- 
tral Facile, Uniou Pacific and Erie railroads 
will be less than seven days. The question of 
distribution has also been satisfactorily solved, 
and all fruit will hereafter be sold at auction — 
just as is the fruit from the Mediterranean and 
from Florida — through Brown & Secomb, at 
Broad and Beaver streets. Two such sales 
have already taken place, one on Tuesday last 
and the other yesterday. Upon the first occa- 
sion the fruit was disposed of at the following 
prices : Boxes pears, $3; half- boxes peaches, 
$2.50; half-boxes plums, $2; half-crates plums, 
$1.50; half crates apricots, $2.10. At yester- 
day's sales plums brought $150 to $1.95 and 
apricots $2.05 to $2.30. 

The results have proved so satisfactory that 
the New York agents ask that fruit be sent 
forward as fast as possible, and cars are beiug 
dispatched as frequently as the fruit is received 
by the Union. The Bee says that up to July 
1st five cars had been sent to the New York 
auction. Of these, four were from Vacaville. 
W. R. Strong k Co. di'tpatched one carload of 
Sacramento-grown fruit — plums, pears and 

It is, of coarse, too soon to pronounce final 
judgment upon the auction plan of selling fruit, 
but it is eminently satisfactory at least to see 
it opening so well and to know that fruit is go- 
ing off so satisfactorily in a market which has 
been cried down and hitherto had fruit doled 
out to it as to a colicky child. The outlook for 
the new order of things is certainly promising. 

Empty. — An empty envelope postmarked 
Azusa has been received. Where is the rest 
of it? 

A Political Scare-Crow. 

Our mind-cure people, whatever may be 
thought of their philosophy of healing, teach us 
some very excellent truths. They tell us that 
fear acts both directly and indirectly upon the 
body, and often is the cause of disease; that 
fear of disease begets disease, and that a fear- 
less person may pass unharmed through the 
cholera, smallpox, yellow fever, and other 
malignant contagions; that in short, the secret 
of health is to cultivate the habit of keeping 
clean and healthy pictures in the mind. 

We thought of this yesterday morning as we 
came across on the Oakland boat and heard a very 
intelligent gentleman, speaking of the Fourth 
of July and the sanguine and roseate hopes in- 
dulged in by the average orator and newspaper- 
writer of the future greatness of the Union, say 
that he did not share in this feeling, as he be- 
lieved that it was destined ultimately to fall 
to pieces from its clumsy weight and un- 
wieldy magnitude. There must be something 
morbid in the patriotism that borrows trou- 
ble and conjures up such ugly specters as 
this. As with our own body, so it is best 
to think only of what is brightest, best, 
and mqst healthy in that political organism of 
which we all are a part. Still there is a good 
deal of this sort of cant and persiflage to be 
found in foreign journals and reviews which 
might serve to amuse us were it not for the 
fact that some of our own political writers look 
with pessimistic and painful apprehension upon 
a government founded upon the popular will ex- 
panded over so large an extent of territory. It 
is generally admitted that a diversity of race is 
produced by climate — that white, black, red, 
olive and copper-colored people are the chil- 
dren of the sun and soil. In our diversity of 
climate may there not spring up a diversity of 
tastes, habits, ideas and costumes among our 
people that will be a good soil for planting the 
seeds of alienation and strife ? That in the 
very nature of things the interests of Minnesota 
and Georgia, the Atlantic and Pacific States, 
cannot always continue identical, and that they 
may some day differentiate into well defined 
antagonisms that may endanger the peace, if 
not the stability, of the Union ? The aforesaid 
gentleman may have been one of those queer 
compounds that is always on the contrary side, 
or it may be that he is haunted by some such 
vague, half-thapen fear as just described. 

But a moment's thought will show it to be an 
ugly phantom, and nothing more. Dr. Draper 
somewhere calls attention to the fact that the 
strength and durability of a nation is in the 
ratio of its facility of communication. History 
furnishes an illustrious example. The empire 
of ancient Rome held together over five cent- 
uries, and only passed away at last as an ice- 
berg melts in the heat of a better civilization. 
It was the policy of that people as soon as they 
conquered a country, though as far away as 
Gaul or Britain, to open a good highway for 
travel and easy and quick transportation of 
armies. Many of the subjugated nations often 
lifted up their heads, and seeing how small and 
remote the empire that held them in subjection, 
thought to break the yoke, but before the pur- 
pose was fully organized the Roman legions 
were upon them. 

And yet how slow were the means of commu- 
nication in that age compared to what we pos- 
sess. Our whole land is woven together by 
muscles of iron and nerves of steel. We can 
whisper our thoughts to a friend in New York 
in a few moments, and in less than a week 
traverse the width of the continent. It is ob- 
vious that the greater the speed of communica- 
tion the more compact and strong the National 
Government. The .38 States of the Union to- 
day are more closely compacted than the 13 
original States that hung together through 
the struggles of the Revolution. Indeed, had 
it not been for the facility with which vast 
masses of men could be thrown from the East 
to the West, and from the West back to the 
East again, the chances are the great rebellion 
would have been successful. And then the iron 
path of the locomotive has bound the States of 
the Union into a network of commercial ties 
and reciprocal interests, that more than any- 
thing else solidifies our nationality. It is about 
time we had got over scaring at that hideous 
old spook that so long haunted our politics and 
set like a nightmare upon the Government, and 
have faith not only in the destiny of our politi- 
cal idea, bat in the durability of our Republic. 

University Notes. 

The year at the State University closed last 
week and upward of 40 graduates were sent out 
with the approval and Kood wishes of the Regents 
and Faculty. The commencement exercises 
were in every way satisfactory. President Hoi- 
den's address to the graduates was one of the 
most admirable we ever listened to. A very 
pleasing incident of the day was the welcome 
extended to ex-President Gilman (now president 
of the Johns Hopkins university), who arrived 
from the East opportunely while the exercises 
were in progress. 

A graduate of the College of Agricaltore, Mr. 
F. C. Turner, submitted a thesis on " germina- 
tion tests of commercial seeds," which was 
marked by many points of practical value and 
to which we may allude at greater length here- 
after. He had made careful duplicate tests of 
a number of kinds of field and garden seeds 
procured at a San Francisco seed-store. The 
tabulated results were compared with seed tests 
reported by the Eastern Agricultural Experi- 
ment Stations and made an excellent showing 
for the California seeds. 

Prof. Hilgard has retired for rest and for 
more direct contact with nature in her visible 
forms, to his farm in the southern part of Ala- 
meda county. He has had a hard year's work, 
and has applied himself to it most assiduously, 
as is his wont, and a season of recuperation is 
necessary. During the vacation the public lab- 
oratory work ceases, and all matters which can as 
well be postponed should be held back until the 
opening of the session in September. Arrange- 
ments have been made to attend as far as possi- 
ble to matters of pressing importance which 
may be submitted, and correspond<^nce relating 
to such matters will be attended to by Prof. 
Hilgard'a assistant, who remains in Berkeley. 

Mr. F. W. Morse departed on Tuesday for 
Los Angeles county to continue his experiments 
with the gas treatment for scale insects, which 
were recently described in the R^ral and which 
promise such satisfactory results. 

Visitors at commenoement expressed much 
satisfaction at the improvements in the contour 
of the main grounds in front of the buildings, 
which is now proceeding under the direction of 
Dr. Bonte, the secretary. The old, unsightly 
artificial embankment has been swept away and 
the whole field has been given a natural slope 
quite in harmony with the best principles of 
landscape art, and winding walks and roadways 
are now being put in. Other very noticeable 
improvementfi have been made during the year. 
The agricultural grounds, under charge of Prof. 
Hilgard, are in excellent shape and afford the 
visitor a good opportunity for the study of 
many important and interesting industrial 

The report of the College of Agriculture for 
1 886 is now being printed at the State office in 
Sacramento, and will soon be ready for distri- 
bution. It will contain much information on 
chemical examination of California soils, water, 
products, on forage plants, economic entomol- 
ogy, rare trees and plants, orchard fraits, etc. 
It will be sent free to all who apply for it. 

Bad Boys. — It is reported that .Senator 
Routier has tried Sacramento boys at splitting 
apricots for drying. He had 20, and the Bee 
says the boys were lazy, shiftless and trouble- 
some. He then advertised for " boys who 
would work and not play." He has not re- 
ceived a single answer. The work is easy, 
pleasant and clean, and the boys can make 75 
cents per day and be boarded. " I am sorry to 
say," said ex-Senator Routier, "that the Cali- 
fornia boys don't seem to want to work. It is 
the fault of the parents, who do not train them 
properly. I am almost disgusted, but I will 
never allow a Chinaman around my premise! 
if I have to tear up every tree on the place." 

Oleomargarine. — It is telegraphed from 
Washington that an effort will be made next 
Congress to secure the reduction of the retail 
dealers' tax for the sale of oleomargarine. It is 
claimed that there is no intention on the part 
of the oleomargarine men to ask for a redaction 
of the tax upon the article itself, but it is 
claimed that the retail dealers' license is exces- 
sive. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue is 
said to be of the opinion that there is some jus- 
tice in the claim. The internal revenue receipts 
show that the tax has not diminished the sale 
of the artiole. 

July 9, 1887.] 

f ACIFie f^URAlo PRESS. 

California Seedling Gberries. 

Three years ago Mr. Leonard Coates of Napa 
introdaced the " Centennial " cherry, a seedling 
of Napoleon Bigarreau, raised by Mr. W. H. 
Chapman. Since then Mr. Coates has made ar- 
rangements with Mr. Chapman by which he is 
propagating at bis nurseries three other seedling 
cherries, all of California origin. 

We are enabled now to give not only a de- 

Fig. 1. — Black Mastodon. 

" Parity " is the name given to a beautiful 
cherry of waxy, transparent appearance, a seed- 
ling of " Elton." It possesses the delicacy of 
flavor of its parent, but is more rounded and 
does not bruise so readily. It ripens about one 
week before Napoleon Bigarreau, and therefore 
comes in at a season when it can be best used 
by the canners. 

It is immensely prolific and bears regularly. 
Its seed is very small. Its ch'ef attraction, 

more than a carload of " Centennial " and 
" Black Mastodon " cherries? 

The original trees of these three varieties are 
grand and symmetrical specimens about 10 to 
12 years old, and of great vigor. 

The method of raising these seedlings is as 
follows: When the fruit of a variety from 
which it is desired to raise a seedling is mature, 
but not overripe, a dozen or two of the largest 
and most perfect specimens are carefully picked. 

feet specimens; and (3) never allowing the 
seeds to be exposed to the air. 

Poisonoas Milk. 

Referring to an article given on another page 
concerning the danger of disease and death 
lurking in unclean milk, we cite the fact which 
has already been hinted at in the Rural, that 
science has disclosed the specific poison to which 
may be attributed part of the evil effects. This 
is, of course, distinct from the evil work of 
bacteria or disease germs, which we have 
shown are found in the milk of cows suf- 
fering from tuberculosis and the like. 
R. H. Firth in the Lancei gives the follow- 
ing: An epidemic of attacks of violent purging 
and vomiting among the soldiers in the Punjab 
was traced to the nse of certain milk. The res- 
idue of the suspected milk was found to be of 
sp. gr. 1.025; casein, 4.1; fat, 3.9; and sugar, 
5.04 per cent. The dairy pans were fonnd to 
be unwashed, and some emitted a repulsive 
odor; the weather at the same time was very 
hot. The milk was coagulated, filtered; the 
filtrate was neutralized and made feebly alka- 
line by potassium hydrate, and shaken with 
ether. Oa evaporating the ethereal extract, a 
crystalline residue of sickly odor and pungent 
taste was obtained. Given to men in small 
quantities, it produced nausea and headache, 
and caused violent purging and vomiting with 
dogs in 15 minutes. Milk tested in a similar 
way gives negative results. Eight samples of 
milk were allowed to stand, and were tested 
every 20 days. After two months, three of the 


Fig. 3. 


acription of these cherries, cuts of which appear 
in this issue, but also the method by which Mr. 
Chapman has been so remarkably successful. 

The " California Advance "is a seedling of 
Early Purple Guigne. It ripens fully one week 
earlier than its parent, the Eirly Purple Guigne, 
is larger and of more obtune rounded form, and 
a much heavier bearer. This makes it of im- 
mense value, particularly in the early fruit sec- 
tions, where one week in advance of the hither- 
to earliest variety will mean thousands of dol- 
lars in the profits of the growers. 

In color it is dark purple, turning black when 
fully ripe; in flavor, rich and sweet, and of a 
good degree of firmness. 

however, is its wax -like appearance. It bids 
fair to make an extremely profitable and ele- 
gant canning cherry. 

The last of the three is " Black Mastodon," 
truly a mammoth specimen. It is a seedling of 
Pontiac, and, ripening about with the " Centen- 
nial," Mr. Chapman first designated it by the 
name of " Black Centennial," but afterward 
gave Mr. Coates the privilege of naming it, 
who decided on " Black Mastodon." It is not 
so heavy a bearer as the two preceding, at least 
in Napa, but makes up for that in its size. 
In texture it is very firm and meaty, which 
will make it one of the most valuable shippers. 
What will take the eye of our Eastern friends 

with the stems on, and laid upon a layer of 
moist, fine creek sand in a shallow box, cov- 
ered with another layer of sand, and the box 
buried in a shady, cool place along the creek 
bank until the fall. After rain enough has 
fallen to prepare the land, the seeds are care- 
fully planted, with the sand around them. The 
finest looking trees raised from these seeds are 
transplanted the following fall to the orchard, 
and, in order to get fruit as rapidly as possi- 
ble, grafts are taken from them and inserted in 
some old, bearing tree. 

This is all that is done, thp points being (1), 
great care in handling the fruit and picking it 
at the right time; (2), selecting the most per- 

samplea yielded the same crystalline substance 
which produced the same symptoms when 
given to animals. This substance, which seem« 
to be a ptomaine, is evidently the result of de- 
composition. No specific organisms on which 
to fasten it beyond some common forms of 
oidium and penicillium were found. 

Railroad Lands.— Under the recent orders 
of Secretary Lamar, 25,000,000 to 30,000,000 
acres of railroad indemnity - lands will be 
opened to public settlement. 

On the 8th of November next the people of 
Oregon will vote on a constitutional amend- 
ment prohibiting the liquor traffic. 



[July 9, 1887 


The Apricot in California. 

Continuing cur report of the last meeting of 
the State Horticultural Society, we come now 
to the stated subject, 

The Apricot. 

The discussion on the apricot was opened 
with the following essay by Judge W. C. 
Blackwood of Haywarde : 

The apricot is said to be native to Armenia in 
Asia, and introduced from that country into 
Western Europe by the Komans. It is on its 
native stock a long-lived tree. Mr. John 
Wolfskin of Winters told me some years since 
that at Santa Fe, New Mexico, there were trees 
80 or 100 years old still vigorous when he knew 
them, some 20 years since. Cultivated on the 
peach-root, I am unable to say how long they 
will last. In an orchard I planted some 30 
years ago, there were some apricots on peach- 
stock. The moat of these trees are still there, 
and seemingly as vigorous as ever. 

Soil and Climate. 

A moderately moist loam is the best for the 
growth of the apricot. Too much moisture is 
ruinous. A clay soil is not good. The tree 
seems to thrive best where it has a moderate 
exposure to the ocean bree/.es and genial 
warmth of temperature; hence the wonderful 
success which hat attended its culture around 
the bay of >San Francisco and coast counties 
further south. Its cultivation has never been 
made successful in the Atlantic States, and it 
does not succeed very well in many of the in- 
terior counties in our own State. The climate 
of the interior seems to be too dry and hot, and 
if artificial irrigation is resorted to there the 
gum disease develops and the fruit, when ripe, 
is watery and deficient in richness. 

When climate and soil are favorable the tree 
is subject to few diseases. In the vicinity of 
Haywards, where the tree has been succesnfully 
grown now for 30 years or more, no disease has 
ever developed, and it is singularly free from 
being attacked by insect pests. 


The books describe some 20 or more varieties, 
many of which have been experimented with in 
this State, and the most of which have been dis- 
carded as unprofitable for general market pur- 
poses. Of the older varieties cultivated in this 
State none seem to retain their hold on popular 
favor except the Moorpark afld the Royal. The 
Hemskirke, the Breda, the Peach and Da Boia' 
early are no longer cultivated to any extent by 
nurserymen in this State. 

Then we have some new varieties to which 
public attention is occasionally called. The St. 
Ambroise is a new variety. From what I have 
seen of it I think it hardly equal to the Royal. 
There is the Siberian or Russian, favorably 
spoken of by nurserymen of Kansas. It is about 
the size of the Breda. Its chief excellence 
seems to be its hardiness, and it is said to stand 
as much cold and frost as the peach, and blos- 
soms about the same time. It probably will 
now become popular in this State. There have 
been some new varieties originated in this 
State. Of their claims to popular favor 1 know 
nothing and can say nothing. 

The Moorpark originated in England. It is 
an old and highly esteemed variety for its 
enormous size and excellent flavor. In some 
portions of the State it is said to be a regular 
bearer, but in the country around the bay it is 
an uncertain bearer, producing full crops only 
once in four or five years. For canning pur- 
poses it is objectiouable by reason of its ripen- 
ing on one side first, but for drying it has 
probably no superior. 

The Royal, introduced into this country from 
France, is for all purposes, perhaps, the best 
aprioot cultivated by our orchardists. It is an 
immense and a constant bearer, and, when the 
fruit is properly thinned, it attains a full me- 
dium size. It ripens evenly and aesumes a 
rich orange color with a red blush on the side 
which is exposed to the sun in ripening. It 
does not commence to decay as soon as the 
Moorpark — in fact, I have seen it dry on the 
tree instead of rotting. For canning or ship- 
ping long distances it has no superior, and, 
when dried, it makes a beautiful light-colored 
truit; and, as for flavor, it is among the best. 

The Blenheim is another favored variety. It 
is of a beautiful lemon color when rine, and in 
size about the same as the Royal. The skin of 
the Blenheim is very tender and is easily 
broken. As for flivor, I think it has no supe- 
rior. It is valuable for c inning or drying. 
The tree is a vigorous grower, covering itself 
well with broad leives, but when young is apt 
to cast the most of its fruit. When it obtains 
age it bears well and seldom needs thinning out. 
There is another variety of apricot, called by 
some the "Blenheim." This variety bears 
quite young, is a good apricot ; but not as vig- 
orous a grower, nor is the foliage as dense as 
the first variety I have described. From de- 
scriptions found in the book I think it is not a 
true Blenheim. 

In conclusion, I wonld say California would 
seem to have a monopoly of the aprioot busi- 
ness, although it is grown in some other por- 
tions of the United States. When properly 
dried, it is among the best of our cured fraita, 

and among the canned varieties it has no supe- 
rior. The cultivation of the apricot in those 
portions of the State adaoted to its growth 
will, I think, always be profitable to the or- 

A general discussion on the apricot followed 
the reading of .ludge Blackwood's essay. Mr. 
Hathaway of San Lorenzo said he had been 
told by one of the large canners that he re- 
garded the Blenheim as the coming apricot for 

Mr. Coates of Napa exhibited samples of 
apricots — Royal — of large size, dried in his new 
" Common-Sense " fruit drier in four hours. 
Some other parties bad dried Royals by the 
same process in two and a half hours. The 
market demands bleached fruit, and as long as 
it does it will have to be supplied. There is a 
growing prejudice against the use of sulphur in 
bleaching fruit on account of its destroying the 
flavor. Fumes of sulphur are injurious unless 
used with great care. The public will have to 
be educated to natural-colored fruit. Dealers 
all demand bleached. The fruit he exhibited 
had not been bleached through any sulphurous 
process. Usual time for drving apricots in 
driers is from 8 to 12 hours. He has done it 
in from 2^ to 4^. Driers usually do two batches 
in 24 hours. In the sun it takes two days or 

Mr. Shinn: What are the best varieties to 
be grown in this State ? Shall we ship Flast or 
dry fruits ? All these are proper subjects now 
for discussion and the subjr'ct cannot be ex- 
hausted. One variety may be best for canning 
and another for drying. He had seen dried ap- 
ricots from Ventura county at the Mechanics' 
Fair, did not know what variety, but larger than 
those shown. He was told that the grower had 
dried 100 tonp; sold it at 2f> cents per pound at 
the wharf. Subject of dried apricots exceedingly 
interesting. Apricots are selliug now at $30 per 
ton; if dried can they be sold at 15 cents per 
pound ? We have all the world a market for 
our canned goods. There are but few countries 
in the world where the apricots are produced at 
all — Spain and Portugal the principal countries. 
Year after year the demand for apricots from 
the Eastern States increases. As to what sec- 
tion of the State is most fit for their production, 
it is said the coast countries have a great ad- 
vantage, and that the interior and southern 
parts of the State are less suitable for them. 

Judge Blackwood regards the Moorpark 
where it succeeds regularly as the best and 
most profitable apricot grown in the State. It 
is large, rapidly handled, rich fruit. It always 
finds a ready market because of its richness. 
He regarded sulphuring fruit as a damage, but 
trade demanded bleached fruit. Had talked 
with a dealer who told him to sulphur fruit 20 
minutes. It would not be fit to eat when 
cooked if done bo long. They all want white 
fruit, but when a man uses bleached fruit once 
or twice, he won't use it any more. Now I 
hold that this thing of sulphuring fruit is just 
adding poison to the fruit according to the 
length of time you sulphur it. Sulphuric acid is 
deleterious to health, as every physician 
knows. Time is coming when this sul- 
phured ftuit will be dropped. I am going 
to dry fruit this year, and am going to sulphur 
it, but I don't like it. The Royal for all 
purposes will retain its place as a popniar va- 
riety. It can be shipped long distances; will 
bang on the tree for a long time; it will wait 
some days for you to handle it after it is ripe; 
is a rich fruit. Blenheim known here by that 
name does not answer the description of the fruit 
by that name given in the books. My Blenheims 
are bright lemon color; skin is easily abraded — 
has got to be handled carefully, or shows bruise 
stains. It is good for canning; think it will be 
good fruit for drying. 

Mr. Shinn: Is the Moorpark a good bearer? 

Mr. Blackwood: Bears pretty regularly, it 
is said, in Ventura county. I have had trees 
in my orchard 14 years, and but two crops 
from the trees. They do not pay for the room 
they occupy. This year they were very full; 
had to thin then out. 

Air. Shinn: This is very important. People 
do not care to grow trees that way. Hems- 
kirke is a good bearer. I never heard but a 
single objection to the Riyal, and that is its 
size. Royals are very small this year. Blen- 
heims are a degree larger. 

Mr. Shinn: The Blenheim is about one-half 
larger than the Royal. 

Mr. Blackwood: Thin out the Royal and it 
will be larger than the Blenheim. Heat has 
aff.;cted them this year. 

Mr. Shinn: I will suggest to young orchard- 
ists to make efforts to grow seedlings aud ob- 
tain just the kind of apricot for our nse. To 
obtain seedlings, plant pits of Royals and see if 
good qualities cannot be added to it. 

Mr. Tompkins: This thinning of Royals is 
a very serious objection; it is about as expensive 
to thin them as to pick them. The Blenheim 
is larger and does not need thinning. It is 
uniformly much larger than the Royal; and. 
when dried, is better than the Royal. Thin- 
ning is a very serious objection. 

Mr. Shinn: Mr. Barbour of Sin .lose states 
that both the Royal and Blenheim or Shipley 
ripen uniformly; ripen freely, etc. I fear the 
St. Ambroise will be a shy bearer — more shy 
than the Moorpark. 

Mr. Blackwood: Mr. Collins had me visit 
his St. Ambroise orchard and showed me trees 
with fruit on. I would not recommend them. 
They are not as good as, and cannot be com- 
pared to, the Royal. They do not bear aa 
well. • 

The Shot-Hole Fungus. 

The following letter was read: 

Chico, June 22, 1887. 

Afr. R. y. IVickson, Secretary, and Gentlemen 
of the Slate Horticultural Society: Nothing would 
give nie more pleasure and profit than to accept 
your invitation to be present at your meeting of the 
24th, and tell you " what I know about the apricnt." 
Hut as tons upon tons will turn from green to ripe 
this week, it is necessary that some of us stay at 
home and push things to save the crop. We who 
do stay at home move a vote of thanks to those who 
will attend the meeting, and the rest of us will profit 
by reading their sayings in the RuK.^L Pkess. 
(Long may it live!) 

The diseases of the apricot are. very few so far as 
my knowledge goes. Trees do and will die without 
any apparent reason. They usually leaf out in the 
spring, set full of fruit; afterward the leaves turn 
yellow, the fruit prematurely ripens and the tree is 
gone. Sometimes this will occur around a defined 
spot until one-fourth or one-half of an acre has been 
left without a tree. I suppose these are alkaline 
spots, but why trees will do so very well for two or 
three years on these same places and then suc- 
cumb, I am not able to say. 

The "shot-hole fungus" is the worst disease on 
the apricot that I know of. The first I saw of it 
was four years ago. in an orchard one and a half 
miles from Rancho Chico orchards. I brought sam- 
ples to Dr. Harkness. who was visiting General Bid- 
well at the lime. He said it was a fungus of some 
kind, and thought it was to be occasioned by the 
very sultry north wind we were having at the time, 
and which was preceded by cool, damp weather. He 
was of the opinion that it would not spread to do 
much damage, but it has continued with us yet. A 
few weeks after finding the fungus in the orchard 
spoken of, I found on Rancho Chico two rows of 
very old Moorparl:s badly affected. They were right 
in the course of the wind from the other orchard. 
Two years ago I cut off all of the tops of these two 
rows and sprayed with strong soap and sulphur. 
There is now a good top and a good crop. Some 
of the fungus is to be seen, but it is not nearly so 
bad as before. I will send you a box of apricots; 
by it you can see what it will do, if you do not al- 
ready know too much about it. — G. M. Gr.w, 
Kaniho Chico. 

Mr. Tompkins : Fruits not classified enough. 
One nurseryman will show you one kind aud 
call it Royal, anothtr will have a different 
name. Even in the best nurseries, vary from 
a large Royal to large Blenheim. Should be 
classified. Division of opinion over a peach 
from Chico last year as an instance. 

Mr. Shinn : Fruits in a perfect muddle in this 
State. Standing committee of Stute Board of 
Horticulture three years ago to work up this 
subject, bat expect will not hear anything more 
about it. American Horticultural .Society 
worked many years for it and brought some- 
thing out of it, but not very much. Any rem- 
edies for diseases ? 

Judge Blackwood : Dr. Kimball dusts with 
quicklime when the fungus is beginning to show 
itself. It is not deleterious to the fruit. 

Mr. Wickson : It is probable that the sul- 
phide whale-oil-soap remedies for fungus for 
pear, apple, etc., would reduce the fungus on 
the apricot.' Applications should be made in 
the winter-time. 

ProDagatlon and Planting;. 

Mr. Tompkins : What are the best trees to 
plant — yearlings or two year-old trees? 

Mr. Shinn : There is diff'erence of opinion 
in that matter. Apricots ought to be planted at 
the age of one year, although many prefer two- 
year-old trees. It seems to me that a tree two 
years old is better able to bear the shock of 
rupture and removal than a younger tree. 
That is my philosophy, but the general opinion 
of planters is in favor of one-year-old trees. 

Mr. Tompkins : What root would yon put 
apricot trees on ? 

Mr. .Shinn: Apricot^^oot is good for apricot. 
I advocate for each tree its own root, all other 
things being equal. I cannot be moved from 
that position. There are, however, exceptions 
to the rule. Situation may make an exception. 
Some pears may be best grown on quince roots. 
On certain classes of soils the apricot tree 
should be on the plum root, because the plum 
root will live in moister soil than apricot. 
Will make that exception. Oq my place there 
is a row of apricots grafted on plum, more than 
.30 years ago. The trees are not the size of 
others on apricot root, nor have they borne as 
full as those upon apricot or peach root. The 
apricot does well on the peach. If the land 
to be planted on is good peach land, put on 
peach root. One objection is that gophers like 
apricot root, while the peach root is too bitter 
for them. Must destroy gophers if thiy like 
apricot root. 

Mr. Blackwood: Gophers work at night; 
travel at night. Make sure of him and he is 
not there. They are hard to kill. 

Mr. S linn: Aa for age of trees, I believe 
cherry, apple, plum and pears may be planted 
at two years, if the trees are not overgrown; 
they are better able to recover from the shock 
than yearlings are. 

Mr. Blackwood: The apricot on the peach 
gives long life to the peach stock. In the old 
orchard I planted peach and apricot trees at 
the same time; the peaches all gone aud apricots 
still vigorous. 

Mr. Perkins: I have an orchard one half 
planted with one-year-old apricot trees, the 
other half with dormant buds. Tbey are now 
five years old and are all the same size. I did 
the same with the peach, and now the dormant 
buds are ahead. 

Mr. Tompkins: There is other experience to 
the same effect. Trees in dormant buds set 
five years ago were ahead of year-old trees 
planted the year before them. 

Mr. Shinn: I never bad good luck in trans- 

planting dormant buds. Sent East for them, 
they being scarce here, but two- thirds died; 
did not get as good trees as those budded here. 
They had been carried too far in dormant buds. 
Do not recommend that method. It will make 
sprouts very badly. You have to develop that 

' bud, and, unless the sap flows pretty freely, 

I you will not get the bud you want. 

I Mr. Wickson asked that a committee be ap- 

I pointed to report on the apricot brought by 
Mr. Trumbull. 

Mr. Shinn: If superior to the Pringle, it 
onght to snpersede that almost worthless va- 

Messrs. Tompkins, Coates and the secretary 
were appointed the committee. 

Cold Storage. 
Mr. Lelong: Apricot crop seems to be larg- 
est; peach crop next. They seem to have 

I thinned and cultivated fruit more properly. 
As to manner of handling, could not give any 
information at present. Was tuld if cold stor- 
age could be got up as at Riverside, that the 
demand would be still larger for green fruits; 
otherwise, canners combine and pay what prices 

I they deem best, and fruits suffer on that ac- 
count. Letters from cold-storage works give 
no encouragement to come here to start works. 

Mr. AUegretti: I have made propositions to 
some people of Alameda and Santa Clara coun- 
ties of a way by which there may be a great 
deal of the crops stored away. I can put up 

j for S5000 works large enough to store 100 tons 

• of fruit. By storing it away it can be shipped 
Eist, aud sold as green fruits in New York 

i three months after the season is over. 

A member: Mr. AUegretti wishes to organ- 
ize a company to establish works for the treat- 
ment of fruits. All fruit-growers onght to en- 
courage him. 

Mr. Tompkins: Peaches go very well with- 
out treatment if properly handled. At Vaca- 
ville and Winters tiiey have shipped them for 
years. An enterprise for fruit storage ought 
to be started in the winter to have time to pre- 
pare it. 

Mr. Lelong: Works can be put up in two 
or three weeks, 

Mr. Shinn: Farmers are slow, conservative 
people and do not take to new ideas readily. 
They must loae fruit before they would take to 
new ideas. 

Mr. AUegretti: The expense nor time re- 
quired would not be much; I am willing to 
share myself the burden of putting up a large 
house. I have one that will hold 50 tons. I 
{ have discussed this matter and solicited people 
i to go into it. When the fruit comes in, store 
it for two or three weeks and not glut the 
market. It would sell to canners just as they 
' could use it, and not be put in the market for 
I people to buy at any price. It coats a very 
I small amount; a house can be put up in two 
i weeks for 100 or l.oO tons. I will put ray share 
in, and not expect any royalty. 

The subject for discnssion at the next meet- 
ing will be " The Peach; Its Culture and Mar- 

State Board of Horticaltnre. 

A meeting of the Executive Committee of the 
! State Board of Horticulture was held at the of- 
fice of the board in this city on June .30th. The 
meeting was called to order by President 
Cooper. There were present. Commissioners 
Ellwood Cooper, Dr. Edwin Kimball, A. Block. 

On motion of Mr. Block, Tuesday, Nov. 8th, 
to Friday, 1 1th, inclusive, was the date fixed for 
the holding of the Eighth State Fruit Growers' 
Convention, at Santa Rosa, under the auspices of 
the State Board of Horticulture. 

The president then appointed (ien. M. G. 
Vallfjo and Dr. Kimball on Committee of Ar- 
rangements. Mr. VV. 0, KUe was instructed 
to assist the committee. 

On motion of Mr. Block, State Inspector Klee 
was authorized to procure the assistance of a 
chemist to experiment, to discover, if possible, 
a process by which the orchardists of this State 
can manufacture their own caustic soda.iiaving 
all the necessary ingredients on this coast, and 
to file a full report thereof at the convention. 

Oa motion of Dr. Kimball, it was ordered that 
the board shall meet at the office of the board 
in .Sin Francisco on November 7, 1887, at 10 

State Inspector Klee and Dr. Kimball were 
authorized to have made 10 analyses of froit 
pprayed with arsenitea, at a cost not to exceed 

On motion, the program for the forthcoming 
convention was referred to the president. 

On motion, the appointment of standing com- 
mittees for 18ST-S8 was also referred to the 
president. The following gentlemen were re- 
quested to prepare essays on the following sub- 
jects, to be presented at the convention: 

W. H. Aiken, Wrights, on Prunes; Milton 
Thomas, on Crystallized Fruits; A. T. Hatch, 
Suisun, on Fruit Unions; A. Scott Chapman, 
Sin Gabriel, on Orchard Fertilizers aud on 
Fumigating Trees with Chemical Gases for the 
Destruction of Insect Pests; W. A. West, 
Fresno, on the True Smyrua Fig; W. M. 
Williams, Fresno, on Fruit- Drying; S. F. Leib 
and Geo. A. Fleming of San Jose, on Frnit- 
Drying: Dr. Edwin Kimball, Haywards, on 
Dates and Apricots; N. K. Peck, Penryn, on 
Orange Culture; I. A. Wilcox, Santa Clara, on 
Small Fruits; Prof. Hilgard and W. G. Klee, 
on Insect Pests and Remedies; Ellwood Cooper, 

July 9, 1887] 



Santa Barbara, on Olive Culture; H. Wein- 
Btock, Sacramento, on Railroad Transportation. 

On motion, it was ordered that the rooms of- 
fered by A. Hayward, at 224 Sutter street, be 
accepted for the use of the Board for offioee, 
provided that they can be had for two years, 
with the privilege of five. On motion, the com- 
mittee then adjourned. 

B. M. Lelono, Secretary. 

Englisli Gooseberries. 

Editors Press: — Experience with P^nglish 
gooseberries was called for a week or two ago. 
I imported a dozen rooted plants from Carter 
& Sons, Holborn, London, two years ago. Com- 
ing late in the spring, more than half were 
spoiled in transit or by careless handling. 

Four good bushes this season bloomed vigor- 
ously and set fruit. Heavy mildew appeared 
on the point of one twig, and I sulphured all 
the plants freely. The fruit grew and at- 
tained a fair size, but began to show mildew. 
A few days later, as the mildew was spreading, 
the bulk of the fruit was picked. That remain- 
ing on the bushes developed a complete heavy 
white coating, while the leaves and twigs were 
unaffected. Subsequently the mildew turned 
brownish and peeled off, leaving fruit stunted 
and scarred, but still growing. It would be of 
no value for market, nor does it look inviting 
for home consumption. The fruit first picked 
made very good pie material, or " gooseberry 
fool " (an English dish composed of stewed 
gooseberries and custard or cream); but it was 
rather green and hard for market, though the 
berries were larger than the ordinary California 
market gooseberry. The leaves and twigs still 
look vigorous and healthy, the mildew having 
been confined to the berries. 

The mildew cannot ba attributed to any un- 
due supply of water, ,fl,a I have irrigated the 
bushes but rarely. 

I am also experimenting with a new 'English 
black currant, the Black Champion, whose ber- 
ries grow in bundles like the ordinary cherry- 
currant. The trees are now bearing, and 
promise well. Some Kentish filberts of same 
importation also show a few nuts this year, 
and the trees appear thoroughly prosperous. 

Edward Berwick. 

Carmel Valley, Monterey. 

[The behavior of the gooseberries seems to de- 
pend much upon lonal conditions. We know 
growers who grow the .large English varieties 
without mildew, or have done it in the past. 
Robert Ashburner of Biden Farm, San Mateo 
county, has brought ua fine, clear fruit, and 
N. Wagenseller of Ukiah has been successful. 
— Eds. Press ] 

In a Changing World. — Geologists have de- 
scri'jed Britain as swarming with amultitu le of 
forms of gigantic reptiles, some of them 60 feet 
or more in length, during the reptile age — the 
middle period in the eirth's geological history, 
when mollusks and reptiles attained their cul- 
mination and declined, and when the first 
mammals of England at a later epoch — the 
middle of Qaarternary — is given by Owen : 
" Gigantic elephants of nearly twice the bulk 
of the largest individuals that now exist in 
Ceylon and Africa, roamed here in herds, if we 
may judge from the abundance of their re- 
mains. Two-horned rhinoceroses, or at least 
two species, forced their way through the an- 
cient forests or wallowed in the swamps. The 
lakes and rivers were tenanted by hippopota- 
muses as burly and with as formidable tuaks as 
those of Africa. Three kinds of wild oxen 
found subsistence in the plains. There were 
also gigantic deer, wild horses and boars, a 
wild cat, lynx, leopard, a British tiger larger 
than that of Bengal, and another and even 
more terrible carnivorous monster with saber- 
shaped canines eight inches long. Troops of 
hyenas preyed upon carcasses and feebler quad- 
rupeds. There was a savage bear larger than 
the Rooky Mountain grizzly, a gigantic beaver, 
wolves and various smaller animals, down to 
bats, fiioles, rats and mice." 

DiEECT Absorption of Nitrogen. — Bsrthe- 
lot, in Uompt. rend., has the following: Soils 
were placed in vessels of glazed earthenware, 
and in some cases were protected, in others ex- 
posed to air and rain, the rain water being col- 
lected and analyzed, and the amount of ammo- 
nia and nitric acid in the air being also deter- 
mined. The results show that vegetable soils 
continually absorb nitrogen from the air, even 
when they are not supporting vegetation. The 
amount absorbed is in all cases very much 
greater than the quantity of nitrogen ex- 
isting as ammonia or nitrogen oxides in the air 
or rain. In fact the rain removes from the soil 
in the form of soluble nitrates considerably more 
nitrogen than it brings in the form of ammonia. 
At the same time, the amount of nitrogen ab- 
sorbed is far greater in the case of soil exposed 
to rain than where soil is protected, probably 
owing to the greater activity possessed by the 
nitrogen-absorbing organisms under the former 
conditions. In the majority of cases, a notable 
proportion of the absorbed nitrogen is converted 
into nitrates. 

Timber Fires. — The recent forest fires in 
Michigan are said to have caused a loss of 
$7,000,000 in values and eight human lives. 


Acacia vs. Hickory. 

As we have no hickory in this State and are 
growing many species of acacia, the following 
from the Carriage Monthly is of much local in- 

The following criticism of hickory timber 
was made by a correspondent of Der Chaisen 
und Wagenhau, of Munich, Germany: 

"Hickory tinjber cannot by any means be 
replaced by any other of the foreign timbers. 
It is true that the hickory timber especially 
used by us for wheels, on account of its tough- 
ness and durability, as compared with other 
timbers, is greatly liked for use on our best 
carriages; but on the basis of repeated observa- 
tions and experiments, we assert that German 
timber, specially for spokes, can be placed side 
by side, and is equal, considering the same con- 
ditions, to that of American hickory, the grade 
we refer to being the acacia timber. If I am 
not mistaken, in Northern Germany it is less 
known, but in Southern Germany it is used in 
preference to hickory, while in Northern and 
Southern Germany hickory timber is bought 
and used for all fine carriages. There are in 
Germany and Switzerland many carriage build- 
ers who do not use hickory, not because of the 
price, but on account of its future durability; 
they do not like the hickory, and not without 
cause. The toughness of the recently cut tim- 
ber is out of the question; but the quality of 
the acacia timber when in use for wheels and 
kept dry always keeps the same, while the 
hickory has the disadvantage, even when 
painted, of becoming porous on the inside. 

" An old, experienced carriage-builder, with 
whom I had occasion to speak in regard to 
hickory timber, said, with decision, that when 
the hickory loses its freshness the wheels will 
become wormy; this is a worm peculiar to that 
timber. I have also noticed the removing of 
hickory spokes and replacing with acacia spokes 
on account of being worm-eaten. It would be 
interesting if our South German friends would 
advance their opinions with regard to acacia 
timber, as there are many who know the quali- 
ties of that timber thoroughly, and can give a 
correct judgment on the question, whether 
acacia timber is as good, if not better, than 
American hickory." 

To this communication the publisher of Der 
Chaisen und Wagenhau replied as follows: 

'• Yes, acacia timber is better for spokes than 
hickory; but there is not sufficient of this 
timber in Germany for all the wheels required. 
Acacia timber is glass-hard, and, as proof of its 
superiority, all the omnibus wheels of Lyons 
and Paris, France, are made of it. We re- 
cently saw in Munich the sorting of hickory 
spokes, and very many were worm-eaten — out 
of three sets but one good set could be used. 
Then, again, we have finished wheels made of 
ash from 10 to 16 years old in which no worms 
had appeared. We Germans cut timber in the 
right time, but in America they cut it at any 
convenient time. Anything foreign is appre- 
ciated by us sooner than our domestic goods, 
but we have come at last to see thiug3 in their 
proper light." 

The quality and use of hickory timber is 
much better known in the United States and 
Canada. There is no better timber for wheels, 
and especially so for light wheels. It is close- 
grained, tough, and has the required elasticity 
not to be found in any other timber. It is true 
that it loses its toughness with age when in 
use on a carriage, but this is also the case with 
all other timbers, much depending on the cli- 
mate or atmosphere, as the more exposed to 
dampness the more poroun it wi.l become; but 
when well covered with paint, which excludes 
the air, its quality remains the same. Almost 
all carriage spokes used in France are made of 
acacia timber, with the exception of the hick- 
ory spokes imported from the United States. 
Acacia makes good spokes for heavy carriages 
where no elasticity is required, and gives a very 
good fiaish when painted, as it is close-grained, 
but will rot very fast if the water penetrates on 
the inside tenons. Oak is far superior to 
acacia, as it will not rot and is tough, second 
oak, in fact, grading next to hickory. When 
acacia timber has been wet but a short time the 
tenon will break off very easy; and if used for 
our lighter grades of wheels, it would not stand 
the necessary use at all. 

Lumber in Southern California. 

The great boom in Southern California has 
created a demand for lumber, and the mills on 
Humboldt bay are actively engaged in filling 
orders. The price of the commodity has been 
raised and rates of freight are up to $7. Vessels 
are scarce, and a flset sulficient to carry away 
the output cannot be obtained. Sunday, a ves- 
sel in port which arrived without charter was 
offered $8 per thonsand feet to load lumber 
for San Pedro. Many of the shipyards on the 
coast have all the work they can attend to, 
building schooners for the coasting trade. 

It is claimed by our cotemporaries in the 
southern portion of the State that the boom 
there and the consequent increased demand for 
lumber has been one of the chief moving causes 
in the recent advance in the price of lumber 
throughout the State. 

A correspondent of the San Bernardino Index 
in speaking of this advance in prices says: It 

looks as though the growth of this section is 
likely to be arrested by the continued and un- 
reasonable advance in the price of lumber. 
There can be no additions to our population 
without building, and the capitalists who handle 
the lumber supply have kept raising the price 
until it has become almost prohibitory. 

There are illimitable forests of redwood and 
pine north of us, reaching as far as Alaska, yet 
lumber is sold for almost its weight in silver, 
and the price is advanced every few days "as 
much as the traflfio will bear." Unless a rem- 
edy can be found for the existing corner in lum- 
ber, the great immigration we are looking lor 
next winter will tind no foothold. 

I suggest two measures : 1. The starting of 
brickyards and substitution, so far as possible, 
of brick for lumber as a building material. 
There is no limit to the production of brick 
almost anywhere in our valley, and, so far as 
used, it will diminish the demand of lumber. 
2. Let some gentleman with pluck and capital 
enter into competition with the lumber kings 
and procure lumber from some part of the world 
that is not controlled by the monopoly. By 
thus increasing the supply and diminishing the 
price a great impulse would be given to build- 
ing, and const quently to our prosperity. Our 
future is intimately connected with the lumber 
question. Let it have a thorough ventilation 
in your columns. 

The soundness of a log of timber may be 
ascertained by placiag the ear close to the 
end of it, while another person delivers a suc- 
cession of smart blows with a hammer or mal- 
let upon the opposite end, when the continu- 
ance of vibrations will indicate to an expe- 
rienced ear even the degree of soundness. If 
only a dull thud meets the ear, the listener 
may be certain that soundness exists. 



Carbolic Smoke Ball 


Catarrh, Asthma, Diphtheria, Croup, Neu- 
ralgia, Hay Fever, Broncliitis. Cold 
in the Head, Sore Throat, Etc. 


Not Sold Toy XSr-U-gglstfii 

Circulars, Testimonials, Etc., Sent to any 
Address Free. 

Genuine Home Testimonials can be 
seen at our office. 


MA II nOnPQC "Smoke Ball" and "Deliella- 
InniL linUCnO. tor" packases sent tiy mail, 
with full direntiins, on receipt ot price, $5.00 (Smoke 
Ba-1, $3.00; Dobellator, 82.00), two l!-cenc Btampa. He- 
nit by Pobtal Note, Wells, Fargo & Co., or Postofflce 
Money Order, Uc^'istered Letter, or in coin by express. 


Rooms 7, 8, 9, 10. No. 652 Market St , Cor. 
Kearny (opp. Lotta Fountain), San Fraiiciscor^Jal. 
t^Separate Parlor for Ladies, wlio will be waited upon 
by skilled and polite lady attendants. 



Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

Portatile Straw-Bnriiini Boilers & Engines. 


Machinery of all kinds furniebcd at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery. 

IncluUinK Urape Crusliors and Steunners, Hevators, Wine 
PrceseB and Purapa, and all appliances used in Wine 
Cellars. IrriKatinj; and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Eneine Governor. Etc. 

If you want a good 
pair of Gloves, ask 
your merchant for 
our brand. 



DickertX Myers Sulphur Co. 


Cove Creek, - Utah Territory, 




/WGuarantecd Purer and Finer than any in this 


120 Front St., San Francisco. 



Cures all Diseases originating from 
a disordered state of the BLOOD oi 
LIVER. Rheumatism, Neuralgia 
Boils, Blotches, Pimples, Scrofula, 
Tumors, Salt Rheum and Mercurial 
Pains readily yield to its purifying 
nroperties. It leaves the Blood pure 
the Xiver and Kidneys healthy and 
the Complexion bright and clear. 

417 Sansome St. San Francisco 



of Guns, Pistols, Cartridi^es, Powder. Shells, Air Guns, 
Hunting Coats, Lcg-{;inj,'8, Loaditiy Implements, Base Bali 
Goo IS, Lnwn Teimis, boxing. Fencing %pd Gymnasium 
Goods, Du'nh Bells, Hammocks, etc. 
J!"iue (iun work done by firHt-class smiths. 
525 Kearny Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Plums, Apricots, Necta- 
rines, e'lC. 

Also a full etock of Apple 
Parers, PeacU Farers, etc. 

tsfSend for 


Circular and 


17 New Montgomery St. 
Saa Francisco. 



The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending June 30, 18S7, the Board of 
Directors of tlie Gorman Savings and Loan Society has 
declared a dividend at the rate of lour and thiity-two 
one hundredths (4 32- 100) ocr cent per annum on term 
deposits and three and sixty one-hundredths (3 GO lOO) 
per cent per annum on oridnary deposits, pajable on and 
after the 1st day of July, 1887. By order. 

GKO. LETTE, Secretary. 


and Loan Society, San Francisco, July 1, 18S7. — At 
a regular meeting of the Board o( Directors (if this So- 
ciety, held this day, a dii idend at the rate of 3^ per cent 
]ier annum was declared on all deposits for the six 
niimths ending June 30, 1887, paj'ablo from and after 
this date. 

UOBERT J. TOBIN, Secretary. 


A practical tre itise by T. A. Oarky. 
giving the rojiilts of long experi- 
ence in Soui/iicrn California. ISW 
pages, clotii l)ound. Sent post-paid 
at reduced price of 75 cts. per copy 
by DEWEY & CO. , Publisbeig, S. F 


f ACIFie l^URAlo f RESS. 

[Jdly 9, 1887 

Soatbern California Asphaltnm. 

The San Dleeo Mesas 
The following is part of a letter written by 
Carl A. Sohenck and sent to the, after a 
short stay in San Diego and Ban Luis Obispo 


The old Spauish settlers and missionaries had 
a great veneration for saints. To rivers, mount 
ains, valleys, churches — to many inanimate 
objects — this adjective is most liberally ap 
plied. Is this, perhaps, accounted for by the 
consciousness that men in general lack greatly 
in holiness? And is the said adjective used in 
this fashion to acknowledge and give reverend 
expression to the superlative impression which 
the grandeur of nature produces in human mind, 
doing honor at the same time and paying bom 
age to such noble souls, who, in life, have sacri 
ficed their own intercuts to the welfare of man 

The country around San Diego is built up in 

mesas or table-lnnds of light elevation with a 

much-worn mateiiil carried down from the 

mountains. Numerous creeks, which are now 

dry, have cut deep gulches into the beds of 

gravel and sand of post tertiary formation. The 

city of San Diego itself is built upon the long 

slope of such a mesa, running down to the beach 

with a gentle d<)gcent. 

* * * « * 

The asphaltum beds of San Luis Obispo cod- 
sisc of a eandy rock impregnated with the hydro 
carbon. The size of the grains composing this 
sandstone is from tine sand to the thickness of 
a man's thumb. Taken fresh from the quarry, 
the rock looks dark-brown to black; in the heat 
of the sun detached pieces become soft and cau 
be pulled asunder and the asphaltum drawn 
out in sticky fibers. Over miles of country are 
these hydrocarbonaceous deposits spread out 
with no other overlying formation than the 
fertile soil and the vegetation which it pro- 

Have torrents of some hydrocarbon been 
active in this particular place in wathiug down 
sand and gravel, performing the disintegrating 
and removing work, in which water is gener- 
ally the agent ? or is the asphaltum a prodnct 
of decomposition of immense growths of fu- 
coids and other sea-plants in loco ? 

Wherever the rock is bare of vegetation and 
where it stands out in bold cliffs it has been 
bleached superficially by the sun. Holes and 
small caverns are also disclosed in the struct- 
ure of the rock at such places. 

The hydrocarbonaceous substance is not 
evenly distributed throughout the formation, 
being more abundant in one place than in the 
other; the heat of the 6\in makes it ocze out of 
the ground in rich localities, forming a black, 
soft and lustrous crust which in shape reminds 
one or melted wax or tallow flowing do.xna 
gentle slope. 

Nature has produced a material which is ex- 
cellent for paving streets, not needing a pre- 
vious admixture of sand or other substance. 

Savins the Lawyers. 

"The first thing we do, let's kill all the lawyers." This 
is rather a blood thirsty proposilion, whiuh we modify 
by offering to cure this worthy class of people. Most of 
them suffer (in common with nearly all others of sef]en- 
tary habits), from tlie injurious effects of dyspep^^ia, 
indigestion, piles, loss of appetite, and other ailments 
caused by a constipated liabit of the body. Dr. Pierce's 
'*Pleasant Purgative Pellets" eradicate all the e disorders 
in promptly removing the cause thereof, and induce a 
rare degree of couiforC and health. 

Victory at Last. 
Conimmption, the greatest curse of the age, the de- 
stroyer of thousands of our bri-htcat and best, is con- 
quered. It is no longer incurable. Dr. Pierce's "Golden 
Medical Discovery" is a certain remedy for this terrible 
disease if taken in time All scrofulous diseases— con- 
sumption is a scrofulous affection of the lumfs— can be 
cured by it. Its effects in diseases of the throat and 
lungs are little less than miraculous. All druggists have 

Too well known to need lengthy advertisement— Dr. 
Sage's Catarrh Remedy. 

Consumption Cured. 

An old physician, retired from practice, ha\'ing had 
pla<7ed iu his hands by an East India missionary the 
lorinula of a simple vegetable remedy for the speedy 
and permanent cure of Consumption, Bronchitis, <'a- 
tarrb. Asthma, and all Throat and Lnng Affections, also 
a positive and radical cure for Nervous Debility and all 
Nervous Complaints, after having tested its wonderful 
curative pow-ers in thousands of cases, has felt it his 
duty to make it known to his suffering fellows. Actuated 
by this motive and a desire to relieve human suffering, I 
will send free of charge, to all who desire it, this recipe, 
in German, French, or Knglish, with full directions for 
preparing and using. Sent by mail by addressing with 
samp, naming this paper, W. A. NoTSS, 149 Powers' 
Block, Kochester, N. Y. 

Our Asente. 

Our Frirkds can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

Jarrd C Hoao — California 

G. W. Inoalls— Arizona 

Gko. McDoWKkL— Santa Barbara Co. 

J. L. DOYLI— M.arin Co 

W. J. FaxxxAN- Nevada. 

William Pool — Fresno Co. 

M. S. Primr— Alameda Co. 

K. O. Hi'NTON- Butte, Montana. 

E P Smith— Humboldt Co. 

Edmund Wrioht— Shasta and Teham.-i Cos. 

U. M. Uamilto.v— San Mateo and Santa Crun Cos. 

proper Care orth^jnay 


^/\kick of 
horse orcovi/ 
.inoy cau«c 

the s\ij» oj 
CKTX cvx€ or 

■r«tsu(t in Ok 
S erious C4*j. 

AlvV o^tf^CSC tilings >nay 
hapf>crt fro one ^ y0U«. 
fcvrtt ily ^ ^(^^^^y '**^o me nt . 
Ha.\tc yoiKifkbottlf of 


rcaoy joru ^c >w s vccV ca.sesj 
\\:hc^S>Ko e^u<n Aorthjecuxe of 

bmiscs, Sbrains, Sokm, 'm^^tt 
biUi A c— All bruqtii its Sell it 

Lapd? for ?ale apd Jo Let. 

Glen CoYe Rancho for Sale. 

This Rancho is situated at tide-water on the north 
shore of the Straits of Carquinez in Solano County, and 
comprises about 415 acres of good grain land. It is 
fenced and cross-fenced with five-board fence, and is well 
calculated for fiuit raising. Has a young orchard of 
upward of 700 trees now- well started; also a vineyard of 
7000vinesof wine-producing grapes. The improvements 
consist of a large bam covering an area of 30x60, with 
15-foot stables on either s'de; also a warehouse 30x(iO for 
storing grain (with wharf) at tide-water, thus saving the 
expense of hauling grain for shipment. A wagon-house, 
a conservatory, slieds for storing machinery, hen -houses 
and inclosed yards, with a modero-built, two-story 
bouse with man.sard roof and cellar under the w-holc 
structure, resting on an IS-inch stone wall; has 15 large, 
fine rooms, harU-flnisbed walls, furnished with hot and 
cold water from two large cisterns and a spring upward 
of 100 feet above the house. Has a fine garden and 
pleasant surroundings; is about 30 miles from San Fran- 
cisco and four miles from Vallejo or Benlcia, with good 
road^ by land and a pleasant sail by water. The pros- 
pective railroad from Santa Rosa to Benicia is expected 
to pa^s directly in front of the place, and a flag station is 
promiied by said railroad company. Tlie soil is of a rich 
loam and very deep. In point of health and climate no 
section of the State can surpass it. The live-stock and 
the farming implements will be sold, if desired, at very 
low figures. A rare opportunity is offered for any one 
who wants a very desirable place at a very favorable 
price For further particulars apply on the premises or 
address, JOHN F. DEMINO, Vallejo, Solano Co , Cal. 


Francis Clitino. 



Fire, Mariie, Life am Aimideiii liisnraice Ageots 



i^L&^K^ am) small tracts nf land fur sale on easy 
tcrm^ Corret-pundunue solicited. 

OFFICE, MftBonlc Temple. Stockton, Cftl. 


On the new extension of Southern Pacific Railroads, 
on the lands belonging to R. T. BUELL, Esq., near Los 
Alamos, Santa Barbara county, Cal. Parties desiring to 
visit the property now, oan go via San Luis Obispo and 
take the cars from thence to Los Alamos, thence by stage 
to the Colony. 80, OOO acres of the best lands in Call 
fornia, subdivided into '20, 40 and 80-aor« farms; $20 to 
ONION. 401 California St., San Francisco 



Home of Wheat, Fruit, Wine and Olive; 15,000 acres 
sold in past 8 months to 220 settler', representing a pop- 
ulation of 1100; 4'J,000 acres — small subdivisions — aver- 
age, $22.50 an acre; i cash, balance 6 years, per cent. 
Catalogues and mapa fr«e. C. U. PHILLIPS, Manaifer. 



309 and 311 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Agents for Growers and Manufacturers. Charterers of Vessels for all Trades. AgaDte 
for the Mexican Phosphate and Sulphur Company's Products. 
General Insurance Agents. 
Have correspondents in all the chief cities of the United States, Europe, Australia, India, China and the prind 
pal islands of the Pacific Purchase goods .ind sell California products iu those countries. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of NATIONAL ASSURANCE CO., of Ireland; 


Air-Purifier and Preserving-Room 


ADAPTABLE to keep or transport all perishable articles in perfect condition. After 16 years of studying the 
various means of preservation for perishable articles, I have the honor to announce to the public that, having 
fully succeeded and csmpleted my preserving process, I am now ready to build preserving rooms, either on a large 
or small scale. For urther particulars address 


Poetofflce Box P. 

West Berkeley, Cal. 

N. B. — Save hundreds of thousands of dollars this season on this coast oa Cherries and Apricots by adopting 
he Allegretti Air Purifier and Preserving-Room System. 




General Merchandise, Groceries, Agricultnral Implements, Wagons, 


We buy for cash and sell for cash. The old credit system has been abandoned. We will not 
be undersold. We fjuarantee all goods aa represented. We will give good valus for 
your money. Our motto is quick sales and small profits and speedy returns. 
^Farmers and consumers will find it to their interest to call and see us and be convinced. 

T. A. LAUDER. Manager. 

Reliable Agents started in Business without Capital! 

Write for Particulars. MY AGENTS ARE MAKING $5,$10,$15,$20,$25and $30 PER DAY 

sciiingiLewis'sCotnbiQation Uand torre Pnnips. 

It makOR 3 complete machines. I have Agents 
all over the 1". S, who are maklnjf $in to $.itl per 
day Helling; these Pumps. I vtve their name and 
uddrcHS in Catulokiue. T<t intriKiuce it I will send 
a nample Pump, express tuanu express stntiim 
in tiie (7. N. /.>r Made of brafs: will throw 
water Irom oO t«» i*) leel. and retails for tmly Ki.OO. 
Indiaponsablc for sprayinK Iriiit trees. The 
Potato Btiar ACtiichmenl is a wonderful Invention. Thev sell rapidly. A(iKNT^4 WANTED 

EVKKVWHKUK Si'nd ill onci- illustralprI ratalopii.. prloe-lisl ami Icrms. GOODS (iU.A RA.NTKKI) 
AS KKI>KESE.\TEU OU MONEY KEfUNUEU. Address P. C. iLKWIM, Calsklll, New York. 


T^Ht, H. H. H. Horsn Liniment puts 
new life into the Antiqn.-itM Horse I 
For the last 14 yoars the H. H. H. Horse 
Liniment has been tlie Ifading remedy 
araouK Farmers and Htockxru n for the 
cure of HprainB, BmisBB^ 8liff Joints, 

cure of HpraiDB, BmisBB, 8liff Joint! 
BpavinB, Win(l(ratls, Bore Shonldpre, etc 
and for Family Use is without an eqna 
for llheumatism, Nenralpia, Aches, Pains, 
Brnisw. Cnts.anilSprainHotallohararters. 
The H. H. H. Liniment has many imita- 
tions, and we cantioa the Public to see 
that the Tr.-ide Mark " H. H. H." is on 
every Hottlo liefore pnrehasinp. For sale 
ercrj-wliore for 60 cento and $1.00 per 

For Sale by all druKglstR 


— FOR — 

HheamatlBm, Neural- 
gia, Pneumonia, Pa- 
ralyslB, Aethma, Sci- 
atica, Oout, Lumbago 
and DeattiesB. 

Everybody should have It. 
G. a. BURNETT, Ag' 
327 Uontgoniery St, S. F. 
Price, Jl.OO. Sold by all Drug- 
gists. ^'Call and see 
OiTioB— 426 Kearny St. 
San Francisco. 


Superior Wood and Metal Krigrav- 
Ing. filectrotyplng and 8tere<>typlDK 
door at the offioe of this paper . 

II. F,. Amoorb, Pres. G. O. BtKKR. Sec'v. 


120 Sutter St , San Francisco. 



And all kinds ol Japanese Trees, Plants, Etc. 
Send for Circular. 


.s. L. (ioLD.MA.V, Mauajcr. 
120 Sutter St. San Francisco, Cal. 


Trees, Plants, BnHs anfl Seefls, 





YER'S OilTaoncd, W»ter- 
proof, harid-sew«d Buckskin 
Gloves manufactured tin tt e 
I'ncilic Coast are made by the WATERPROOF OI-OVK 
CO., Wfst Oakland, Cal. The Hand-sewed Harvest 
Buckskin Glove will be sent by retristered mail at our 
riisk on receipt of il.'ib. Money will be refunded fur 
every pair that does not (five Katiufaction. Send vour 
address, and price list of other styles, with samples of tlio 
buckskin, will be sent FREE. 

July 9, 1887] 



Paris Green vs. Arsenic. 

Editors Peess: — The statements which have 
been made from time to time in the Press that 
Paris green was a stronger poison than white 
arsenic, were so different from my experience in 
using large quantities of these poisons that I 
doubted the accuracy of the statements. In or- 
der to settle the matter definitely, I addressed 
letters to professors of various universities and 
Agricultural Colleges in different States, and 
lastly to the Chemist of the Department of 
Agriculture at Washington, through the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, asking for a definite 
answer to the question, " Which is the .stronger 
poison, arsenic or Paris green ?/' From only two 
of these have I been able to get a satisfactory 
answer. I was surprised that some of the par 
ties addressed should state that they could not 
answer my question, for the reason they could 
never discover any difference in these poisons. 
I had supposed that every chemist had in his 
laboratory some tests by which the relative 
strength of various substances could be positive- 
ly ascertained. At all events, it seems to me 
they should be in possession of such knowl- 

Yesterday's mail brought an answer to my 
letter of inquiry from the Chemist of the De- 
partment of Agriculture, a copy of which I 
send you for publication: 

The poisonous properties of Paris green depend 
largely on the amount of arsenic which it contains. 
Pound for pound, white arsenic contains a much 
larger portion of arsenic than Paris green. The 
actual poisonous effects of any toxic agent are large- 
ly controlled by the nature of the organism to which 
it is to be applied. Hence, in some cases, white ar- 
senic, and in others Paris green, might prove a more 
powerful poison. In general white arsenic is to be 
considered, however, a more powerful toxic agent 
than Paris green. 

The answer to my letter of inquiry to the 
president of the Colorado Agricultural College is 
substantially the same as given above. I am, 
therefore, still of the opinion that arsenic is a 
more deadly poison than either Paris green or 
liindon purple, and is much cheaper. 

Santa Rita. J. S. Tibbits. 

List of D. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

BeporteCt by Dewey Sc Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

FroiH the official report ot U. S. Patents in Dbwit & 
Co. 's Patent OlBce Library, 2'.0 Market St.,S. F. 


365586. — CoKN-PoFPER — J, B. Divis, Santa 
Ropa. Cal. 

365.508, — Engine Governor — Geo. E. Dow, 
S. K. 

365.518.— Ore-Feeder— J. & J. H. Hendy, S. F. 

365 521.— Screen for Flumes, Etc. — D. B. 
Hunt, Angels Camp, Cal. 

365,754. — Car-Axle Lubricator — Lyon & 
r.!unro, S. F. 

365,632.— Brick Kiln Fire-Box — J. W. Read, 
San Diego, Cal. 

365,544. — Wad-.Sorter — Prentiss Selby, S. F. 

365,558. — Mower Attachment — A. White, 
Kerbyville, Ogn. 

NOTB.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co. , in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business (or Paciflc Coa tt 
inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persona receiving this paper marked arc re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3.a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
cents, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
subscriber, please show the paper to others. 

Sonoma County Lands. — L. W. Walker, 
about two and a half miles from Petaluma, is 
about to cut up 400 acres of land on the 
border of Marin and Sonoma counties into 
lots to suit purchasers, from one acre upward. 
The land lies on the road to Marshalls. It will 
be sold at about an average price of .$75 an 
acre. Mr. Walker has a full dairy ranch, 
stocked with 100 head of Jerseys. It has am- 
ple pasturage for that number and is in com- 
plete order for carrying on the business. 

Chemical Work at the University. — 
Though the laboratories in which public work 
is done will be closed during the University va- 
cation, it will be possible to secure chemical 
work of private interest during the vacation by 
addressing Mr. G. E. Colby at I^erkeley. He is 
a skillful analyst who will remain at the labor- 
atory, and will prepare analyses of soils, waters, 
or any other materials for moderate charges. 

The Boss Fleece. — A merino sheep, owned 
by Reynolds & Danks, Summer county, Kan- 
sas, recently yielded a fleece weighing 53 
pounds, the heaviest on record. He was clip- 
ped by an expert, who took six hours to com> 
plete the job. 

Relics of '49. 

Editors Press: — The following item, taken 
from the Nevada City Herald, is going the 
rounds of the press: 

" Scattered here and there among the pines 
and thickets, along the streams that were mined 
away back in the fifties, are many lonely 
graves. The lapse of years has destroyed the 
stakes which once stood at head and foot, cov- 
ered them with leaves, and in some cases trees 
are growing upon the little mounds, and in a 
few more years there will be nothing left to 
mark the resting-place of many a pioneer who 
died and was buried without the rites of burial. 
Many of these graves are lost to even those 
who once knew where they were, and in a few 
years there will remain to us nothing of them 
but memories. Along the banks of Deer creek, 
the Yuba and all other streams that were once 
remarkable for their richness, can be seen the 
sites of the cabins of the 'tQars. Time has de- 
stroyed the walls and roofs of those cabins, but 
the level ground floors and the old stone chim- 
neys, plastered with mud, still remain. These 
old chimneys are the only monuments left to 
mark the places where the pioneers lived 
through the stirring 'days of gold.' And even 
the chimneys are fast crumbling with decay. 
Vines, weeds, bushes and the mold which gath- 
ers about all old ruins have been slowly hid- 
ing them from sight." it 

Yea, and who of to-day cares ? Scribblers of 
this era in too many instances picture the 
'49ers as men whose highest aim was to wash 
for gold, bear bowie-knives in their boots and 
revolvers girded about their waists, gambling 
their sport, with murder ever in their eye. 
There is wild romance in this and there is more 
bold in romance than manliness. So base have 
been the representations of the men of '49, that 
regard ceases to spring in the breast of the 
younger California population as they view the 
remains of the long ago. It is only those who 
knew the character of the men of the past who 
can cast an appreciative glance at the relics of 
'49. They honor the age. They love the times. 
They knew and appreciated the men — ^men of 
manliness; men of nerve; men of vim; of intelli 
gence and brains such as never congregated as a 
population in any nation's history. It was the 
uprising of the energy and enterprise of the 
world — the emigration of 1849. They came, 
they saw, they delved; turned rivers, made 
mountain passes accessible, brightened the 
commerce of the world, gilded homes of every 
civilized nation. They built towns and cities, 
and crowned their labors by building a State, 
and all within 18 months. One by one the old 
cabins go to make room for the grander struct- 
ure. This is as it should be. Onward the 
State must move, but as you level the homes 
of the '49ers, think of their occupants as 
brothers belonging to the heroic age of Cili- 
fornia. The State builds a monument to Mar- 
shall; the '49ers built their own monument — 
The Great State of California. 

Almarin B. Paul. 

San Franciaro, June, 1SS7. 

The Use of Geared Windmills. 

As the utility, convenience, economy and 
durability of wind power becomes better 
known, the demand rapidly increases, and the 
day is not far distant when a majority of the 
windmills put up will be geared for driving all 
kinds of farm machinery. 

The accompanying illustration represents a 
Halladay Standard-geared windmill, erected on 
one end of a barn and as used for running the 
I X L feed mill, I X L corn sheller, I X L 
stalk cutter, wood saw, grindstone and pump, 
all of which goods are manufactured by the 
U. S. Wind Engine and Pump Co. of Bitavia, 

Wind Engine for farm Use. 

111. This company has made the manufacture 
of windmills and accompanying machinery a 
specialty for over 30 years, and is said to 
have the largest factory of the kind in the 
world, and scarcely a week passes during which 
time it does not make shipments to difi'erent 
parts of the globe. 

We can cheerfully recommend this company 
and their goods as being perfectly reliable. 
This illustration also represents the Standard 
haying tools, consisting of the Noyes Anti-fric- 
tion, Standard Four-wheel and Rod Hay Car- 
riers, Grapple and Harpoon Hay Forks, etc., as 
used for mowing away hay. All of the above 
goods being also manufactured by the same 

American Apples in England. — Accord- 
ing to the statement of English journals, the 
apples received in England from tdis country, 
last year, sold for £700,000, or nearly 83,500,- 
000. Of this amount the Canadian frnit 
brought $400,000. 

Anderson Springs. 

About these Springs a well-known journalist 
writes as follows: 

Anderson Springs are second to none in Amer- 
ica for refreshing and curative qualities. 

They are to us the most beautifully situated, best 
shaded, romantic and picturesquely surrounded of 
all remedial springs favorably and generally known 
in California. The climate is decidedly cooler in 
summer than is usual in places of resort in Lake 
county, which seems destined to be the greatest and 
best sanitarium district of the whole Pacific Coast. 
It is notably beneficial to consumptives and asthmat- 
ics; for dyspepsia, rheumatism, dropsy, stomach, 
liver and kidney complaints, Anderson Springs are 
exceedingly valuable. 

Beautitul streams of clear, cool water traverse the 
extensive natural and majestic groves. The waters 
are hot and. cold, and contain sulphur, soda, iron 
and other purifying and invigorating qualities, in a 
remarkable degree. Some of the springs are very 
cold, effervescent, aromatic and altogether palata- 
ble and agreeable. 

Important improvements have been added to the 
place each season since opened, and continuously 
kept, by the present ownership; during that time, 
the number of guests has annually increased. 

This resort is a particularly desirable one for fam- 
ilies and pleasure-seeking guests who desire rest and 
recuperation, with reasonable recreation and so- 

Pure hot and cold water, and hot and steam sul- 
phur biths, are free to all guests. 

The board is exceptionally good, and the whole 
establishment is honestly and taithfully conducted, 
in a homelike manner, wholesome and gratifying to 
its large number and deserving class of visitors. 

A large collection of cleanly kept cottages con- 
veniently surround the hotel, providing pleasant ac- 
commodations for many guests. 

These are facts concerning One of the most prom- 
ising and natural gifted sanitariums in the world. 
Let no one be deceived. 

Location, Etc. 

Board, $to to $14 per week. Route from S. F. — 
Take morning tram to Calistoga, Napa Co., Cal, 
After arrival of train, stages leave Calistoga diily for 
Middletown, 17 miles; fare $2. Private team to 
Springs, i\% miles, $1. Express and P. O. address, 
Middletown, Lake Co., Cal. Write for further in- 
formation. J. Anderson, Proprietor. 

Bull Punch or Trocar. — Mr. Burke, of 4or 
Montgomery street, an enthusiastic breeder and im- 
porter of Holsteins and Berkshire?, has a sample 
Trocar just manufactured to his order in the Eist. 
They are strong, serviceable instruments and are 
claimed to be far better adapted to farmer's use 
than the fancy instruments usually costing Irom $5 
up. It is made of the best steel and provided with 
a silver-plated sheath. The punch is inserted in 
the nose before removing the sheath, the punch is 
then withdrawn leaving the sheath in tlie nose, the 
end of the bull ring is then inserted into the small 
end of the sheath, the ring being carefully pushed 
through, at the same time withdrawing the sheath; 
leaving the ring in the nose. The instrument is 
also very useful in severe cases of bloat. Its cost 
postpaid is only $1. The advertisement will be 
found in our advertising columns. 

Newspaper Agents Wanted. 

Extra inducements will be oflered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal and other first-class popu- 
lar newspapers. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. 

Dewey & Co., Publishers, 

No. 2?2 Market St., S. F. 

Suit Pending. — The Newark Machine Co. of 
Columbus, Ohio, owners of the patents of the " Im- 
perial" Automatic Swing Straw Stacker, have 
brought suit in the United Stales Court of Chicago 
this week, against W. T. Shell of Polo. Ills., and 
Davis, Luthy & Co. of Peoria, Ills., in the sum of 
$25,000 each, tor building and off ering for sale " Im- 
perial" Automatic Swinging -Straw Slackers that the 
Newark Machine Co. claim are infringing the 
patents belonging to them. It would be well for 
dealers and threshmen to beware of spurious-made 

Easy Binder. 

Dewey's patent elastic binder, for periodicals, music 
and other printed sheets, is the handiest, best and cheap- 
est ot all economical and practical file bluderB. News- 
papers are quickly placed iti it and held neatly, as in a 
cloth-bound book. It is durable and so simple a child can 
use it. Price, size of Mining and Scientific Press, Rural 
Press, Watchman, Fraternal Record, Masonic Record, 
Harper's Weekly, and Scientiflc American,?.') cents; post- 
age, 10 cents. Postpaiil to subscribers of this paper, 60 
cents. Send for illustrated circular. Amenta wanted. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber whc 
does not want it, or beyond the time he intend.8 to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costiti),; one cent only) will uuttico. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish it, but if it is continued, through the failure of the 
subscriber to notify us to discontinue it, or some Irre- 
sponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand paymentfor the time it is sent. Look cakrfullt 


Cuts for Sale. 

Duplicate cuts of illustrations appearing in this 
paper for sale by applying at this office. 

Back Files of the PAf:iFic Rural Press (un- 
bound) can be had for $3 per volume of six months. 
Per year (two volumes) $1;. Inserted in Dewey's 
patent binder, 50 cents additional per volume. 

A Fact.— With the King of Soaps the faini'y washing 
can be done as easily as any other part ol the household 

Inducements to Subscribers. 

To favor subscribers to this paper, and to Induce new 
patrons to try our publication, we will furnish, to those 
who pay fully one year in admnce 0/ date, if rrqdestbd 
the following articles (while this notice continues), at the 
very greatly reduced figures named at the ri ht : 
1. — 'The Agricultural Features of California, by Prof. 
Hilgard, 138 large pages, illustrated, cloth, with 

colored maps (full price 81) $0.25 

2. — World's Cyclopedia, 794 pages, 1250 illustrations; 

(exceedingly valuable) 50 

3. — Uewey's Patent Elastic Binder (cloth cover), name 

of this paper stamped in gilt 50 

4. — Niles' Stock and Poultry Book for Pacific Coast, 

pamphlet, 120 pages, illustrated 25 

5. — Kendall's Treatise on the Horse and Diseases, 89 

pages, instructive illustrations 05 

6. — To New Subscribers, 12 select back Nos. of the 
Rural Press, "good as new " Free 

7. — Any of Harper's, Frank Leslie'sand most other first- 
class U. S. periodicals, 15 per ct. off regular rates. 

9. — Pacific Coast and Eastern Dailies, Books and Period- 
icals, except special publications, we can usually 
give 10 to 15 per cent off advertised retail rates. 

10. — March of Empire, by Mallie Stafford 25 

1 1. — Life Among the Apaches, 322 pages, stiff cloth .25 

12. — $1 worth of choice seeds, to be selected from a list 

of 107 flower and 82 garden seeds, as previously pub- 
lished, or which list we will send on application .25 

14. — Dewey's Pat. Newspaper Fileholder (18 to 36 in.) .25 

15. — European Vines Described, 63 pages 05 

19. — Webster's Dictionary, 634 pages, with 1500 illustra- 
tions; very handy and reliable 50 

23. — Architectui-e Simplified, 60 pages 05 

24. — Mother Bickerd>ke'8 Life with the Army; patriotic 

and ably writteii; 1C6 pp., cloth, $1.00 50 

25. — Ropp's I^asy Calculator, cloth, 80 pp 25 

26 — How to Tell the Age ot a Horse 05 

ij7.— Percheron Stud Book — French — bound in 

leather, 192 pages (full price, $3) 1.00 

28. — What Every One Should Know; a cyclopedia of 

valuable information; 510 pp.; cloth; (full price 
81) 50 

29. — Knitting and Crochet, by Jennie June; 144 pp., 

200 illustrations 25 

30. — Needle Work, by Jennie June; 126 pp., 200 illu«- 

trations ,25 

31. — Ladies' Fancy Work, by Jennie June; 152 pp., 700 

illustrations 25 

32. — The Way to do Magi •; illustrated, 60 pp 10 

33 —The Taxidermist's Manual; illustrated, 64 pp. . .10 
Beautiful Poetic Review, entertaining and instructive ; 

35 pages (a handsome and pleasing present). . .25 

Note. — The cash must accompany all orders. Addres 
this office. No. 252 Market .St., S. F. 

Inform your neighbors about our offers and paper. 

Sample copies of this paper mailed free to persons 
thought likely to subscribe. 

Send for free circular describing most of these pre- 
miums, and any further information desired. 


Sold by Dewey & Co., Publishers " Pacific 
Earal Press." 

book for the orchardist (in prena ration). 

and brief descriptions, by I. Bleasdale, D. D. Invalu- 
able to those growing the vinifera. Price, in pamphlet, 
50 cent-*. 

of Los Angeles. The m )st comprehensive treatise on 
the growth of this fruit. It contains full instructions 
for growing the trees, planting and care of orchards, 
etc.; 227 i>ages. Price, 75 cents. 

A practical treatise full of useful hints for beginners in 
this State; 20 pages. Pamphlet, price 25 cents. 

annual conventions ha\'e resulted in bringing out the 
best and most useful information concerning the 
growth of different fruits in this St'ite. The subjects 
discussed are of the most direct jiractical value and 

■ the facts laid down wiO prove heli)ful and suggestive 
to all in the fruit business. We have the reports of 
1881, 1882, 1884, and 18S5— the first for 10 cents, the 
others at 25 cents each. 

By Prof. Hilgard, 138 large pages, bound in stiff cloth, 
with colored maps, SI. This book is the best general 
review of California soils, climate and profluctions in 

ing directions applicable to poultry growing in this 
State; 120 pages, post-paid for 50 cents. 

EASES— Post-paid fur 25 cents. 

A HOUSE.— Contains plans and amounts of materials 
for a number of buildings from a little cottage to a 
large dwelling. Price, five cents. 

Books for the Household. 

We desire to give our readers every advantage in obtaining 
useful hooks at the moat favorable rates attainable. We 
offer below a number which we believe will be found accept- 
able to many readers of the Ri;kai., and the reduced prices 
at which we cau furnish them to our cash-in-advance sub- 
scribers -posti'aid— will place them within the reach of 


A Cyclopedia of practical information. Gives full direc- 
tiops for making and doing over 5000 things netassary in 
business, the shop, the farm, the kitchen and the home. 
Recipes, prescriptions, trade secrets, law, art work, agri- 
culture, etc. Compiled from the most rcliaulo sources 
and alphabeticallv arranged by S. H. Burt. 510 pages, 
cloth. Postpaid 50 cents. Regular price, $1. 

THE WAY TO DO MAaiO. - Illustrated. 
Plain directions to enable any one to become proficient 
in Jugglery and Legerdemain. 60 pages. Postpaid, 
10 cents. 

trated. How to Collect, Prepare, Movmt and Preserve 
all kinds of Beasts, Birds, Insects, etc. By Prof. Graham 
Allen, {'A i>ages. Postpaid, 10 cents. 

Use ot the Needle and the Hook. Edited by Mrs. Croly 
(Jenny June), 144 pages, 200 illustrations. Postpaid, 
26 cents. Regular price, 60 cents, 

NEEDLE- WORK.— A Manual of Stitches and 
Studies in Embroidery and Drawn Work. Edited by 
Mrs. Croly (Jenny Juno). 126 pages, 200 illustrations. 
Postpaid, 26 cents. Regular price, 50 cents. 

LADIES' FANCY-WORK.— A Manual of De- 
signs and Instructions in all kinds of Needle-Work, em- 
bracing Embroidery, Kensington, Lace-Work, Tatting, 
Net-Work, Wax Flowers, Piinting on Silk, etc. Edited 
by Jeony June. 162 pages, 700 illustrations, 26 cents, 
postpaiil. Regular price, 60 cents. 



[July a, 1887 

MBders' directory. 

six linee or less in tbia Director}' <kt 60c per line per month. 


QUO. BEMEN f & SON, Redwood City. Ayrshire 
Cattle Soiitlidown .Sneep, Essex Swine. 

R. J. MBRKBLiEY, Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percherou Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

BRADLEY RANCH, San Jose, CaL, breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle and Berk- 
■blre Hogs. A choice lot of young stock tor sale. 

M. D HOPKINS, Fetiluma, Cal. Eastern Imported 
registered Shorthorn Bulls and Heifers for sale. 

LANO and Artis 9tr.iin3; all ig«8; largest herl to 
Kelect from. Young bulls, low. (All registered.) F. II. 
burke, 401 Montgomery St., S. F. 

B.J. TURNER. Hollistcr, Breeder of Percheron-Nor- 
mun registered Horses and Roadsters. 

E. W.STBBLiE, San Luis Obispo, Cal., breeder o' 
Thoroughbred Holstein and Jersey Cattle. 

BETH COOK, Dinville, "Cook Farm," Contra Costa 
Co., breeder of Aberdeen Angus, Galloways and Ue- 
VOBS (Registered). Voung stock for sale. 

PETER £iAXS <Sc SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 16 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

M/ILiLIAM "NILES. Lot Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write tor ciroular. 

J . R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thorou^fhbrod Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

THffl BEST HSrtD OH" JEKSEYS, all A. J. C. 
C registered, is owned by Henry Pierce, San Francisco. 

H W. OOWELL, Stockton, "Morrano Farm," breeder 
and importer (and agent for Leonard Bros., Mo.) of 
Abenleen und Ualloways. Voung stock for s.'tle. 

T. B. MILiLiER, Beecher, III. Oldest and best herd 
Htrefoid Cattle in U. S. Caltle delivered inCalifornia. 

suition, F. ii W. P. K. K. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Hanaver. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

W. J. MARSH & SON. Dayton, Nevada. Regis- 
tered Shorthorns of choicely bred stiains. 

H van der STRATEN, llopland p. O., Durham 
Valley Farm, Mendocino Co., breeder of Shorthorn Cal- 
tle (registered). Voung stock for sale. 

J. H. WHITE. Likeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 

of Registered Holstein Cattle. 


JA3. T. BRO Mti, 18 Georgia St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeder of llioroughbrcd Poultry of the leading va- 
rieties. Send tor circular and price list. 

W. C. DAMON, Najia, S2 each for choice Wyandottes, 
Leghorns, Lt. Brahma>4, Houdaiis. Eggs, iZ, 

sale at all limes of all the most popu:ar and prolit«ble 
varieties. Plea.w inclose stamp for new circular and 
price list to R U. Head, Napa, Cal. 

Box 116, Oakland, Cal. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Embden 
Oeeae, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

O. J. AljlAiljl, Lavtrence, Cal., breeder and importer. 

D. H. EVERETT, 1618 Larkin St.,S. F., Importer and 
breeder of Thorough ured Langshans and Wyandottes. 


4u0 e^'gt. i:>0; 160 eggs, $26. Guarantee satisfaction. 
For particulars address, 1. P. Clark, M.iytleld, Cal. 

Cal.; send tor illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

E. O. O LAPP, South Pasadena, Cal. Light Brahmas 
(Williams-Foot stock). Plymouth Rocks (Kiefler-Oonger 
stock). Fowls and Egg» in season. Nu circulars; write 
for wants. 

MRS. M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose. White and 
Brown Leghorns, Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, Light 
Brahmas, Pekio Ducks and Bronze Turkeys. 


JACK, BBSS and REDWOOD imported 
strains; pairs and trios, not akin, at farmers' prices. 
Young boars, low. F. H. Burke, 401 Montgomery St. S.T'. 

WILLIAM NILES, Lo8AngeleB,CBl. Thoroughbred 
Pnland-Ohina and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars tree 

L L. DICKINSON, Lone Oak Farm, Souora, Tuol- 
umne Co. , CaL , breeder of thoroughbred Essex Hoga 
Pigs now ready for sale. Prices reasonable. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder ot Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My etook of Hogs ate all 
reoorded in the American Berkshire Record, 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
thoroughbred Berkshire and Rssex Hogs. 


K. W. WOOLSEY <3i SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
imp'rs &■ b'ders Thoroughbred Merino, k Jersey Cattle. 

BASTON MILLS, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., thorough- 
^r«»d Sitanish Merino Sheep. Choice rams for sale 

A. Q. STONBSIFBR, Hill's Ferry, Stanislaus Co., 
Cal., breeder ot pure blooded French Merino Sheep, 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Ca!., importer and 
breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds cross-bred 
Merino and Shropehire Sheep. Rams for sale. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal., Importer and breeder 
oi Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys & Berkshire Swiiit high graded rams tor sale 

F. BULLARD, Woodland, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep. Premium baud of the State. 
Choice bucks and ewes for sale. 

R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down of Long John Weutworth herd for sale. 

Ferry, Cal. , breeders ot Merino Sheep. Rams tor sale. 

T. fi. HARLAN, Williams, Colusa Co., breeder pure 
blooded Angora goats, ii Merinos; young stock fur sole. 

Hof^SES i^ND Gi^TT^B* 

Durham Cattle for Sale! 


Cows, Heifers and Young Bulls. 



Will sell in lots to suit purchasers. Address 

Box 176. Visalla, Cal. 


Four registered pure bred Ilolstc'n Bulls. Sired by 
the well-known bull, Nero, 2-2u9, U. H. B. Will sell 
cheap. For further particulars apply to 

H. P. MOHR, 
Mt. Eden. Alamnrta no. na) 


Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

Baden Station, - San Matso Co., Cal 

The New Music Books of the Season 

Musiral people on their travels are inviteii to call at 
the vanuUM stores of ( livkk Iiit^'on & C i., Biaton, New 
Vork and Philadelphia, or at Lt >N 6l t. K4I.y's, Chicag->, 
to e.xaniine the \er\ super or Music Books b ought, out 
during the luf-l few nioncl.s 

Piano Classics, 

'Voung People's Classics for Piano, 
&oiig iJlassics, 

Son^ CJasbics for Low Voices, 

^1 eat'h. lliuh i-lass iiiu.->ic, retii.ed and pleasing. 

Good Old Songs We Uned to Sing, 

#1 -.5. llf. .Songs. 

Part-Sonprs and Gleep, i ■ KtperBon. 
Aninems oi Praise, § I Kmeison. 

line collections. 
Royal Singer, $1- A royal good ■inging-olass 


Voices of Praise, K»ch ."is cnts. 

Son«8 of Promise, Y For Sunday 

Song Worship, J Schools. 
Voices of Nataf^e, '♦0 cts. "l Good, easy, 
Foresi Jubilee Band, 40 ota. - new, 
New Flora's Festival, 40 eta j Cantatis. 
Life ot Liszt, §1 •-'.'>. \New Bi- 

New Life of Mendelssohn, $l ■'iO. / ographies 

These are bill IG lio'iks ■•ut o( -.'UIKJ that a e in stock. 
Lists cheerfully tarnished, and all iii()iiirics ^ rouiptly 

iH^Aiiv Bonk mailed tor Retail Price. 


C. H. DITSON & CO., - - 8«7 Broadway, Nitw York. 

W. H . Worth's Pat. Grape Stemmer 


After experi- 
incoting for the 
past three years, 
I ha\e perfected 

Best Stemmer 

the market. 
Those wishing 
Urapc Machinery, 
pleast) write for 
cir< ular. See ad- 
vertisement, i n 
next week's issue, 
of mv Patent 
Wine Press. 

W H. WOBTd, Petaluma, Sonoma Go , Cal. 

CHIC AGO 8><^ 


FacilitiCit for leucbing and clinical adranta^es 
unaurpassec!. Keyular winter session for 1387— 
1888 commences October 1st. For prospectus and 
lurtliei infonuiitiun. iiddress the J^ecretary 

HS'A'i untl S.>aO Slu(« Street. l'lilc-u»«. HI. 


226 Oeary Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Menilier of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
England; also Registered at the Ontario 
Veterinary College, Canada. 

tibouid consult 

California Inventors 

\NL> FoKKiuN Patent Holicitorm, for ubtaiuing PateDtn 
and Caveatd. Gstahlinhed io 1S60. Their long expvrience as 
jourualists and large practice as Patent attorneys enabled 
thcni to olTor Pacific <.'oaat Inventors far better survice than 
they can obtain elsewhere. Send for free clrciil&rs of Inf jr- 
natioD. Otttoeof th« Ml vino ani> Bci entifT'- Frehs and 
Pacific Rural Prrrs No. 252 Market 8t., Sau Francisoo 
Elevator. 12 Front tit. 


That the puhlic should know that for the past .Sixteen Years our Sole ISnsiuoM lias been, and now Is, 
importing (Over 1 OO Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock —Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Avrshires, 
and Jerseys (er Alderneys) and their grades; also, all the varietlvs of breeding Sliuep and Hogs. We' can sup- 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable prices and on conTeul»nt 
terms. Write or call on us. PfCTER SAXE and HOMER P. SAXC. 

San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 22, lSf*a. PKTER .S.VXK & .SON, lAch Hons*, .S. F. 

Are i o 

fuoa tor (-"ouitry ? 
«• IF NOT, WHY NOT?'«l 
Every Grocsr and Merchant sells It. 


425 WA8U1NQTON ST., 8. F. 


Xt Cures All Diseases of Poultry. 
X^akes Eggs flenty wlicn Prices are High. 
I*revents Sickness among Young Chickens. 
Zlivals Every Production ot a Similar Nature, 
^^nly Try it Oni'c and Prove Its Merits. 
^T^ery few Poultry Uealtrs are without it. 
Jljvery Hen Lays that Eats the Improved, 
^^on't Pass Anothsr Day Without a Trial. 


NOTK.— This Improved "RgK Food has h«en in 
freueral uve in this kiid other couutnes uring the last 
y tt*u ye»rn, and all the above repeatedly prwved in 
tliuueands uf cases. Your ne.glihor use^ it 



Heifers in Calf in such grand bulls as Nether- 
land Star, Clifden Prince (Holstein) and Ashan- 

tee's Sultan (Jersey) for sale at reasonable prices. 

POULTRY-AU Varieties. 


Los Angeles, Cal. 




Of sizes capable of packing from lO'to 50 dczen of fruit or vegetables per day, as 
eionomically as in the Urge Canneries. Pamphlet mailud free. 

JOSEPH PERKINS, No. 116 California Slreet, San Francisco, Cal. 

Common Sense Evaporator 


Where knnwB Drives all other Fru lt-l>rler» 
out of the Market. 

Patented 1886. 


And orders lor 34.000 more. Perfection of simplic- 
ilv, cheapness and rapidity of aork. Thirteen Dol 
lars will BUV a MacDlne that will do hetter 
work and more of it haii any $50 Kvapiirator ever offered 
for sale, and in like proportion to an indefiuile capacity. 

Rememlier this a an Entirely New Departnre, 

Which riinipletcly revolutionizes the dried fruit industry. 
All 'ruits perlttth cured in from one to two hours, and 

No Possibility of Burning and No Need| 
for Sulphuring. 1 

It mny seem incredible, but it is a fact. For circular 
and full particulars, address 


Sole Proprietors for California, 

Napa City, Cal. 

AKenta Wanted— Best selling invention of the age, 







Is recognised as 
Tui Bin. 

Always gives satisfaction. SllTPtiK 
jTRONO and DURABLE in all parts. 
3olld Wrought-iron Crank Shaft with 
DOtTBLB BBAKiNQB lor the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run In adjust- 
ible babbitted boxes. 

Positively Sell-Regulating. 

with no o< lie springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods. Joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use t to 12 years In 
good order now, that have nevur cost one cent for repairs 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Paclfle Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether ot 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out tor this, as 
inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
Io them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
limes. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mlllk, 
etc., kept In stonk. Address, 



San Francisco AKancy— JAMBS LINPOBTB 
120 Front St.. Ran Francisco. 

The Cheapest and Best way to kill Oophors 
and Squirrels 


A complete suc- 
" re Proof 
lars send 

L. W. 
& CO., 
San Jose, Oallfornla. 

CB3 H 
« = S 5-^2 

^ . r- ; 3. m 

- SiS-ta 
rEE.? o . 

"S ■ I 

I • S'T « " ~ 


FATtNItO MARCHZSjaee & JUMtk 1880. t7-S E.S'o 1^ 

Itua papar id priated with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Bneu Johnson St Co., BOO 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offl- 
cea 47 Boae St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
8t., OblcaKO. Asent for the Pacific Ooaot— 
Jofieob H. Dorntv. 690 Oommerclal St., S. F. 

ijuLY 9, 1887] 





Awarded the Gold Medal 
at the State Fair, Sacra- 
ineieito. and at the Mechan- 
ics' Institute Fair of 1884 
1K85 aud 1886, overall com- 
petitors as the best machine 
made. It will hatch any kind of 
Eggs better than a Heu. 

Pacific (Joast Agency for the 
celebrated Silvt-r Finish Galvan- 
ized Wire Netting, The Wilaon 
Bone and Shell Mill, and the 
American Meat Chopper. Poul- 
try appliances of every kind and 
every variety of Land and Water 
Fowl can be found at the Oak- 
land Poultry Yards, the oldest 
and largest establishment on the 
Pacific Coast. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand Book 
and Guide; price, 40 cents. Scad 2 c-ent siamp tor illus- 
trated eo page catalogue to the PAOIPIC IN U- 
BATOR (JO-, 1317 Oaetro bt., Oaliland. Cal 


Manufactured bvthe PA- 
Oakland, Cal. Recipe, the 
result of 20 years' succe s- 
ful experience with poul- 
try. Its use insures plenty 
of E(^g* when prices are 
highest and keeps fowls in 
good health. For sale by 
all see smen and grocers. 

309 and 311 Front St., San Francisco 
Sole Agents. 




The HaUted 
Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St., 
Oakland, - - Cal. 

Price from $80 
up. Model Brooder 
from $5 up. 

Poultry and Eggs 
Send for new Cir- 
culars containing 
much valuable in- 

1-MurHe l-ower, $150. 

Shipman Coal Oil Steam 

1,2 3 4, 5 H p. Highly recommended for 
pumping parooses. 

Requires no Engineer. Perfectly Safe. 

Co'ihUines i gallon of cheapest coal or fuel oil per 
horse pt>wer ) er hour. In opeiation at our Machinery 
i>epartnient, 27 Post .St. XWCa\] and see it. 

628 Market Street, opp, Palace Hotel, S. F. 

Hardware and ftlechanics' Tuols. 



Dressmaking, Tailoring and Gen- 
eral Manufacturing. 







108 & 110 POST ST., S. F. 


At SACRAMENTO, Cal., Sept. 12 to 24, 1887. 

$2000 in Cash for County Exhibits. 


Is called, as well as the various Immigration Societies, Boards of Trade 
of the several Counties, and all others interested ia bringing 
out the resources or their respective Counties, 
to the advantag-es offered by an 
Exhibition at the 

Of the varied products of their counties. The ^iupervisors of ea«h county are intited to make a liberal appropria- 
tion, sufficient to pay the cxpens s of getting together an Exhibition of County Products. Premiums received can 
be returned to tliC treasury of each county luakine" the appropriation, so that their respective counties would oe 
written up and advertised at a &mall expense by an exhibition of this character. The Railroad Company transports 
the same free of charge. 

THE LIVE STOCK EXHIBITION, connected with the State Fair, is sure to attract Eastern visitors 
anxious to view the resources of Calilornia. 

APPLY FOR SPACE AT ONCE, as the Society is willing to devote the entire exposit'on buildinpr, if 
necessary, to displays of CALIfOHNlA PRODUCTS. A NtfiW FBATURK has been added to the Premium thi.s year, in the shape of awards for a Sheaf Display of (JerealS. Forty Sheaves, not less than 10 
inches iu diameter, of 10 varieties of grain are called for. Not necessary to he grown by exhibitor Notice is now 
given that samples may be gathered during harvest, and laid away for exhibition. Address the Secretary for 
Premium Lists and other information. 

EDWIN P. SMITH, Secretary. L. U. SHIPPBB, President. 



Barn Door Hanger 

— AND— 

Fricliou Birii Door Hanger and Kail 
in the market, becauwe it is Stri>ng, sinij.le. 
Silent in Operation, Secure to Rail. 



No. 1, for doors 3 to 6 ft. wide SIS 0(1 

No. for d lors 6 to 9 ft. wide 16 50 

No S, f .r doors 9 to 12 ft. wide IS i 

No. 4, for doors 12 to 18 ft. wide 26 5U 


In 2-foot lengths, per foot 7 Cents 



310 Main Street, Stockton, Cal. 




Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa- 


Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagon«. Groceriee 
aud Merchandise of every description solicited 

E. VAN EVERY, Manasrnr. 

A M. BELiT Assistant Manaeer 



SALE, is warranted to be the Simplest, Cheapest and 
Most Effective Trap in existence. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, 25 cents each; t2 50 per dozen. Address 

GEO. W., 

Soledad, Cal. 

Fpilit Pnnri)vinn<t The finest, best and cheap, 
nun Cnyi dV lliya, est Photographs and En- 
PHOTOGK,\^PH.S, KIC. jtravings of Fruits, Vege- 
tables, Houses, Farms, Landscapes, etc,, made by S. P. 
PHOTOORAViNa Co., 66S Clay St., S F, 



Musical Instruments. 


Send f ir descriptive circubr and make home happy. Price, $!>, $7, 
312, 416, $26, $35, $40, $76, $100, $140, $225. 

They play the sonas of every country, including those of France; 
For lodge, chu ch or socia' meeiin^rs; for conce t or a dance. 
No experience is neided, the tone is full and sweet, 
For toe music is all perfect and the parts are all complete. 
Price $J, wi4li 3 Rollers. aS^ALL applications to 

2513i MISSION STREET, bet. 21st and a2d, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Band In-truments, Pianos and Oruans, Sheet Music, Strings, Etc. P S.— Send your orders by Mail or Express. 
Write lor Ciuculakh and full inkormation — FREE. 


44 Third Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

This Fire-P'Oof Brick Building is centrally located, in 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block fiom 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and close to all Steamboat 
and liailroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 


Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 



Poultry aaiSiockSook 

successful Poultry and Stock Raising on the Pacific Coast 
A New Edition, over 100 pav'es, profusely illustrated wit! 
handsome, life-like illustrations of the different varieties 
of Poultry and Live-stock. Price, (lostpaid, 50 cts. Ad. 
dress PACIFIC RURAL PRESS Office, San Francisco, Cul 

Niles's new 
manual and 
r f e r nee 
J book on sub 
j e c t s con- 
nected witf 

Coini)ii33iop jvierctiapt^. 


Commission Mercl:\ants 



Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 

308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco. 

[P . O. Box 1936.] 
i^"Con8lsrnments Solicited. 



319 & 321 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

One door from B»nl£ of California. 

The above well known hotel offers superior ac- 
commoriations to parties visiting the city. 
The table is kept at top grade and 
the prices are within the 
reach of all. 

RATES-$1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 per day 

Free Coach to and from the Hotel. 

Are you using Welling- 
toii'sImpruTed KgK Food 
for Poultry ? Ip not, wut 
notT Every Grocer, Druggist 
and Merchant Sells this Kgf 

ncuucv JL on scientific "kess patent 

new t I W UU. O AOENCY U the oldest Kstal - 
Itsbed aod most successful on the Paolflr (Jnaat. Nn 220 
Uarket St Klevatsr IS Front St.. B. r. 




501, 503, 505, 50r and 509 Front Street 
and 3u0 Washington St , S. P. 

General Commission Merciiants. 


Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 




General Commission Merchants, 

310 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

^^Personal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vances made on I'onsit^nnients at low rates of interest. 

liso. iVloRK<»w. lEstablisbed lti54.) Gii-o. P. MoBRow. 




iO Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street, 
San Erancisoo, Cal. 

J. C Pribrs. 

O. M. Cowig. 



Commission Merchants. 

Members Produce Exchange. 
591 SIsth Street, San Francleco 

" 0. lTbenton & ob.. 
Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 
Poultry and WiUI »ai»e, <>5, 6«,67 CallforniB 
Market, S. F. t^AU orders attended to at the 
shortest notice. Goods delivered Free of Charge to 
any part of the city. 



And Wholesale Provision Dealers, 
320 & 32a Battel y St , near Clay, San Francisco. 


And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Kggo, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221,223 
22.5 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 

J. W. WOLF. 


W. H. WOLF. 


General Commission Merchants 

Ai d dealers in California and i>re(;on Produce, 
321 Davis St reet, San Francisco, Cal. 


Commission Merchants, 

Green an't Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Oonsiirnments Solicited 524 & 626 Sansome St., S. F. 

Fruit and General Commission Merchants 

BKicR storks: 
408 & 410 DavlB St., San Pranclsco 


Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Oreen and Dried bruits. 
ooNsiGNMBNTS SOLICITED. 324 DavIs St.. S. F. 


Mixea instantly with Cold Water. 


I*ricc, per Imperial Onllon, 

Sold in irou driiiiis containing 5 imperial gal- 
lons, i (jual to nearly (J American khHouh. One 
KhIIou niiAul wi h 60 gallons of cold water will 
diji thoroughly 18(J aheei). at a co«t of lesa than 
Jilt- cent each; easily applied; a uourisher of wool; a Ci^rtaiu 
cure for scan. • 



Mijca instantly with water; prt.veuts the fly from striking. 
In a 2-i)(jiiud packufs'e there is sufticii'iit to d p 2t) slieeii, and 
in a 7-ii"iiud iMckaKe there is uulticieut to dip luO Sbeep 
Price, 17 cent* per pound. 

L'ATTMK. BK1.I. A f'O.. 

(Uuecesaoni to Falkuer, Bell & Co.) 

40e €alirornlu Nt.. S. F. 



[Jdly 9, 1887 

NoTR.— Our quutatioos are for Wednesday, not Satur- 
day, tht) date the paper heart}. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, July 6, 1887. 
The midsummer holidays interfered no little with 
general trade in country produce the past week. 
The wealher has been and continues to be of the 
most favorable character, of which farmers are 
taking adv.-mtage by gathering their product as fasj 
as possible. The English wheat trade has ruled 
quiet throughout the week. To-day's cable was as 

London, July 6. — Cargoes off coast, quiet; car- 
goes on passitgc and for shipment, quiet but steady; 
Cal. wheat ofi coast, 39s 6d; Cal. wheat just shipped, 
39s 6d; Krench country market, very heavy; Liver- 
pool wheat spot, steadier; Liverpool wheat Cal. 7s 
SMd 10 7s 8Md. 

Foreign Review. 

London, July 4. — The Mark Lane Express says: 
Under an unbroken drought the wheat crop prom- 
ises above the average yield and is of exceptionally 
line qu.ility. All other crops in good soil look re- 
markably well. Spring-sown crops, on poor land, 
are withering. Trade m native wheat is growing 
worse. In London there is scarcely any offering 
yet. and sales are only effected at a decline. Sales 
of English dtiring the past week were 15.697 quar- 
ters, at 33 shillings, against 36,246 quarters at 31 
shillings during the corresponding week last year. 
Trade in foreign wheat was slow. Australian and 
American red winters are down i shilling. There 
were 7 arrivals of wheat cargoes; 3 were withdrawn 
and 4 remain. At to-day's wheat market, wheat at 
sales pres^ed values I shilling lower. Flour is 6 
pi^nee cheaper. Corn is steady. Barley is firm. 
Oats, owing to drought, are 6 pence to i shilling 
higher. Linseed is 3 pence cheaper. 

Eastern Wheat Markets. 

NiiW York, July 6—12 M.— Cash, 8Bc, July, 
85^0, Aug., 84^@84Hc. Sept., 847^@85Hc, Oct.. 
80^86 ^c. 

Chicago, July 6. — 63KC for cash, 63^c for July, 
7iH@7«!^c 'or Aug., 73;Ji®73Hc for Sept., and 
750 lor Oct. 

Crops at the East. 
Chicago, July 3 — The following crop summary 
will appear in the Farmers' Revinu this week: Re- 
ports on yield of winter wheat now coming in cor- 
roborate our previous statements as to the shortage 
that might be expected. Missouri leads in htr 
average and is followed by Illinois, while other 
Slates hive the following relative position: Ken- 
tucky, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, and last, Kansas, 
where the chinchbugs have done very serious dam- 
age. As yet reports on the average yield of the 
winter wheat crop are just beginning to come in, 
but the following from the different .States probably 
furnishes correct indications of the result of the 
harvest; Twelve counties report an average of 17 
bushels, and four counties place an average con- 
dition of 78 tf? ct. Nine counti-s in Indiana place 
the average at 14 bushels and three counties an 
average condition of 70 ^ ct. Seven counties in 
Michigan report the average yield 15 bushels. 
Eleven counties in Ohio report a yield of 13 bushels, 
while five counties report a condition of 85 ^ ct. 
The yield in 12 Missouri counties is i8 bushels, and 
the condition in three is 108 ^ ct. Five counties in 
Kentucky place the yield at 16 bushels. In Kansas, 
nine counties report an avrrage yield of 11 bushels, 
and five an average condition of 55 ^ct. Seventeen 
counties in Illinois complain of damage to the crops 
by drought. Like complaints come from six coun- 
ties in Indiana, and 13 counties report damage from 
insects and drought. Rain is needed in Kentucky 
and Wisconsin, and six Missouri counties complain 
ol drought. The condition of spring wheal in the 
different States is as follows: Seventeen counties in 
Iowa report an average condition of 74 \^ ct. , while 
13 counti'-s in Minnesota place it at 75 \^ ct. Eleven 
counties in Nebraska report an average of 86 ^ ct. , 
and the same number in Dakota place it at 8g^ ct. 
As was expected, the hay crop turntd out light and 
pastures were nearly everywhere dry. The prospects 
for the crop of apples in the West are fair to mid- 
dling. In many places the fruit is dropping from 
the trees. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, July 3. — Values are very irregular 
for most grades, especially fleecs, with the best 
operating basis here slill keeping below the plane of 
cost in the country. Old wools are nearly or quite 

The Philadelphia market continues quiet. A lit- 
tle better inquiry is noted, but it is either on wools 
of which there is not a sufticient assortment for 
active trading, or it fails to result in Urge sales, be- 
cause of the unwillingness of sellers to make con- 
cessions. Among sales were 100,000 lbs. Territory 
fine, medium, at 22(5i23c; 33,000 lbs. Territory, fine, 
at 20c; 40,000 lbs. Territory, bucks, at 13c; 12.000 
lbs. mountain medium at 26@27c; 5000 lbs. mount- 
ain medium at 20@23C. 

The Boston market remains in an unsatisfactory 
condition. Among sales were 45,200 lbs. Territory 
at I7@i8c; 65 000 lbs. Oregon, at i7@2oc; 3000 
pounds spring California, part at 21c. 

New York, July 5,— Wool is quiet and generally 
steady. Domestic fleeces, 30@37c; pulled, i4(S!34c; 
Texas, 9^240. 

Philadelphia, July 5.— Wool is quiet butsteady 
and unchanged. 

Boston, July 5. — Wool is firm and unchanged. 

California Products at Chicago. 

Chicago, July 2. — The potato market is dull and 
weak. 1 he supply on sale is quite large, but there 
is very little demand, buyers not caring to purchase 
until after the 4th. Caliiornias sold slow at $1.50 
to $1.75 ^ hundred lbs. The stock of California 
oranges is about exhausted and the season is virtual- 
ly over. 

Chicago, July 5. — California green fruits are in 
good request and steady. The supply is also good; 

prices quotable. Apricots, 20-lb. bxs, $1.50(01.75; 
half crates, $i.7S@2- Peaches, 20-lb. bxs, S2; 
Plums, choice, 20-lb. bxs, $i.75@2; Plums, Peach, 
20-lb. bxs, $3@3 25; Plums, Royal, Hative, half 
crates, $2.50^2.75; Pears, beurre Giffard, $2.50® 
3; Barlletts, $4.5o@5. Stock in soft order sells at 
less prices. 

California dried fruits are very quiet. The supply 
is .small and prices steady. Pitted plums, evapo 
rated, io@iic; sun-dried, loKfeio^c; apricots, 
evaporated, spot goods, 22® 25c-; evaporated, future 
delivery, I5@i5!^c; sun-dried, none here; prunes, 
9@iic; raisins, )x)ndon layers, 20-lb. bxs, $1.40® 
1.50; loose Muscatel, per bx, $1.25®!. 30; California 
lajers, per bx, $1.25®!. 30. 

California Products In New York. 

New York, July 3.— Fresh Fruit — Auction sales 
of California fruits are proving attractive and profit 
able. On Friday 126 half-crates of plums sold at 
$1.50® 1.95, and 696 half crates of apricots at $2.05 
©2.30. Tangerines 75c ^ doz. 

Diied Fruits — California raisins are being distrib- 
uted at the rate ol 3000 to 5000 bo.xes a week, at 
full prices, l^oose Muscatels, No. 2 Crown, $1.20 
@i.25; No. 3 Crown, $1.35®!. 50; London layers, 

Canned— California pears are selling fairly at $3 

New York Hop Market. 

New York, July 3. — The market continues quiet. 
Dealers show no interest as buyers, except lor mod- 
erate lots of goods that may be required lor delivery 
to brewers on contracts, and brewers, it appears, 
are indifferent about making purchases. Medium 
grade States atid Pacifies are held at about former 
prices, but meet with slow sales. Coast crop 
1886. best, 2i®23c; same, common to good, i6@ 
20c; 1885, good to prime, io@i3c. 

Local Markets. 

BAGS — The market appears to have a quieter 
feeling, although this may be due to the midsummer 
holidays. Calcutta Standard are quotable at 
@7 cts. 

B.XRLEY — The market after the Fourth opened 
quiet, but the tone is strong, althou{,h there ,are 
many who look for lower prices, notwithstanding the 
short crop and heavy increased consumption. On 
Call to-day sales were as follows: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1887 — 400 tons, $i.i7M 
^ ctl. Alternoon Session: Buyer 1887— 300 tons, 
$1.17; 200, $1. 17H. Seller 1887, new crop — 100 
tons, $1.07 }i ^ ctl. 

BUT! ER— Choice hard, high-colored butter is 
hard to get. 1 he supply of poor grades is very 
heavy and worked off slowly. 

ECjGS — Strictly choice fresh laid are wanted, and 
command full prices. Oft' qualities are slow and low. — Owing to Eistern competition, the 
market lor Californian is narrowing, causing a lower 
range of v.alues under a strong selling. 

WHEAT — Free selling of actual wheat is reported 
in the country, on the basis of our quotations. On 
Call the syndicate continues to take every ton of 
whi'at thrown out by the bears. The latter failing 
o break prices by selling short are trying other tac- 
tics to send prices down, but the outlook at present 
is against them, for farmers are standing in with the 
bulls. On Call to-d,ay's sales were as follows: 

Morning Session: Seller 1887 — 300 tons, $i.88K; 
100, $i.885a; 500, $i.88K; 300, $1.89; 200, $i.89H; 
600, $i,S9}<; 100, $i.89>^; 300, $1.89^; 100, $1.- 
89^^; 200, $1,895^ ^ ctl. Afternoon Session: Seller 
1887—300 tons, $1.89}^ ^ctl. 


Market Information. 


The following shows, as far as obtainable, last 
year's wheat crop in this State: 


Exports July i, 1886, to July i, 1887 720,537 

Local consumption 350,000 

Stock in Call Board warehouse July 1 112,532 1,183.069 

Deduct Tons. 

Stock on hand July i, 1886 77.978 

Receipts from Oregon 68,409 146,587 

California crop 1,036.482 

The quantity in farmer-.' granaries and .also in in- 
terior warehouses, not Call Board warehouses, is not 
given, but then it will hardly go above 15,000 tons, 
which added to the above gives the crop at about 
1,051,482 tons. 

Belo* are given the highest, lowest and average 
prices of No. i wheat for each month of the past 
cereal year. Quotations are based on actual sales in 
the sample market, and not on Call Board figures. 


Month. Average. Highest. Lowest. 

July 1886 1.24 I-27M '20 

August •• 1.30!^ i.375i J-2S 

September " '-SSJ^ i-37>^ i-.^o 

October '" '•34X 1-40 1.30 

November " i-39Ji i-45 1-35 

December " 1.48 i-52V^ I-43K 

January 1887 1.57K- ' «-65 i.52}4 

February " i-So?^ 1.65 1.42K 

March " 1.58M 1.70 1.48K 

April ■' i.70ji 1.76!^ 1.67)4 

May " 1.75 1.80 1.72% 

June " 1.80% 1.75 

For the 12 months 1-52% 1.87)^ 1.20 

The local wheat market has been inactive since 
Thursday last, owing to the holidays. Crop advices 
are fairly favorable, although continued shelling is 
reported, in some sec'ions. heavy, but in the most of 
the others, light. Oregon advices continue favor- 
able, with the yield east of the Cascades reported a 
full average to the acre. 

Eastrrn mail advices are confirmatory of a light 
outturn of winter wheat, but spring equal to last 
year, which was 6,000.000 bushels more than in 
188:;. 1 he visible supply on July 4 was 34,400,000 
bubhcls; a falling off for the week ol nearly 5,000,000 

The following are the latest mail advices from En- 
gland: Dom/iusrA's, o[ June 17, says: "Days of 
golden sunshine and nights of high temperature 
have worked wonders in the aspect and position of 

the cereal crops in the Uniled Kingdom. Wheat 
is growing rapidly and barley and oats are flourishing 
apace, but the two latter want warm rain and plenty 
of it to bting them into prime condition. I he sea- 
son is still a fortnight behind the average, but taken 
all around the prospect is said to be more hopeful 
than it was at this lime last year. In France the 
weather is very favorable and ' earing ' is now tak 
ing place in the earlier disliicts. Germany and 
Belgium are also rejoicing in fine, brilliant wealher, 
with a consequent improvement in the outlook for 

/?ff/-/wA;«, of June 17, says: "Another week of 
forcing summer weather has further greatly improved 
the appearance of the crops in the United Kingom, 
and the progress of vegetation is as satisfactory as it 
is astonishing compared with the state of the plant a 
few weeks ago. It is true that the earing time is a 
full fortnight late, but with a continuance of the 
present weather, it is evident that the yield of wheat 
will likely prove superior to the short crop of last 
year. In France there has been an equally decided 
change for the better, and the outlook for the crops 
is now considered favorable lor a fair average yield. 
In some parts of Germany there are complaints, but 
generally speaking the outlook in that country is also 

Receipts of barley at this port the past crop season 
were 2,200,000 ctls, against 1,115,079 ctls the season 
of 1885-86. The exports were 925,664 ctls against 
219,886 ctls the season of 1885-86. The average 
price of No, i feed was as follows: 


July 1886.. 
August " . 

September " . 
October " . 
November " . 
December " . 


Average. Highest. lowest. 

. ■864-5 .97)^ .77M 

.. .88 I. 00 .80 

■ -90^ .95 -875^ 

.. .94« -975^ .90 

..1.02^ 1.07M -95 

..t.05^ 1. 10 1. 00 

. . 1. 12 1.20 1.035^ 

.1.05^ 1.17'A .92H 

..i.ot'A 1.07H .95 

. .i.o8)i 1. 15 1.05 

. .l.ll'A I 20 l-02'/i 

.1.07 1. 10 1.02 


I'otal 12 months i.ooM 1.20 .80 

The average spot price of Xo. i feed barley for the 
following years was: 

Year. Price. 
1882.83 St.25% 

1883- 84 94-^ 

1884- 85 97 i-io 

1885- 86 1.28 

1886 87 l.ooM 

Charters to U. K. arc, in this iiioiun, $2.50(12)^0 
^ ctl) per Ion less than in July, 1886. 

The receipt of oats last crop season was 455,624 
ctls. , against 700,639 ctls. the .season of 1885-86. 

Oats closed dull and heavy, with light trading. 
New oats will soon put in an appearance. 

In rye and buckwheat there is nothing doing, ow- 
ing to light supplies and no demand. 

Corn is easy under liberal supplies and an in- 
active demand. Crop advices are fairly favorable. 

Exports of wheat Irom India for the week ending 
June 2Sth were 1.140,000 bushels, of which 380,000 
bushels were to the United Kingdom and 760.000 
bushels to ihe continent. The total shipments from 
January ist to June 25th were 16,940,000 bushels, 
of which 7,940,000 bushels were to the United 
Kingdom and 9,000,000 bushels to the continent. 

Interior advices report that the yield of barley on 
the lowlands and tules will be large to the acre, and 
of good quality. In the large barley-producing 
counties ttie crop, it is now said, will be less than 
heretofore claimed. 

Quantity of barley on passage to United King- 
dom June 9th, reported at 850,000 bushels against 
640,000 bushels for corre^p^nIling time in i386. 

Quantity of wheat on passage to France June Vth, 
reported at 3,200.000 bushels against 656,000 bush- 
els for the cxjrresponding week in 1886. 

Crops in France are in better condition, though 
the harvest will be late. Rye is ripening well, but 
the yield will only be an average. 

The area devoted to flixseedin Berar, India, is 
reported at 386,376 acres, against 618,224 acres last 
year, a decrease of 37 5^ per cent. 

The wheat crop in New South Wales is reported 
at 5.955,000 bushels, against 2,768,000 bushels dur- 
ing the previous year — the largest yield since 1870. 
The average per acre was 17'^ bushels. 

It is believed that the acreage under wheat in the 
United Kingdom this year will show an increase of 
five per cent over that of the previous year, the in- 
crease being largely at the expense of barley and 

The highest price ever reached by wheat in Chi- 
cago was $2.85 per bushel, in the year 1867. and the 
lowest price was 55c per bushel, in 1861. 


Notwithstanding the receipt of hay in this city 
was 111,176 tons from July i, 1886, to July 1, 1887, 
against 84,612 tons the same time in 1885-86, still 
prices kept up better than during the latter time, 
which goes to prove ihe very large increased con- 
sumption. The market to-day is quiet, but strong, 
with holders not pressing the market, believing in 
better prices later on. 

Owing to several flouring mills temporarily shut- 
ting down, the supply of bran and middlings is light, 
causing a firmer market. Other ground feeds are 
without change. 


Cantelopes are making quite a show. A few wa- 
termelons have come in, out not enough to justify 

Grapes are coming in more or less green, and 
otherwise poor. Choice grapes would find a quick 

Apricots appear to have touched their lowest fig- 
ure lor the better varieties. 

Choice peaches are coming in more freely, but as 
yet the trade only buys — too high lor canners. 

Plums are in lair receipt, but the more choice 
have not put in an appearance, or, at least, none 
are quoted. 

Currants have a wide range, owing to quality. 
Poor currants are in oversupply. 

Blackberries and raspberries are gradually settling 
under freer receipts. Canners are not taking m 
yet — too high. 

Strawberries are being cleaned up from day to 
day by canners, at from $3.50 to $4 per chest. The 
trade pay more. 

Raisins are in light stock, with the more choice 

grades hard to get This year's crop promises to be 
larger than that of 1886. and of a much better grade. 

-Apples are showing to better advantage, but 
prices do not appreciate, owing to free receipts. 

Cherry plums are hard to sell. 

Dried fruits continue to come in slowly. More 
apricots are at hand, and are readilv placed at from 
12 to n'Ac ^ lb. 


Heavy sales of beef cattle are reoorted in different 
parts of the State, and also in N evada, and, as a 
rule, above prices obtainable in this city. Why 
prices are kept down here is becoming quite a ques- 
tion, but in position to answer are non-com- 
mittal. The consumption continues light. Mut- 
ton sheep have a firmer lone, owing to the flocks be- 
ing in the mountain ranges. Calves are in light 
supply. Hogs are firmer under a growing scarcity. 
The supply of dairy fed is about exhausted, while 
the grain led will not be ready for some weeks. 
Hogs fed on acorns are very scarce; last year at this 
time there was a heavy supply, but now there are 
very few. Tne market is dull for work horses, but 
strong with quick sales for roadsters, singfe-footers, 
and matched teams. 

The following are the wholesale rates to slaugh- 
terers to butchers: 

BEEF — Extra. 7K'c; first grade, grass fed, 
6K@7C per lb.; second grade. 6;; third grade. 

MU IT ON— Ewes. 5(a5)ir; wethers, 6@— c. 

L.AMB — .Spring, 7@8c. 

VE.AL— Large. 6(o!7c; small. 6@8c. 

PORK — Live hogs. 4ii@5c for heavy and me- 
dium; hard dre.ssed, 7@7Hcper lb; light, 4JJ@ 
5c; dressed, 7@7!<c; soft hogs, live, 3%@4c. 
On foot, one-third less for grain or stall fed, and 
one-half less for stock running out. 


Cabbages are slower, but no lower, as are root 

Potatoes come in more liberally, but prices keep 
up, owing to the active demand. The quality shows 
an improvement over last year. 

Onions are steady at full prices. Hard keepers 
are quickly taken at full figures. 

String beans are not of the best, and consequent- 
ly move off slowly. 

Cucumljers, tomatoes, summer-squash, and pep- 
pers are mending slowly under free receipts. 

Green corn is strong and higher, owing to the first 
crop being about out of the market. 

Miscellaneous. ^ 

The tonnage movement compares with last year at 
this date as follows: 1887. 1886. 

On Ihe way 260,092 306,701 

In port, disengnged 119,612 33.3'9 

In port, engaged 13,222 27,324 

Totals 392,926 367,346 

The above gives a carrying capacity as follows: 
1887, 628,781 short tons; 1886, 587,753 short tons; 
increase over la-'t year, 40,928. 

A correspondent wishes to know how to "tell 
fresh-laid eggs from those slightly off." The shell 
of a fresh-laid is rough, but the shell of an egg 
"slightly off," or not fresh-laid, is smooth and feels 
more or less oily. 

Poultry under light receipts have ruled strong and 
higher throughout the week. 

Beans are slower, with a weaker tone, and some 
concessions made. 

Choice fine wools are firm in sympathy with Ihe 
East, and also Europe, but poorer grades move 

Hops are being more inquired after by local 
brewers, owing to an increased consumption of 
beer. Q)uotalions cover the range of the market. 

Provisions have a stronger tone, owing to Eastern 
telegrams reporting a lighter supply of hogs and 
prices stiffening. 

San Francisco, July 6, 1S87. 

Frolts and Vegetables. 

Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
qiiotatiuus, while very poor grades eh;!! less than the lower 

6'i (ge 75 
75 @ 1 26 
30 ^ 50 


Apples, bx com.. 30 & 

dnchnice 50 

Aiiricots, bx.... 35 (<* 

di» J^iyal 36 ((f 

Btuianas. bunch. 2 Ou w 3 25 6 00 p 8 00 
Oantt-loupefi. cr. 2 OU (d 3 00 
Cherries whit bx 40 (rt 60 

no bUck bx... 

do Royal Ann.. 
Cherry plums... 

Crabappleii _ 

CranberrieH 10 00 cal2 50 

Ourrants ch 2 50 @ 

(jrooaeberrieslb.. 24@ 

FiKB hx 30 ^ 

GrapeB 36 

do Rose Peru. — 

do Muscat... . — 

do Tokays.... — 



do ML.8iuu.... — 
Limes, Hex 11 00 

do Cal. box... - 
Lemons. Oal..bx 2 00 

do BIcUy, box. G 00 

do Australian. — 
Nectariues box. — 
Oraoges. Combx 1 

Wkonhdat, July 6, 1887. 

Pigs, loose 

^^mtaHnfw.. . 
do evaporated 


do pared. . . . 
do evaporated. 
Pears, suoea.... 

do qrtd 

do evaporated 
Plumii, pitttnL . . 
do unpitted. 


do Freach .... 
6 00 iZaute Currants. 
75 DebeeaChis. fey 2 40 @ 2 50 








3 1 







> 1 uo 

— I* - 

- « - 

I 3 SO 

ImiwriAl Cabiu- 

et. fanry.... 1 75 @ — 
Crown Lrindou 

Layers, fey. . 1 50 @ — 
do LiXiM Mu»- 

cateli, fancy 1 40 @ — 
do Looee Miu- 

oatelJ 1 38 © — 

Cal. Valencias.. 1 25 O — 

do Layers 1 SS — 

do Bulhuias... 1 25 (d — 

— Fractions come 25, 50 and 75 

— cents higher for balvea, quar- 
1 50 ters and eighths. 

do^nio'ct; 2 (10 ^ 2 50 VKUETABLES. 

doNavcU 3 00 @ 4 SO Artichokes, dot. — & — 

do Panama... ~ ® — Aspara^isl^bz. 75 ^ ] 25 

Peaches, bi 60 @ 1 25 do elt'ucboice 1 50 @ 2 50 

do bask — — Okra, dry, tb... 15 « 30 

Crairfords, bx 75 @ 1 25 do green lb. .. . 8@ 12) 

do bskt.. — (oi — PanuliM, oU 1^0 — 

do choice — & — Peppers, dry lb.. 10 g — 

Pears bx 30 @ 75 do trreen, box 75 1 25 

do choice —01 — Pumpkins pr ton — {tf — 

do Bartlett, bx ~ ift — Kouasii, Harrow 

Persimiuons, rat, ton ~ 

Jap, bx — @ - do Bummer bx 40 n 80 

Pineapples, doz. 4 00 5 OO String be«os tb. . 3(3 4 

Plmua li 
Pomegranates, h — 

Prunes bx — 

Quinces bx — 

RaspberTit>s cli. . 5 00 
Strawl)errieA ch. 4 00 
Watermelons too — 

Apples, sliced, lb 
do evaporated 
do Qoartered . . . 


do evaporated 



Sigs, pressed,... 





13 a 


M «1 


t • 


6 fl 


Tomatoes box . 

— TiimliM ctl 26 I 

— Beets, sk 75 l 

— Cabbage, 100 lbs. 50 i 

7 00 lOarrots, sk 35 i 

8 00 iCanliflnwer. dm. — ( 
- lEggplant, V »>.. — I 

OarUo, lb Ill 

Green Com, cr. 60 ( 

do sweet cr. . . 85 < 

do large t>ox.. — { 

Oreen Peu, lb. . I I 

Sweet Peas n>. . . 3 I 

Lettace, dos.... 10 ( 

Lima Beans lb.. — I 

Mushrooms, lb.. 8 < 

Rhubarb bx.... 75 < 

Jdly 9, 1887.] 



Domestle Prodnoe. 

Extra choice in good pacliages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
Wednesdai, July 6. 1887. 


8 @ 9i 



Bayo.ctl 1 90 @ 2 50 

Butter 1 75 @ 2 00 

Pea 1 80 @ 2 00 

Ked 1 40 @ 1 55 

Pink 1 25 @ 1 50 

Large White.... 1 90 @ 2 00 
Small White.... 1 75 C " ' 

Lima 1 75 @ 2 25 

Fid Peas, bU eye 1 00 @ 1 05 

do green 1 00 @ 1 12i 

do Niles 1 25 @ — 

Bouthempertuu 50 & 75 
Northern per ton 50 @ 75 

California biW f>i 

German b$t 



Cal. fresh roU, lb. IS @ 

do Fancy br'nds 21 @ 

Pickle roU 20 @ 

Firkin, new 16 @ 

Eastern ~ ® 


Cheese, Cal., lb.. 
Eastern style... 10 @ — 


Cal., ranch, doz.. 23 @ 25 

do. store 18 @ 20 

Ducks — @ — 

Oregon — @ — 

Eastern 18 Q — 


Bran, ton 23 00 @24 00 

Oonuneal 28 00 @ — 

Gr'd Barley ton. 25 00 @ 26 00 

Hay 9 00 @15 00 

Middlings 26 00 @28 00 

Oil Cake Meal. 26 50 (328 50 

Straw, bale 40 ® 60 

Extra. City Mills 4 95 (3 5 70 
do Co'ntry Mills 4 45 @ 5 45 

Superdne 3 70 

Barley, feed, ctl. 1 10 
do Brewing.. 1 15 (1 1 25 

Chevalier 1 45 @ 1 60 

do Coast... — @ — 

Buckwheat 1 00 @ 1 20 

Com, White.... 1 15 «? 1 25 

YeUow 1 10 (8 1 20 

Small Round. 1 20 @ 1 30 

Nebraska 1 07^® 1 15 

Oats, milling.... 1 75 @ 1 80 

Choice feed 1 60 @ 1 65 

do good 1 50 @ 1 57i 

do fair 1 45 & — 

do black — @ — 

do Oregon — @ — 

Eye 1 25 (8 1 50 

Wheat milling. 

Gilt edged.. 1 871® 1 S2I, 

do 'Ihoioe 1 »2}@ 1 871 

dT fair to good 1 77i a 1 80 
Shipping choice 1 85 @ — 

do good 1 80 @ — 

do lair 1 75 @ — 


Dry 14 @ 16 

Wet salted 75® 8 


Beeswax, lb 20 @ 22 

Honey in comb. 103 13 
Honey in comb, 


Extracted, light, 
do dark. 


Oregon 174® 

California 15 @ 


Pickling — (ffi 

Red 40 @ 

Silvcriikins 60 @ 

Walnuts, Cal , lb I3i® 
do Chile. — @ 
Almonds, hdshL S@ 
Soft shell 18 m 

i 4 45 
1 175 

5 (8 


50 @ 95 

10 I 



Paper shell 19 @ 

Brazil Jlifl 

Pecans 9 @ 

Peanuts 41® 

Ifflberts 10 ft* 

Hickory 7 @ 


2.00 iBurbank — (3 

Early Rose .... 
Cuffey Cove.... 
Jersey Blues.. 

Petal uma. 


River reds 


do Kidney. . . 


do Oregon.. 


Halt Lake 

New Potatoes. . _ 

Hens, doz 6 00 (<; 8 00 

Roosters 5 50 @11 

Broilers 3 00 ^ 7 

Ducks, tame.... 4 50 @ 6 
do Mallard. ... — @ — 

do Sprig — @ — 

Geese, pair 1 00 @ I SO 

do Gosliugs ... 1 25 @ 1 50 
Wild Gray, doz ~ & — 

Tiirkeys, lb 18 

do Dressed. . — 
Turkey Feathers, 
tail and wing.. 
Snipe, Eng., doz. 
do Comioon.. (<v 

Doves — @ 

Quail — @ 

Rabbits 1 00 @ 

Hare 1 25 @ 

Venison — a 

Oal. Bacon, 

Heavy, lb 8^^ 

Medium 9 @ 

Light 10 ® 

Extra Light... 11 @ 

Lard 8 @ 

Oal.SmokedBeef l'J(»» 

Hams, Cal 12i(3 

do Eastern.. 14 (ft 

Alfalfa 8 @ 

Canary 3i® 

Clover red 10 ® 

White 15 a 

Cotton 20 @ 

Flaxseed 2 m 

Hemp 4 @ 

Italian RyeGrasa 25 @ 

Perennial 7 ® 

MiUet, Germau.. 4i@ 
do Common. 7 ® 
Mustard, white.. 21 ^ 

Brown ,. 21^ 

Rape iS® 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 1 1 ® 

2d quality 11 @ 

Sweet V. Grass. 7B & 

Orchard 20 ® 

Red Top.. 


Hesqult 10 

Timothy bi® 


Crude, lb 2 @ 

Refined 6 ® 


KPRINO— 1886 

Humboldt and 
Mendocino , . . 

Sact'o valley 

Free Mountain. 
N'hern defective 
S Joaquin valley 
do mountain. 
Cava'v & F'th'U. 
Oregon Eastern. 

do valley 

Southern Coast. 

IB @ 
8 @ 
SO @ 

21 ® 
18 @ 

^' % 
13 @ 
16 @ 
16 (3 
18 ® 
20 @ 
11 <Si 

Coast Coals. 

All the coast collieries are ranning on full 
time to supply the demand for coal, and will 
continue to do so, there being very little on 
the way here from England or Australia. The 
coast collieries are getting better prices for 
their product than for some time. There are 
certain grades of foreign coal, however, needed 
here for which high prices will have to be paid. 

Just at this time there are some 60 vessels 
loading coal and lumber at Puget Sound for 
coaetwise and foreign ports. Great quantities 
of coal which formerly came to Sm Francisco 
now go to Los Angeles and San Diego direct 
and is distributed from those points. Not- 
withstanding this, our receipts of coal are still 
on the increase. 

California itself produces comparatively little 
coal, the Mt. Diablo and lone coal mines being 
the only ones which yield much. There are 
several other localities where a little coal is 
mined, and a number of prospects are being 
opened. The bulk of our coast coal comes from 
Washington Territory and British Columbia, 
with some from Oregon. So far, our coast col- 
lieries produce no anthracite, although up at 
Tacoma they expect to find this kind of coal, 
from known indications. 

An Easy BiLder. 

A. T. Dewey's patent 
elastic binder, for periodi- 
cals, niusicand other printed 
sheets, is the handiest, best 
and cheapest of all econom- 
ical and practical file bind- 
ers. Newspapers are quick- 
ly pUced in it and held 
neatly, as in a cloth-bound 
book. It is durable, and 
II so simple a child can use it. 
Price, (bize of Mining and 
Scientific Press, Rural Press, 
^ Watchman, Fraternal Pub- 
lishing Co .'s journals. Har- 
per's Weekly, and Scicn» 
tific American), 85 cents; 
postage ro cents. Postijaid to subscribers of this 
paper, 5». cents. For sale at this office. Send for 
iUusti *V<i circular. Agents wanted. 


[Famished for publication In this paper by Nelson Gokom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps. U. 8. A 


Juu. 30-JuIy6 


Red Bluff. 



Los Angeles. 

San DleKo. 



Temp. . . 











Temp .. 

1 Weathei 


Temp. . . 



Temp. . . 



Wind .. 




Yind .. 






























































S W 
























S W 





















































































S w 





r .00 




Explanation.— CI. for clear; Cy , cloudy; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; — iodicates too small to measure. Tei"norat"»e, 
Wind and weather at 12:00 M. (Pitcific Standard tune), with amount of lalnfall in the preceding 24 hours. Note"T' 
indicates precipitation inappreciable. 






//«»//^ Inferior Article 


More Profitable 
to some one 



Canadian Trade. — The value of imports in 
the United States from Canada, and exports to 
Canada, during 1886, were: Import^. $.37,304,- 
036, and exports, $48,451,011. In 1884 the im- 
ports reached $38,399,8.35 and the exports $49,- 
565,375. During the last year the eggs received 
from Canada were worth almost as much as the 
ii^h. The fish imported were valued at $2,- 
022,956— $1,065,416 worth free and $957,540 
worth dutiable. As for exports, a great fall- 
ing off occurred in 1886 in the shipment of 
cattle and a smaller one in hogs. The deficit 
extended also to the hog products— bacon, 
hams and pork. 

The Cedar Springs Sawmill. — H. D. Bar- 
ton has purchased the machinery of the Cedar 
Springs sawmill in Tulare county, and will re- 
move it to Pierce valley and saw the timber 
of that region. Mr. Barton states that there 
is a fine body of timber around Fierce valley 
that has escaped the attention of timber land 
seekers, and that he intends to have his saw- 
mill in operation there by the Ist of August 
next. — T^ilare Times. 

The Anderson Flodrmill is to have $7000 
worth of new machinery and fixtures added in 
time for grinding this season's crop of wheat. 

New Engraving 

Photo ^^ Wood Engraving, 

Wax Electrotype Engraving, 

Bv THE Best and Cheapest Methods. 

Our New Photographotypes, 

Made Direct from Photnuraph:, far Ncwipaper, 
Book and Job PriiUing, 

Stand NEXT TO Steel Plate Engkavinos in fineness 




Wax Process Electrotypes, 

Lithographers' Transfers, 
Stereopticon Views, 

Counterfeit Signatures Enlarged, 

Legal Documents Reproduced. 

Also, Photographing on Wood and Other 

Special Photo Work, 

Promptly and reliably done by the most successful and bust 
approved procesae'i. 

Designs, drawings or photographs made to order. 

Engravings of buildings. Portraits, Maps and Scenery 
and Photo Samples for Salesmen are leading specialties. 

Send, as early as iiosaible, with full description for any 
work desired, stating si/e and for what plates are want- 
ed. Photographs and prints similar to those desired, will 
aid us in making deHnite estimates. itST Agents wanted. 

Call and see specimens, or write for samples, prices and 
any further information wanted, to 

S. F. Photograving Co., 

a. T. Dewey, Man.iger. 
Oi'FiOK with Dewey & Co., 220 Market St., S. K. 
Gallery, 659 Clay Street, S. F. 

For Printing 

or Every Description, such as 



Made to Order from First-Class Material, 
Send Orders to 



"Estimates Furnished when Desired, 


Rev. H. E. JEWETT, M. A Principal. 

A Boarding and Day Scliool for Boys and Youog Men, 

The seventeenth school year begins on Tuesday, July 
28, 1887. Send for catalojjue. 



With Silver-Plated Sheath for Ringing Bulls 

Price, $1.00, Post-paid. 

401 Montgomery St., S. P. 


(Established 1860> 

Have the larEfest li&t of Farm property in Northern and 
Central California. Cata ogue issued monthly. Send or 
call for it. SACRAMENTO, CAL. _ 

Branch Office— 640 Market St., San Francisco. 

Only Perfect 
Body Battery 
Gives anElec 
trie Current 
\|ouT ACIDS. 


FREE with every Helt 



Best Madi:! 
Chronic Dis- 
eases of not,h 
Estal). 187.'). Send for 
Fr.w PHiiipliletNo.2. 




UACIILNE CO.. Columliln, O. K: . ilr. il(,ui.«, llagrj 


Niles's new 
manual and 
r e f e r e nco 
j e c 1 8 con- 
nected witr 

Bucccssfi 1 Ponltry and Stock Raisi.i^ on the Pacific Coast 
A New Edition, over 100 pajjes, profusely illustrated with 
handsome, life-like illustrations of the ditferent varieties 
of Foviltry and Live-Stock. Price, postpaid, 50 cts. Ad. 
dreas PACIFIC RURAL PRESS Office, San Franniscn, Cal 

Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 

Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agenci 
presents many and important advantages aa • 
Home Agency over alJ others, by reason of long 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the subjects oS 
inventions in our own community, and our 
most extensive law and reference library, con 
dining otScial American and foreign reports, 
riles of scientific and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented through 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illustra- 
tion or a description in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Pres.S. j We transact every branch or 
Patent busiuess, and obtain Patents in all coun- 
tries which jjrant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the bfst and most reliable advice as to tho 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
ire as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Kastern Stute.s, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO.. Patent Agents. 
No. 252 Marltet St. Elevator 12 Front St 

S. F. Telephone No. 658. 





The Beat I 

The Cheapest! 

The Most Durable I 

The Most Eoonomicall 

The Only One Absolutely Fire ProofI 

18, 000 soxjXs: 

FIVE SIZES made with capacity of from 3 to M 
buahnls pe» ilav. 

Kvaporatcd Fruits arc now higher than thoy have been 
f'lr > cars. 

FREE I -Our Illustrated Catalo(iue and (Jompleto 
Treatise. Send for it now. Local Agents wanted. 


General Agent for Pacific Coast, 

A Treatise on the Horse and his Diseases 

■ By B. J. Kbndall, M. D. 

35 Fine En);ravin|^ showing 
the positions and actions of sick 
horses Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and best treatment of dis- 
eases. Has a table giving the 
doses, effects and antidotes of 
all the principal n cdicinesused 
for the horse, and a few pages 
on the action and uses of me- 
dicines. Rules tor telling the 
age of a horse, with a Hne en 

graving showing the appearance 

of the teeth at each year. It is printed on fine paper 
.and has nearly 100 pages, 7ixf) inchen. Price, only ih 
cunts, or five for $1, on receipt of which we will send 
by mail to a Dy address. DEWEY St CO., 
220 Market St., S. F. 



A Select School for Young Ladies. 

t^For catalogue or information, addreiis the Principal, 
1036 Va eccla St., San FraDClsco, Cal. 

California MililaryAcademy 

NEXT TKUiM BKfiIvS ...JULY !40, 1887 

Thorough iust'uctinn in all Departments. Bu^ineBs 
Course complete. Loi'atiou unmirpas-ed. 'uiid for 
Circular. CuL. W. H. OBlllKN, Principal. 


(Ralston House) 1222 Pine Stieet, 










A Sunny Primary Room and GyiUBasium are to te 
added to the establishment this term. 

Will Re-open July 25, 1887. 

tSTPoi particulars apply to 



School for Girls and Young I adies 

1825 Telegraph Ave., OnklaDd Cci. 

Address MRS R. G. KNOX. Proprietor, or 

MIS.S FRANCES A. DKAN, Princii al. 
j^The 18th year will begin Weine'day, Aug. S, 1^87. 


For Young Men and Boys, 

1534 MISSION ST., S. F. 

Christmas Term openn August 1, 1887. 

For information »pp'y to 

REV. E. B. SPALDING, A. M., Reitor. 


For Boys aud Young Men, 
629 Hobart Street, Oakland, Cal. 

English, Scientific, Commercial and Classical Courses of 
study. Gives the bt-st pr» p iration for be^t coll'iire and 
universities Next School Vear will begin July 19, 1857. 

Send, as above, for Catalogue to 

D. P. SACKETT, A. M., Principal. 


University Avenue, Berkeley, Cal 

Preparatory, Commercial and 
Academic Departments. 


Monday, Ang, 1, 1887. &end for Circulars to 

T. STEWART BOWENS, B. A., T. C. D., Principal. 


An Engiisl, Freflcli M German Boie ni Day School, 

Oak street Oakland, Cal. Tlie next year will begin 
July 27, ms ■. Address, Miss L. Tracv. 


S4 Post Bt S- F 

%md (or Or^iW 

Shorthand, Typewriting, Penmanship, Bookkeep;ug. 






Uniykrsitt of Caufornia, Nov. 3, 1S86. fertilizer. It is especially well adapted to use in 

Dr. J. KoKBifl-Dear «ir: I have analyzed your Pample CaUf<.rnta, on account of the predomluaiice in 

of -Nitroe^nous Superphosphate," with the 't of Phosphoric Acid, which is generally m small 

following reiult; supply in our soils. Yet it is ceairable that "c«m- 

„,.,".'.... ,„ „_ 1 plete "fertilizers be used in our orchards and vineyards 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid. . 12.90 per cent and yours Is of that character in furnishing 

Reverted ■hoaphoric Ac c 9.^ Potash and Nitrogen as well. Very respectfully, 

lofoluhle Phosphoric Acic 2.83 " g yy uilqarD 

Pofa h 2.23 " 

Amnioiiia 1.87 " ''"^8 value of this Fertilizer consists in the largo per 

Nitric Acid 2.95 " centage it contains of Phosphoric Acid— the chief 

Ti,« «K«„„ xru-_i« A n oc element of all plant food— in combination with the 

'^^.;i;v^tmr];vy^;^;^e Manure for wn.. .„;se;^-?-t^,:i;r,'^:^:^!.r^;:^^;^j:^ 

A?rni-i Yours trX^^ ^ l^^^ tables, 250 to 300 pounds per acre. For Vines, Fruit 

furnl,i. Yours truly, DR. E. A. SUI.NblUbK. Tree., from J pound to 1 pound each. For Flower Gar- 

,, . f I'c n II 1 ■ • dens, Lawns, House Plants, etc., a light top dressing, 

University Ol California, College Ot Agri- applied at any time, win be found very beneHclal. 


BKRKBI-ilT, Nov. 20, 18S6. 

Dr. J. KoFBio. San Francisco -Dear Sir: I take pleas ^n hoard cars at Sobrinto, Station of the C. P. R. R., 20 

ure in ad iing mv testimony to that ot Dr Schneider as miles north of San Francisco, at $30 per ton, by the 

to the high quality of the "Nitrogenous Super- MEXICAN PHOSPHATE & SULPHUR 

phosphate ' Fertilizer, anah zed by him at vonr re- „ „ . „ „ „ _ „ 

cpiest. It is a high. grade article, and as 'such re- CO, H. DUTARD, President, room 7. Safe 

turns the user a hotter money value than a low-grade Deposit Building, or 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents. 309 and 311 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

tJuLY 9, 1887 





Losses paid to date, 




Deposits in California, value, - SI 30.000. 

BUTLER & HALDAN, Gen'l Agents for Pacific Coast 





Buggies, Spring Wagons, Harness, Saddlery, Robes and Whips. 

132, 134, 136 and 138 Santa Clara St., opp. Post Office, SAN JOSE, CAL. 




Real Estate and Insurance Agents, 



Superior Facilities for Buying and Selling Risal Estate. Money Loaned 
ON Approved Security. Agents for In.sukance Companies 
Kepresentino S-20,000,000. 


Promptly KrutllcutcH 

J'l' -kl s. Tan. Sut;l,urTi. 
, >l.jtli J itfhi-8 and nil ' 
dliH'oiorutlonfi without 
injury, and im',arts to 
Mhe skin I'lirity a/id Vel-' 
vety Softness. 

R-moves Pimples, FU ah Worms. Bla»-'klieadj* and rur(!8 
Oily .S.iin. Eit'u r of thoah.,yi' articles sent iiosl-naid for 
2:5 eta. eat-h, or5 |>ackair.*8 for$J. Beattrenn'f jnentit'ii thin 

paper. jThe^W^MI^Ilard^o., Buflfalo^N^Y^ 
-JiS- I'i^ •>ilS^li«' li^ "iif 


ColdWaler Bleaching Soap 

Was Awarded the First Premium at the State Fair at 
Sacramento, for the year 18S6, UPON ACTUAL MERIT. 

It can be used in Bath, Toilet or Laundry, and dis 
penses with Fuel, as no Warm Water or Boiling is 
Necessary. Beware of Cheap Imitations. 

The Oenulne is manufactured only by 


No. 12 Bueb Street. Pan Francisco 



Finest Quality of Fruit at the Least 

Adapted to all kinds of Fruits and Raisins. Send for 
Catalogue. W. A MEEKER, 

Plflh and Bryant Sta.. S. P. 


Steam EnKinc«, Pawrrw A M ind nilU. 

Complete Pumping outfits— all sizes— foi 
every purpose. The latest. lM"st 
rlirapost. If you need any 
;in thi.s line, write to 

Byron Jackson 

-G25 6th St. San Francisco. 


sole AGFJiTS VOV. 




Wb also carkt nr stock Tn» Lakokst Linb op 



Consistinc of Wood and Iron Working 
Machinery. Pumps of every 





Authorized Capital, ■ - $1,000,000 

In 10,000 Sharns of 5100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $645,360. 

KeserTcd Fund and Paid ap Stock, 981,178. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

L C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manairer 

FRANK Mcmullen secretary 


A. D. LOGAN, President Colusa County 

H. J. LE WELLING Napa County 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista, Cal 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus Coimty 

URIAH WOOD. Santa Clara County 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano County 

H. M. LAKUE Yolo County 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo County 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento County 

C. J. CKESSEY Merced County 

SENECA EWER Napa County 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are o|iened and conducted in the 

usual way, bank books balanced up, and statements of 

accounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS tlirouKhout the Country are made. 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
GOLD and SILVER deposits received. 
CERTIFICATED of DEPOSIT issued i>avahIo on demand. 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic Statcb bought 


Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 16, 1882. 



Wrapping and Packing Citrus and 
Deciduous Fruits. 

Cut to any desired size. Full Stocic: always 
on band of LinlnKs: 





Raisins and Dried Fruits. 

We have facilities for executing large or special orders 
at short notice. 

S. p. TAYLOR & CO.. 
No. 416 Clay St., San Francisco, 



'Greenbank" 98 decrees POWDERKT) CAU.S- 
TIC SfH)A (tes's99 3 1(l yer cent) recommended by 
the hlj,'he8t authorities in the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda aud Potash, etc., for sale by 

Manufacturers' A Rents, 
104 Marb:et St. and 3 Oallfornla St., S. F. 



1332 Market St., opp. Od<i Fellows' Build's 
San Francisco, Cal. 
All kinds of Ladies' and Gents' Garments Cleaned and 
Dyed. WE EXi'KL. Send for Circular of Prices. 

C>-IAS. J. UOLME:^. Manager. 

Jdly 9, 1887.] 

fAClFie F^URAId f ress. 









10 TONS BOX CAR 5600 » ) 



Any youni? man can earn more on an investnien* of 
$500 in this press than can be earned in exiiendins.' $2000 
for any other mschine. We have a Monarcli Press, which 
we se'l for 8800, but ha' been upcd .1 very little and is 
just as ^ood as new, which we will sell for S450. 


Weight, 2200 
lbs A crew of 
three men — four 
can be used to ad- 

Five ropes are 
used on the bales. 
Capacity, 10 to 15 
tons per day. I'he 
best press 'or the 
, money in the 

Tie Celeliratefl Petalma 


Weixht, 2fi00 lbs. Price, 
$350, delivered at the factorv. 

Size of lale, '?2x22x4S inch- 
es, ijapa'ity, 26ti>n8perdav. 
Weight of liale from 225 to 
400 lbs This remarka' le ma- 
chine still stan-'s at the head 
of all vertical balintr pres^^ea, 
and probably bales three- 
quarters of ail the hay west 
of the Rocky Mountains. 

Whitman's IMPROVED New Rebound 

Do not couiound our New Press with that made two 
years since. Evhry Prkss Fully Warrantkd. For one 
or two horses. The most powerful in use. The most 
rapid and durable, and the most perfect. Makes the 
roost perfect bale. The most simple to operate. Least 
expense tor repairs. NO STOPS FOR TYING BALE. 

The Greatest Success of the Age. 

Victorious in every contest. Poubl -actinif, with new 
concentrating powrr. Do not buv a Press ui til y u 
have seen the Improved New Whitiran with concentrat- 
inif power. Puts from 10 to 15 Tons in a tar. 

16x18 Mounted, weight, ,3610 lbs $400 00 

lbx22 Mounted, weight, 3i00 lbs 450 00 

All make bales of variable size. 

Hay Forks, Hay Carriers. Harpoon Forks, 
and »ll kinds ot Haying To'i's m great variety. In bali g 
your hay, use our .^teel Italiug Ties. Cheaper than 
Wire — lietter than Rope. 

421—427 Market Street. San Francisco. 

issued Sept. and Marih, 
each year. 312 pages, 
S% X IV/.2 lnches,witli over 
3,500 IHustratlons - a 
whole Picture Gallery. 
GIVES Wholesale Prices 
direct to consumers on all goods for 
personal or family use. Ttlls' how to 
order, and gives exact cost of every- 
thing you use, cat, drink, wear, or 
have fun with. These INVALUABLE 
BOOKS contain information gleaned 
from the marliets of tike world. We 
will mail a copy FRKE to any ad- 
dress upon receipt of 10 cts. to defray 
expense of mailing. Let us hear from 
yon. Respectfully, 


287 Si 220 Wabash Avenue, ChicuKOt III 


^/I358-I360 MARKET STS.'F 


TLIC Ofin In health, habits and disease. All breeds 
■nt UUU and treatment; dO.cuts; 26c This office. 





Best and Stroiipst Explosives in tiie World. 

As other makers lUITATE our Giant Powder, so ao they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a Eecond-grade, inferior to Judson. 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO, General Agents, San Francisco. 

The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For stump and B ink Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
nut of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 



DsiDg tlie Benoit Corrugated Eollers. 

STILL AT The front. 

This Mill has been In use on this Coast for 6 years, 


Four jears in suocesfion, and has ni'^t with general favor, 
there now being 

Over 200 of them in use in California, Nevada & Oregon 

If is the most economical and <iurablo Feed Mill in use I am sole manu 
facturer o( the Corrugated Holier Mill. Tiie Mills are all ready to mount 
on waffons. 

I thank the public for the kind patronage received thus far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 


S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

^Wr»f> noAoh to anil from trip- Hon»i<» .1. W PP.CK"F1R. PrODrletor 


At Last to " Pe-f''c'^ion." 


Approaches nearer to the old method of hand-nibbing than anyinvention 
yet introduced to the public. FASILY worketl, and washes PERFECTLY 
clean. Owing to its intrinsic merits thousands have teen sold all o^'er the 
United States, and all giving PERFECT satisfaction. It only needs to h-, seen 
and tried to be appreciated. Awarded first premiums 1883, 1884, 1885 and 
1886. In localities wfere as ye* I have NO agent, I will ship samj^le Machine 
and Wringer on 60 days' tfiai, the party to pav for them at WHOLESALE 
prices and act as Agent, if found satisfactory IF NOT, return them Do not 
lose money by waiting until some onb orders samples and secures an 
acency for your locality. Farmers make $200 to §500 during the ycr. Ladies 
have great success selling this washer. WRITE AT ONCE for New Illus 
trated and Descriptive Pamphlet, which contains my liberal proposition. 
Mention this »iaper. DO NOT DELAY. 

E. W. MELVIN, Proprietor and Manufacturer. 
Office. 806 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

1887. 1888. 

Mission Rocic Grain Docic and Warehouses, 

Regular Warehouse for S. F. Produce Exchange Call Board. 

Storage Capacity for 75,000 Tons of Grain. 



W. C. GIBBS, Sec'y 

Freight paid. Are insurance and loans effected, and proceeds forwarded free of commissions. Money advanced 
at lowest rates on grain in warehouse, interest payable at end of loan. Storage season, ending .lune 1, 1887, at 
reduced rates On all wheat shipped to Mission Rock by barges, freight rat's guaranteed the same .is to Port Costa. 
All applications for storage or other business addressed to CHAS. H. SINOLAIR, Superintendent. 

OTT'XOH, 310 0«.llforMl«. St., I^ooxaa. 3. 

DEWEY & CO..r^fefa?o^iVV^fJtit'!^ } PATENT AGENTS. 



A Mounted Double-EnHer Baling^ Machine, 
capable of baling 40 tons per day. 


Tor the first year of its cxi'-te^i-e is aa fopnws: Four 
toiiH ill (kiit^ hour, iniiet^'eii and t h ret'-qn ar- 
t<*rH titiis ill a half rlay, 1 hi rty-»(^Teii an<l one- 
quarter t*»MH in one day, and 18U0 bales in 
six surcessive days • 

Two sizetj; Conipres-eiJ bales anil common bales. Irft 
proved this year so tl>at it is nearly one- 
<iuarter faster than before, and the 1>ack- 
aiid forth nioveineiit of tli« lior-e lever is 
made to briiig^ the hay aeross the stack and 
Jioist Jhe balfs into a pile. 

lias three or four times tbe cjipae-ty Eistern-made 
pros8*'S, with the same number of men and horses. 

Price, at factory, San Lean iro, Cab, $1000. 


Ooes its own Tramping. Feeds at Side, 

near the fiottom, 

3.*) tons in one <lay ; iOSi tons in 3^ days; 
30 tons and over, daily average for the 
season; 3350 tons with one i>ress in oue 
season; 33 sold in one valley last seasou. 

rrice, at factory, San Lea' dro, Cal., $500. 



Genuine Price Petaluma, 

With Latest Improvements. 

Made under the supervision of the inventor, JACOB 
PRICR. Too well known to reed further desciiption. 
First-class material and workmanship Capacity, from 
10 to 18 tons per day. Hay must be tramped in press. 

Price, at factory, San Loandro, Cal., $350. 

^TSend for larije illu'^trated Catalogue of above 
presses. Office and Factory, SAN L.UANDUO, 
CAL.. Address 


ors H 

tfiii .Tl A«^IIINKRV. Our Ar. 
leMjun Well ICnt'^'eloikCflla con- 
tains n<-ar 700 eugraviUKs, illustratiiiK 
and describing all the practical tools 
and appliances used in tlie art of well 
sinking; diamond pruspectiug ma- 
chinery, M indmilla, ar- 
tesian engines, pumps, 
etc. Edited by the 
"American Well 
Works, ' the largest 
manufacturers in the 
world of this class of 
machiuery. We will 
send rhis book to any 
on receipt of 2h cents for mailing. Kxpert well drill- 
'id ajients wanted. Address, The Anierlcun 
I Works. Aiirnrn. T|l»~ IT. N. 

and all kinds of Pumpinsr Macliinerv built to order. 
Awarded Dipl<iina for WIndmlllH at nfe- 
chanicH' Fair, 1885 Windmills from $65. Honie 
Powers from JoO. P. W. KROGH dl OO., 61 

Tbls paper Is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Cbarles Eneu Jo>in8on & Co., 500 
aouth 10th St, Philadelphia. Branch Offl- 
oee -47 Roee.St.,«New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Ohlcairo. Agent for the Pacific Ooast— 
Joeepb E. Doraty. 629 Gommerclal St., S. F. 



[JoLY 9, 1887 




Um Hi Biclcfe Imn, 


Derrick Forks, Blocks, Rope, Corbin Harrows, 

Iron, Steel, Coal, Barbed Wire, 

And All Kinds of 





Single and Double Acting 


Rams, Cylinders, Footvalves, Etc. 


Illustrated Catalogue mailed free on application, post-paid. LOW PRICES and 
ESTIMATES furnished. Correspondence solicited. 



WM. S. RAY & CO., 

12 and 14 Market Street, - . - San Francisco, Oal 


Pumps, Windmills, Stoves, Ranges, Metals, Sheet 
Iron, Stamped Ware, Tinware, Lanterns, 
Hose, Pipe, Fittings, Etc. 


o ® 


Eh O 




' — ' r i 

I— « 




• — ' 





I — « 





• rH 


r— » 















tn t-^ CD 
5" 03 



r— I 








Jh 40 












a: ^ 
LU ffi 





c o 


02 O 

43 43 









CO - 














. P3 







9r ^ 












»— I 







»— I 







Vol. XXXIV.-No. 3.] 


$3 a Year, In Advance 

Single Copies, 10 Cts. 

The Sweet Gum. 

Readers of the Rubal who oatne hence from 
the Sunny South, and have learned to mean the 
eucalyptus when they talk of " gum tree," will 
be pleased to return for a moment to the " gum 
tree " of their earlier days, which is inexpress- 
ibly handsomer than the importations from 
Australia, Our engraving shows a twig of the 
highly prized tree of the South. It is from a 
recent report of Dr. Vasey, United States 
Botanist, who includes it in his list of native 
medicinal plants. 

The sweet gum is a large tree, native in the 
United States from Connecticut westward to 
Illinois, southward to Florida and Texas, 
thence into Central and Southern Mexico. It 
belongs to the witch-hazel family {Hamame- 
lacect). It grows from 80 to 150 feet high, 
reaching its greatest development in bottom- 
lands of the Lower Mississippi. Its symmet- 
rical, compact form and bright, glossy, star- 
shaped leaves make it one of the most beauti- 
ful trees of the forest. The flowers are of two 
kinds, the male and female being in distinct 
clusters; the male flowers are in a raceme of 
small, globular clusters at the end of the twigs, 
having very many stamens intermixed with 
small scales. The female flowers are situated 
below the male ones; they are inconspicuous at 
first, but gradually enlarge into a round head 
or cluster of two-celled ovaries, each with two 
beak-like points, the whole when mature form- 
ing a globular, spiny ball of about an inch di- 
ameter, shown in the engraving. The leaves 
are from three to six inches in diameter, 
rounded in outline, and divided into from three 
to seven, usually about five, pointed lobes. 
They are smooth and shining, finely serrated 
on the margins, and fragrant when bruised. 
In the warm portions of the country and in 
Mexico a balsamic juice flows from the tree, 
which has medical properties. The United 
States Dispensatory states that this juice "is 
a liquid of the consistence of thin honey, more 
or less transparent, of a yellowish color, of a 
peculiar, agreeable balsamic odor, and a bitter, 
warm and acrid taste. It concretes by time, 
assuming a darker color, It is sometimes col- 
lected in the form of tears, produced by the 
spontaneous concretion of the exuded juice." 
This resinous gum has properties very similar 
to that of the true storax which is yielded by an 
allied species of Liquidamhar growing in Asia 
Minor. The gum of our native tree has been 
collected to a considerable extent for the prep- 
aration of chewing-gum; it has also been medi- 
cinally employed for the same purpose as 
storax, in the treatment of catarrhal affections 
and of pulmonary complaints. 

Los Angeles Pomolooists. — The meeting of 
the Los Angeles County Pomologioal Society 
held last week at Orange must have been an oc- 
casion of much interest. Essays were read by 
Milton Thomas and D. Edson Smith, and a 
poem by the horticultural poet laureate, A. V. 
Kercheval, Mr. Coquillet made an address on 
fruit pests. We expect to refer to these mat- 
ters hereafter. Milton Thomas reported a plan 
for holding a fair in Los Angeles from Sept. 
12lh to the 19th, and then send all the good 
portions of the exhibit to the Grand Army ex- 
hibition at St. Louis. The plan was adopted 
and the Executive Committee was instructed to 
carry it out. A Working Committee was ap- 
pointed to collect the exhibits. 

Condensed Must. — J. De Barth Shorb of 
Los Angeles states that the movement looking 
toward the manufacture of condensed grape 
must for exportation is progressing. Two ma- 
chines are being made in this city according to 
Dr. Spruegmuhl's plans. They will each cost 
about 125,000. The copper for the vacuum 
pans, the essential part of the apparatus, ar- 
rived recently, and the work is going forward 
rapidly. The contract calls for the com- 

London. Mr. Shorb says he believes the com- 
pany can guarantee that generally an increased 
price will be paid for the grape products. He 
says he told a Fresno man, who last year sold 
his grapes for $9 a ton, that for that quality of 
grapes they could afford to pay $15. 

Grain Bags May Return Free. — In a circu- 
lar to customs officers, Assistant Secretary of 
the Treasury May nard says: Grain bags man- 

THE SWEET GUM OF THE SOUTH— Liquldambar styraclflua. 

pUtion of one of the machines by September 
20th and the other as soon thereafter during the 
vintage as possible. One of the machines 
will go south, and one will remain in 
one of the northern vineyard districts. 
Each machine has several parts — a grape- 
crusher, an apparatus to extract the seeds and 
another to press the skins. The skins are 
pressed and shipped with the must. Eicb of 
these machines will have a capacity for dispos- 
ing of about 80 tons of grapes a day. The pro- 
cess of condensing is a quick one. In about 
four hours from the time the grapes from the 
vineyard are put into the machine the con- 
densed must will be ready for shipment. It 
will be shipped in barrels or casks direct to 

factured in the U. S., when exported filled with 
American products, may be returned to the U. 
S. free of duty, notwithstanding that such bags 
were manufactured from foreign materials. 
This decision will be applied to all future im- 
portations of returned grain bags and other 
coverings of exported merchandise which may 
be of the manufacture of the United States. 

The California Kennel Club has decided to 
hold a bench-show in this city some time next 
month. Over 200 dogs are already booked, and 
will probably be exhibited in Odd Fellows' hall. 


It is announced that a meeting of the State 
Board of Forestry will probably soon be held to 
consider the important measures which the 
Board has now in progress or in contemplation, 
and to decide upon a line of work for the com- 
ing season. Some months ago an importation 
of Australian tree-seeds, chiefly Eucalyptus, 
was distributed in the southern part of the 
State, and probably reports of growths secured 
for planting-out will be made. It is contem- 
plated to establish a forestry experiment sta- 
tion in the neighborhood of Santa Monica, Los 
Angeles county. Naturally, the Board would 
look first to the extreme south of the State be- 
cause of the lack of forest in that district. 

It is announced that if funds are sufficient 
another station will be established in the upper 
part of the State. It is reported that the work 
of the Commission in stopping timber-cutting 
on school lands has been quite effective. Other 
depredations are, however, of more or less fre- 
quent occurrence, particularly the burning of 
large tracts of timber by criminal carelessness 
of campers and others. This is the main reason 
for the organization of a forest guard. As far 
as the funds of the Commission will allow, par- 
ties will be paid for performing this duty; but 
in order to make it still more effective, the serv- 
ices of volunteers will be asked for, and to 
this call there should be responses from all per- 
sons residing in the timbered portions of the 

It seems after all that no Arbor Day has been 
established for California. The Legislature 
passed the bill fixing Washington's Birthday 
as Arbor Day, but the Governor failed to ap- 
prove it. The bill may have been attended by 
provisions which he did not favor, but we can- 
not see what objection there can be to enrolling 
California among the many progressive States 
which are increasing their arboreal resources 
very fast by the general interest which the peo- 
ple take in Arbor Day celebrations. We trust 
the matter will certainly prevail at the next 

CoLTON has elected to incorporate as a city of 
the sixth class. The vote, which was taken on 
the nth, stood 116 to 57. 

Statistics of the Grape Crop. — Clarence J. 
Wetmore, secretary of the Viticu^|ural Com- 
mission, is sending out circulars calling for re- 
ports from vine-growers on the condition and 
prospects of the grape and wine product for 
the coming vintage. Information is asked con- 
cerning injury from frost and various vine dis- 
eases; the aggregate grape crop this year as com- 
pared with last, the special varieties which 
yield well and those which do not; general re- 
marks concerning matters of importance in the 
district. Any grape-growers' help in this mat- 
ter will no doubt be welcomed, and blanks for 
reports will be furnished on application to Mr. 
Wetmore, at 204 Montgomery St., S. F. We 
hope the reports will be full and wide-reaching 
and promptly made, for correct statistics on 
this subject are of great importance. 

California Fruit-Growers. — B. M. Lelong, 
secretary of the State Bjard of Horticulture, es- 
timates that there are at present 12, COO orchard- 
owners in California, and that during the past 
five years their ranks have been recruited at 
the rate of 1000 per year. This includes, of 
course, new-comers who have planted orchards 
and the many who have been won from grain or 
stock farming to devote part of their land to 
the growth of fruit. 



[July 16, 1887 


Conreeiioudents are alone responsible for tht-ir opiuious- 

In the Santa Paula Country, Ventura 

Editors Press : — In our descent of the 
Saata Clara valley of the south, on leaving; that 
portion heretofore mentioned as the V'alley of 
the Sespe, we enter the Santa Paula country, 
at the distance of about 13 miles from the 
coast. The country here intended to be spe- 
cially mentioned extends down the Sinta Clara 
some six miles to the termination of the mount- 
ains on the south side of the valley, only some 
four miles above the village of Saticoy. This 
section includes the narrow valley of the .Santa 
Paula river, which enters the Santa Clara val- 
ley about two miles below our starting-point, and 
extends in its ascent several miles northwardly 
and in the direction of the Ojai valley. 

IlealthfulnesB being one of the greatest of 
considerations in our determination of the de 
sirableness of a country for a place of residence, 
we notice that this Santa Paula section may be 
considered as division ground between the fre- 
quently recurring fogs of the coast and the 
drier atmosphere of the valleys above. With- 
in the immediate influence of the fogs the cli- 
mate may be considered healthful except for 
persons atllicted with lung or throat diseases, 
or rheumatic affectionf ; but, owing to the great 
humidity of the atmosphere, persons coming 
within these exceptions would be far better off 
living in the Upper Santa Clara valley or some 
of its tributaries, where the altitudes are greater 
and where the fogs do not usually penetrate. 
At times considerable winds prevail in the 
Santa Clara valley, but unless accompanied by 
fogs their influence is uot considered detriment- 
al to health. 

The Town of Santa Paula 
Is situated near the confluence of the Santa 
Paula and Santa Clara livers, 16 miles east of 
San Buenaveatura, is a trading post, has a de- 
pot on the S. P. K. K. Coast Extension, publishes 
a newspaper, an<H has several good business es 
tablishments. 15eing in the midst of a fiue ag 
ricnltural region, this place bids fair to become 
a desirable location for business, and since the 
building of the railroad to this point, and now 
on further, it is rapidly increasing in popula 
tion and importance. The inhabitants are sup- 
plied with an abundance of good water, taken 
from Sinta Paula river, several miles above. 
We notice the 6ne, commodious scboolhouse 
here, which speaks a volume for the intelli- 
gence and enterprise of the country. 

Neighboring Farms. 

Within the boundaries of this section are 
many flourishing ranchep, exhibiting a high 
state of cultivation, with much the same capa- 
bilities as to production of live-stock and rauge 
as to varieties of crops as those enjoyed by the 
upper portions of the valley. Both the climate 
and food seem extremely well adapted to the 
raising of tine hortcs aud cattle, and we intend, 
in a separate chapter, to notice the fine stock 
ranch of W. L. Hardison, one mile north of 
Santa Paula. 

Wheat, barley, beam and corn are the staple 
field crops. Great quantities of barley hay are 
raised in all this valley. The lima bean is 
planted extensively. Persons just from the 
K&at, for the first time, on visiting this country, 
might be curiously struck with the fact of being 
able to raise a large crop of lima beans without 
a stick or pole to run them on; but people who 
pass one summer in our atmosphere will witness 
the dry surface of the soil, and need no further 
enlightenment on this snbieot. Enough moist- 
ure is retained in the ground to raise field 
crops, such as above mentioned, to perfection, 
and yet the surface remains so dry that no un- 
easiness exists with reference to mold or decay 
of beans or other crop running on the ground. 
Early and thorough plowing is an indispensable 
prerequisite to the raising of such crops. By 
the means of frequently breaking the surface of 
the ground in the early part of the season, when 
the same will not interfere with growth or the 
running of the vine, suthcient moisture is re- 
tained to secure the crop. Both Irith and 
sweet potatoes of first-rate quality are, on good 
authority, reported to be grown here, and so 
may properly be included among the important 
field crops of the country. 

The Soils. 

The soil of the Santa Clara valley here changes 
from the sandy formation of the upper valley 
to what Prof. Ililgard describes as a " dark-gray 
silty loam of great depth and remarkable for its 
retention of moisture near the surface." This 
is descriptive of the soil of the lower portions of 
the valley in the Santa Paula region and on down 
to the coast. In describing the valley soil taken 
from Mr. N. B. Blanchard's orange orchard 
near Santa Paula, Professor Hilgard remarks: 
"The color of this soil is a light amber, and 
when wet blackish and silty, very easily tilled, 
and retaining its tilth remarkably, so that the 
hand can easily work its way up to the elbow, 
and an ax-handle can be thrust down to the 
bead with little exertion. The material remains 
apparently the same for from 12 to 20 feet in 
the lower bench of the valley where this sample 
waa taken. Toward the hills there is a second 
bench, where the soil is apparently the same, 
but of a slightly reddish tint. Oa the mountain 
slopes the soil, still quite similar in its working 
qualities, is of a decidedly reddish tint, and is 

enabling it to produce corn without irrigation." 

Tue orange orchard of N. B. Blanchard, men- 
tioned by Prof. Hilgard ae above, is by far the 
largest orange orchard in the county. We 
called to see the place aud take notes of its his- 
tory, but unfortunately Mr. Blanchard was 
away from home, having gone to Los Angeles, 
and no one present who could give us any im- 
portant information. We understand from 
others that there are here about 100 acres in 
orange trees. The orchard appeared to be kept 
clean and the trees, as far as our observation ex- 
tended, in good bearing condition. We saw 
none of the fruit, as it appeared to have all been 
picked. We were not over the orchard, but, 
uuder the circumstances, contented ourself with 
driving along the road at the side. 

In what is called the Sinta Paula canyon, 
(the same being the Santa Paula valley before 
mentioned), one mile north of the town of Santa 
Paula, H. Crumrine has 500 orange trees 1 1 
years old, principally seedlings, with a few of 
the Navel, Mediterranean Sweet, and Eureka 
varieties, remarkably clean limbed and free 
from disease, having neither smut nor scale 
The trees are in fine bearing, and the fruit of 
good size aud excellent flavor. He has about 
:50 lemon trees of Eureka, Lisbon, and Sicily va- 
rieties, all doing well. He has also a hedge of 
lime trees bearing excellent fruit. The condi- 
tion of the trees and fruit of this orchard speaks 
well for what may be done in the way of rais- 
ing fruits of the citrus family in this neighbor- 

The soil in Mr. Crumrine's orchard is for the 
first three or four feet in depth gravelly, having 
been washed from the hills on the west side of 
the valley. Under this, Mr. Crumrine reports 
a deep, rich loam from S to 25 feet in depth. 

Deciduous Frulta. 

As a representative place we will notice the 
very attractive orchard of J. F. Cummings, four 
miles below Santa Paula. Mr. Cummings has 
many kinds and varieties of frnit. We note the 
Eisiern black walnut, now about eight years 
old, and which bore at seven, aud now in the 
second year of its bearing. The English wal- 
nut is regarded as the best tree for profit that 
can be planted in this valley. Mr. C. is this 
spring planting 40 acres of ihis valuable nut- 
bearing tree. Of soft-shells there are now a 
number bearing, but the trees are not thrifty. 
This variety of the walnut at this place is con- 
demned as liable to grow long-limbf d on one 
side, high up, which unbalances an<l throws the 
tree substance into unsightly and disproportion- 
ed shapes and to the great injury of the balance 
of the tree. 

The apricot is a great grower and bearer. 
The tree seems to love the salty atmosphere 
coming up from the ocean and leans in that di- 
rection, its strongest limbs reaching out even 
against the winds that duiiog the day blow up 
the valley. All other trees lean in the opposite 
direction. Ol varieties the Large Eirly bears 
almost every year, and is corsidered the most 
desirable for all purposes. The Moorpark is 
here, as in most places in the State, a shy 

Of other fruits the peach is considered gen- 
erally a good bearer. Apples do fairly. The 
Yellow Bellflower, Yellow Newtown Pippin, 
Eirly Harvest, Red Gum and White Winter 
Pearmain are considered the best for this 
place. Of plums he has a blue seedling, which 
is a fine bearer, but no other plums do well. 
We undertand that plums and prunes do fairly 
in some p'aces. Chtrries here, as in mcst 
places in the county, are a failure. The loqnat 
is considered an important fruit, bears every 
year, coming in at the last of April and first of 
May when much needed. The Japan persim- 
mon bears heavily every year. The fig all 
over this region promises a good success. 
Ahnonds budded, do not, at this place do well. 
Some seedlings in the neighborhood bear well, 
which indicates the direction that experiment 
mitfht well afford to take. 

On Mr. Cummings' place oranges are a fine 
success, and ripe from January to .July. The 
Washington Navel, Mediterranean Sweet, and 
some others are generally of large size, and, 
in the matter of taste, the Mediterranean Sweet 
is excellent. It is at this place seedless. The 
Washington Navel is not so sweet. 

Mr. Cummings has land that has yielded 25 
sacks of 100 pounds each per acre, and of the 
fineet quali'y. His acreage of beans has been 
as high as 2150 pounds. 

The eucalyptus seems to be at home in this 
valley, and on this place we see some remark- 
ably fine specimens ten years old and two feet 
in diameter. 

Some two miles below Santa Paula we find 
the banana blooming and fruiting to perfection 
in open grounds. In all this country we notice 
the extraordinary developments of various 
palms, and of flowering shrubs and plants, af- 
fording to visitors a constant source of delight, 
and by their charming influences, enhancing the 
value of households. McD. 

economy and usefulness is a self-evident truth. 
It is located midway between the backdoor and 
the pump, and is set into the ground six or 
eight inches. Morning-glories, Maderia vines 
and a hopvine grow around and over it, and vie 
with each other for the beauty prize. I think 
the morning-glories will get the prize for beauty, 
but the homely, leaky old barrel and the lux 
uriant hopvine that utilizes the rich plant-food 
that leaks from the barrel will win the prize 
for usefulness. 

The uses of hops need no recital. The bar- 
rel furnishes means to rapidly dip and throw 
many buckets of water without stopping to 
pump. In case of fire this alone may be worth 
many hundred dollars. One or more buckets of 
wood-ashes are kept in the barrel. This breaks 
or softens the water so that it is almost as good 
as rain-water for washing and bathing. After 
using the hard well-water awhile, it is a treat 
to take a bath in this soft water from "The 
Truth Barrel." 

Again, pumping the water at odd momente, 
to fill the barrel is much easier, and makes 
" wash-day " much pleasanter than to do all the 
pumping on "Blue Monday." The investment 
is so small one can a fiord to pour in an extra 
bucket of water after the barrel is full, thus 
running it over and carrying ofT lots of bits of 
charcoal and other floating matter, not wanted 
in the water, but useful to the surrounding 
vines. I think many delicate plants do better 
when watered from this barrel; the water be- 
ing softer and warmer seems to aeree with 
them. C. A. Wyman. 

iSan Jo»e, Cal, 

there are 13a lt>s of straw for each bushel of wheal, 
the cost of the bushel of wheat will be reduced to 
$1.16 and $1 respectively. 

Finally, if the whe.-it is sold at $1.20 per bushel 
and the straw at.$3.6o per ton, the profit on that half 
of the field which was lightly manured will be $1.80 
and the profit from the other half which was well 
manured will be $16 40. 

[We would like to have these points discussed 
by our wheat-growers. — Eds. Pre-s.^.] 

5I[hE ^T/tBlsE. 

Agriculture and Chemistry. 

Uses of the Water Barrel. 

Editors Press: — The fire of fuses and the 
pop and crack of crackers and bombs has al- 
ready commenced here in our beautiful city, 
to let us know that the day of days to boys is 
near at hand, and Fourth-of- July accidents, 
runaways and conflagrations will soon have 
come and departed. Most conflagrations at 
birth are small, and could be easily quenched 

if water could be promptly applied. We keep 
at our house what we call " The Truth Barrel," 
remarkable for its retention of natural moisture, I for though a receptacle for lye, yet ita great 

F. H. Storer, Professor of Agricultural 
Chemistry in Ifarvard University, has juft 
writtei', and C. Scribner's Sons have published, 
a most excellent treatise ni two volumes entitled 
"Agriculture in Some of its Relations with 
Chemistry." This work, the fruit of many 
years' public instruction in Harvard University, 
ix in no way a technical treatise, nor does it 
make any special appeal to chemists and 
students of chemistry. It is agriculture rather 
than chemistry that forms the subject of the 
book, and it is the general and universal phases 
of the subject that are treated rather than any 
particular operations of the agriculturist. The 
work was prepared in the interest of persons 
fond of rural affaire, and of students ot agri- 
culture. It is the final form in which have 
been cast the results of long study, observation 
and experience, both practical and in the class- 
room. The style is clear and straightforward, 
and the discussion throughout is open to the 
comprehension of any intelligent leader. As 
an authoritative treatise the work cannot fail 
to take the highest rank, and although it is in- 
tended mainly for those who are specially in- 
terested in some form of agricultural industry, 
the general reat'er will find much that is of ex- 
traordinary interest in the domain of natural 

The work is comprehensive in scope and ex 
haustive in its treatment of a great variety of 
subjects. Professor Storer discusses agriculture 
in all those important relations into which chem 
istry enters in any degree — the general relations 
of soil and air, the atmosphere as a source of 
plant-food, the relations of water to the soil, 
moveinentu of water in the soil, tillage, imple- 
ments and operations of tillage; in short. Pro- 
fessor Scorer describes the relations ot soil, air, 
aud water to the plant aud to each other, tillage, 
manures and fertilizers, rotation of crops, irri 
gation, the growth of cropp, and staple crops. 

We have no doubt that many of our readers 
who desire knowledge of the principles under- 
lyine agricultural practice, and of the latest 
achievements in the domain of agricultural sci- 
ence, will find I'rof. Storer's treatise very 
valuable. One of our readers in this city who 
has it, and evidently is reading it carefully, 
sends us a copy of some paragraphs which at- 
tract his attention. He writes as follows : 

I beg to hand you an excerpt from a recent work 
on Agriculture, by Professor Storer of Harvard 
University with reference to the ros/ of wluat crops 
from good land and poor land which at this season 
of the year may prove useful to the Agriculturalist, 
although the result of the computations, which were 
originally applied to (arming in France, may not 
correspond with the cost of production in Cali- 

1 quote as follows: 

Starting with a five-acre field, the idea is to manure 
the land in such a way that the wheat crop (when 
its turn comes in rotation) shall absorb 26,400 lbs of 
manure from one-half of the field, and 44,000 tt)s 
from the other half. It is admitted that every 10 lbs 
of manure absorl^d stands for a yield of i IT) of 
wheat, so that the manure upon the lightly manured 
half of the field will give a crop of 2640 Itjs, or say 
42 bushels of wheat; while that upon the half which 
was more heavily manured will give a yield of 4400 
lbs, or over 70 bushels of wheat. 

Admitting, furthermore, for the sake of argument, 
that the manure costs a little more than ^y^ cents 
per 100 Itn, the 2640 tb^ of wheat (due to the 26 400 
lbs of manure) will have cost $19-20 on account of 
manure, and in the same sense the 4400 lt>s of w heat 
(due to the 44.000 Itis of manure) will have cost $32. 

The other items to be taken into account, such as 
Labor, seed, ground rent and interest on the capital 
employed, the sum of which added to the cost of the 
manure will raise to $t.40 the cost of each bushel of 
wheat harvested on the liKhtly manured half of the 
field, while the cost of each bushel harvested on the 
richly manured land will be $1.25. 

Reckoning the straw at $3. 60 per ton and that 

Treatment of Mares in Foal. 

Samuel Gamble of the Cook Farm in Contra 
Costa county has a valuable article in the 
Breeder and Sportsman, which we reproduce 
as follows: 

When you have decided to bree'l your mare 
you have let up on her work. It will be better 
to cool her oat well before breeding her, by 
turning her out to grass, and take away all her 
grain before she is bred. There is a wonderful 
diff^jrence in opinion. Some believe in keeping 
a mare at speedy work. Some mares will get 
upset if kept at too hard a strain at work and 
refuse to feed, lose their condition, and cannot 
be depended on for their usual exertions. At 
all eventp, it is found in practice that though 
the majority of maiden mares will become 
stinted while at work, yet that a large number 
require a run out to grass before they will be- 
come in foal. There are many mares which 
their owners desire to work on for some months 
after being bred and wish to avoid the expense 
of keeping from the spring when bred to the 
horse to the next spring. I believe all mares 
are better for slow work up to within two 
months of foaling, but they should not be rid- 
den or driven so fast as to occasion exhaustion. 
Farm or truck mares are generally used to with- 
in a few days of their time. You must see that 
the work is gradually let up on your mare, aud 
avoid straining her. If her legs keep sound, a 
mare may be made to earn her keep for nine 

The time of sending your mare to the horse 
will vary for the purposes for which her prod- 
uce is intended. If for racing, it is desired 
that she will foal as soon as possible after the 
Ist of January, aud as she carries her foal 
about 11 mouths, the first time of her being in 
use, after the Ist of February, is the period 
chosen for her. All racing colta take their 
ages from the Ist of January, and other classes 
from the 1st of May ; and as about March Ist 
is the time when the ^ouog grass begins to be 
forward enough for the use of the mare, the 
breeder is not anxious to have his foals dropped 
much before March Ist. As mares are very 
uncertain animals, he will do well to take ad- 
vantage of the first opportunity after March, aa 
by putting off the visit to the horse, yon may 
be disappointed altogether, or the foal may be 
dropped so late that the grass is all gone. All 
valuable brood mares are often tent to foal at 
the place where the sire stands, who is in- 
tended to be used next time. The traveling the 
foal too soon after foaling would be injurious to 
both dam and her foal, and hence the precau- 
tion I have named is adopted. The mare then 
remains to be tried at interval days, some in 
nine days and others in seven, and others 
in 14 days, and others in 18 days. Mares 
are not the same. By the time your 
mare is stinted, the foal is strong enough to 
stand a journey of about 15 miles a day, which 
is quite as much as a nine-da) s-old foal can 
travel to a horse withont injury, and that done 
very quietly, the mare being led at a alow 
walk all the way. 

When the mare is in foal, if not intended 
to be kept at work she should be turned out 
in good pasture, but it should not be so rich 
and succulent as to disagree with her stomach 
or make her unwieldy from fat. This mistake 
is a constant cause ot miscarriage, the bowels 
becoming relaxed from the improper nature of 
the grass, and sometimes the mare will become 
thin aud starve her foal in ita growth. Mares 
that have been grained highly all their lives 
should have, if possible, one or two feeds daily 
of ground oats or barley with bran and a few 
carrots, after they are six months gone, and a 
free use of their paddocks. Excessive fat is a 
state of disease, and interferes with the due nu- 
trition of the (d tus, while it is very dangerous 
in foaling time, when it not only interferes with 
the process, but also produces fever. Suppos- 
ing yours is at work, she should have some kind 
of green food, any kind of green grasses, or, 
after the grass is gone, carrots are fine sliced 
in a bran mash every night. By adopting this 
food the mare is kept free from inflammation, 
and yet the foal is well nourinhed. Excitement 
of every kind should be avoided if possible. 

Slipping the foal is sometimes caused by the 
emell of blood or excitement, and my experi- 
ence teaches me that one mare miscarrying will 
sometimes affect others. If a mare has 
"slipped" a foal in a previous pregnancy, 
double care should be taken, a« she will be far 
more likely to do so again. When it happens 
about the fourth to sixth months gone, care 
should be taken at that time. It is better to 
keep her by herself, in a small paddock, where 
she will get exercise. Physic or purging should 
not be given unless it is really necessary. If 
the bowels are so confined as to require some 
stimulus of this kind, and if bran mash or 
other changes in the food fail to produce any 
effect, choice should be made of the mildest 
aperient which is likely to answer the purpose. 

July 16, 1887.] 



With regard to the management of the mare 
in parturition, I shall leave its consideration to 
my readers, and to some of them, who will 
agree with me, my advice is, if they should 
have a case of this kind and assistance is need- 
ed, it is safer to have recourse at once to a 
properly educated veterinary surgeon. Stud 
grooms who have had much experience will 
sometimes be able to aid Nature with advan- 
tage, but in the long run will probably do more 
harm than good if they attempt any serious 

Treatment after foaling in a healthy state, 
the mare very soon recovers from the tffjrts 
she has made in bringing forth the foal, and in 
fine weather she may be allowed to enter the 
field the fourth day, which is soon enough to 
suit the strength of the foal, though the young 
foal is very active within a few hours after it is 
bom. Until the foal is strong and straight on 
its limbs, it is better, in my opinion, to keep it 
from running too much. Until the mare can 
get plenty of grass, she should have carrots and 
a mash of ground oats, with bran, which should 
be made at first in the shape of gruel. The 
water in which this is made should have the 
chill taken off. The proper time of putting the 
mare to the horse your readers all know; with 
me, I prefer the ninth day. 

i)uring the remainder of the time of suckling 
no special treatment is required, except to see 
that the mare gets well fed and protected from 
bad weather. At weaning time she sometimes 
requires a dose or two of cooling medicine, but 
generally she is so nearly dry that no interfer- 
ence is required. If the young foal is well formed 
and healthy it will require no attention beyond 
that which I said is necessary for the dam. 
Those accidents which are liable to happen, such 
as rupture either in the navel or flank, abscess 
in the hernia, or inversion of the feet, etc., can 
all be treated in the proper time and places. 
In some cases about the time of the mare being 
"in use "the foal is generally purged a good 
deal, and a warm drench will often be required. 

At three months or so the foal will eat a little 
£!round oats, which is required for all highly 
bred young stock if you require to race them 
young. All work-horse colts would be better 
for this. But if it is begun it should be con- 
tinued. But unless the foal is bred and shows 
such promise that it is expected to turn out 
well, the extra expense will not be reimbursed. 
Now, between a trotting bred or a thoroughbred 
for racing purposes fed a little grain, and one 
confined to hay, the difference in value would 
be 1000 per cent, but among inferior bred horses, 
on the average, it would scarcely pay. 

Shelter from the bad weather should, however, 
be afforded to colts of all classes during the winter 
season, and unless they have this they soon 
grow out of form and lose flesh however well 
they are fed. A colt neglected in the winter 
never recovers its proper shape, uor does it grow 
into the size and strength of body and limbs 
which naturally appertain to its breed. There- 
fore, the cruelty of exposing the young colt to a 
climate for which it is not fitted does not pay, 
and on the latter account, if not on the former, 
even the most heartless who consider their own 
interests will make suitable arrangement for 
protecting their young colts from the bad winter 
climate. The colt should be handled from the 
very first week of its life, but there is no occa- 
sion to use it roughly. The pressure of the hand 
on all parts of its body and limbs, and in a short 
time the foal will allow its feet to be picked up 
and its head and ears to be rubbed without tak- 
ing offense. 

Grooms are sometimes in the habit of show- 
ing off their powers in this way by taking the 
foals np in their arms. But this can do no good, 
for it may do some injury to the walls of the 
abdomen. About the fourth month during 
weaning a light baiter should be put on, and 
after the colt is accustomed to its pressure by 
repeatedly handling, in a few days a leading rein 
may be put on and the colt enticed to follow. 
A.t the same time it must be made to feel that 
resistance is useless, and if it begins to pull it 
innat on no account be allowed to getaway. By 
no means pull straight back on him, but coerce 
him gently. With a side strain and carefully 
handling the"*colt will rarely give any trouble in 
this way. But there are variations in the power 
■which different men have over the animal 
creation; some will control without using the 
slightest violence, while others will be always 
fighting with the colt. This class should never 
be allowed to have anything to do with the baby 
colt. Yet, if a man is found resorting to violence 
with a young foal, he should be removed or he 
should be carefully watched, and if he repeats 
his offense you ought to say to him, " Here, you 
take a long walk from here; you are getting 
too fat," etc. 

The usual age for weaning the foal is about 
the end of the fifth, or five and a half months, 
because the dam is generally about half gone 
with her next foal and cannot bear the double 
drain upon her system; nor does the foal bene- 
fit mnch by the milk after this age, the teeth 
and stomach being quite strong enough to crop 
and digest its food. For a youngster like this, 
if the fall is dry and no green feed, a few steam- 
ed turnips or carrots should be mixed with 
bran and given to foal night and morning. Two 
foals placed tog<;ther in the same stall or pad- 
dock for company miss their mothers sooner 
than when confined by themselves. Care should 
be taken that nothing is left wi hin their reach 
which can do injury, every fence being carefully 
examined so that no nails or rails are likely to 
get to their bodies or limbs as they gallop and 
play about. Foals of all ages are mischievous 
jHid are inclined to lay hold of anything which 

attracts their notice. Besides the shelter which 
1 have insisted on, the foal requires throughout 
the first winter good feeding proportioned to its 
breeding and the purposes for which it is in- 
tended. Let the breeder bear in mind that a 
check given to the growth in the first winter is 
never afterward entirely recovered, and that if 
the colt which has experienced it turns out 
well, he would have been still better without it. 


InstiDct and Intelligence. 

Editors Press: — It is impossible to draw 
sharp lines of demarkation in nature. Think- 
ing men cannot say where instinct ceases and 
reason commences. It is just as difficult to 
state where the animal kingdom leaves off and 
the vegetable begins, and in our courts of jus- 
tice and medical jurisprudence they find it very 
hard to say where insanity comes in. 

There are actions and habits in many of the 
lower forms of animal life which evince intelli- 
gence. In Sir .John Lubbock's treatise on ants 
he says that "a stranger ant, introduced into a 
nest, although of the same species, is at once 
recognized as a foreigner, and is usually mal- 
treated or at once put to death." Further ex- 
periments went to show that chloroformed ants 
were at once removed to the edge of the parade 
board and thrown over — in fact treated as if 
they were dead and removed from the living 
accordingly; while intoxicated ants were gene- 
rally carried into the nest if they were ants 
connected with that community; if not, they 
were thrown overboard. These little animals 
undoubtedly have certain means of communica- 
tion, as the following indicates: Mr. Belts 
says: "I next covered an ant with a piece of 
clay; several others passed it. One of them 
tried to pull away the clay, but was unable to 
do so. It immediately set off at a great^ rate, 
and I thought it had deserted its companion, 
but it had only gone for assistance, for in a 
short time about a dozen ants came hurrying 
up, evidently fully informed of the circum- 
stances of the case, for they made directly for 
their imprisoned comrade and soon set him 

I omitted to state that Sir John Lubbock's 
idea in making an ant intoxicated by a mod- 
erate amount of chloroform was to ascertain 
whether they had any password by which they 
were able to distinguish strangers — thinking 
that in this condition of intoxication they would 
be unable to remember it. But the sequel 
proved that there must be some other means of 
recognization. They at first appear much puz- 
zled at finding their fellow-creatures in this 
condition, take them and carry them about for 
a time in a somewhat aimless manner. (Of 
course all these matters are well known to the 
readers of the Rural, and my apology for re- 
peating them is to lead up to the subject.) 
Their method of making slaves of aphides is 

Mr. Darwin says the brain of an ant is one of 
the most marvelous bits of matter in the world. 
The brain is proportionally larger than that of 
any other insect. Injury to this organ causes, 
as in the higher animals, tetanic spasms and in- 
voluntary reflex movements, followed by stu- 
pefaction. In the case of slight injury to brain 
by other ants, it has caused the most remark- 
able phenomena. Many of the wounded were 
seized with mad rage and flung themselves at 
every one that came in their way, whether 
friend or foe. Others assumed an appearance 
of indifference and walked serenely about in the 
midst of fighting. 

A writer to Nature, some years back, gave 
an anecdote showing clearly that birds are at 
times vindictive: " One day the cat and the 
parrot had a quarrel — I think the cat had upset 
Polly's food, or something of that sort; how- 
ever, they seemed all right again. An hour or 
so afterward, Polly, standing on the edge of 
the table, called out in a tone of extreme affec- 
tion: ' Puss, puss ! come now, come now, pussy !' 
Pussy went and looked up, innocently enough, 
when Polly with her beak seized a basin of 
milk standing by and tipped the basin and its 
contents over the cat, then chuckled diabolic- 
ally. Of course it broke the basin and half 
drowned the cat." 

As an instance of education in birds may be 
mentioned the tame condition of the sparrows 
in the parks of this city. I have frequently 
noticed dogs of my own dreaming, barking 
slightly in their sleep; and ferrets have ofteu 
been noticed going through the performance of 
catching rabbits — i. e., in a modified manner — 
during sleep, making slight thrusts with their 
mouths, etc. Mr. Darwin states that an ele- 
phant was being fed through the bars of his 
cage, with potatoes. One falling and being 
just out of reach of his truuk, he blew it against 
the wall nearly opposite, and on its rebounding 
he was able to get it. Surely this was more 
than instinct I 

Instances of the manifestation of something 
more than instinct in dogs occur so frequently 
as to render their description almost unneces- 
sary and to some people monotonous. " Monk- 
eys, Apes and Baboons — Notwithstanding these 
animals differ much from dogs in not having 
been mentally improved, there is enough evi- 
dence to show that their mental life is of a dis- 
tinctly different type from that of any of those 
wo have previously considered, and that in 
their psychology, as in their anatomy, they ap- 
proach most nearly to man," So writes G. J. 

James Forbes, F. R. S., in his Oriental Mem- 
oirs: " One of a shooting party, under a ban- 
yan tree, killed a female monkey and carried it 
to his tent, which was soon surrounded by 40 
or 50 of the tribe, who made a great noise and 
seemed disposed to attack their aggressor. 
They retreated when he presented his fowling- 
piece, the dreadful effect of which they had 
witnessed and appeared perfectly to understand. 
The head of the troop, however, stood his 
ground, chattering furiously. The sportsman, 
who felt, perhaps, some little degree of com- 
punction tor having killed one of the family, 
did not like to fire at the creature, and nothing 
short of firing would suffice to drive him off. 
At length the animal came to the door of the 
hut, and, finding threats of no avail, began a 
lamentable moaning, and by the most express- 
ive gestures seemed to beg for the dead body. 
It was given him. He took it up sorrowfully 
in his arms and bore it away to his expecting 
companions. They who were witnesses of this 
extraordinary scene resolved never again to fire 
at one of the monkey race." 

G. J. Romanes, at the end of a work upon 
these matters, says: "In my next book I shall 
hope to show how, from so high a starting- 
point, the psychology of the monkey has passed 
into that of the man." Mr. Huxley writes, 
speaking of man's early condition: "At the 
same time, the increasing rudeness of his im- 
plements, as we go back, undoubtedly indicates 
that we have made some approach toward the 
period when he first emerged from the purely 
brute state and became a tool-using animal. " 

To many it may appear that there is a greater 
difference between man and monkey than be- 
tween day and night. Yet on comparing the 
highest type of man with the Hottentots, who 
live at the Cape of Good Hope, they will with 
difficulty convince themselves that both are of 
the same origin. It being absolutely impossible 
to destroy anything, and knowing as we do that 
it is by virtue of some peculiar force that we 
live, is it reasonable to think that this element 
will cease to exist ? As is said by one of Hum- 
boldt's biographers: "The highest mortal can 
only be explained as the product of a more than 
mortal Power." Rouert J. Dawson, V. S. 
Oeary SL, S. F. 


Planting Gardens for Effect. 

[Written tor the Rural Press by Gardener ] 

I shall not attempt, under this head, to take 
up the subject of ribbon planting, as this de- 
mands constant work and much skill, and should 
not be attempted where a regular gardener is 
not kept, unless one can give his whole time 
and caretul attention to keeping such a garden 
in order. 

Fine effects may be produced merely with 
the common plants usually grown by any one 
with good taste and an eye for color, without, 
necessarily, a large amount of labor being in- 

As a rule, instead of being first carefully laid 
out and then arranged with an eye to future 
effect, the every-day gardener is made piece- 
meal, regardless of a general plan, plants being 
stuck in where it is "handy," and flower-beds 
being made one at a time, to accommodate the 
new plants as they come. As a consequence, 
instead of being as beautiful as possible, it is a 
conglomeration of plants, merely, and often 
with the most distressing and startling combi- 
nations of color. Indeed, many who in other 
things have good taste will say, " Why, you can 
put any colors together in flowers, you know," 
and following this rule, they plant orange-scarlet 
against intense pink or crimson, and crimson 
against rose color, with happy disregard of all 
ordinary rules by which they are governed in 
other matters. 

If one would have a garden-plot prettily ar- 
ranged, it must be, like anything else to be 
well done, taken in the beginning. I have in 
my mind now, two gardens where the two 
methods were practiced. In one, the owner 
sat down, got his plan on paper, and arranged 
for his flowers as he did for his fruit trees. In 
the other, the plants were " stuck in " on the 
installment plan, and the result — well, they have 
a plenty of flowers — I suppose that is the chief 
end of a garden. 

Do not put in anything with the idea of 
afterward pulling it up and replacing. Take 
my word for it, you will never have the heart 
to pull up a large, well-grown bush and put 
one of meager size in its place; you will be 
much more likely to hunt up some other spot 
for the little one and let the large one remain 
"till things get grown a little," which usually 
means " indefinitely postponed." 

For the best effect you want masses of color, 
and, as a rule, the more distant the mass the 
more brilliant the color should be, unless it is 

Try to arrange your colors so that one shall 
not "kill" the other, and if you have two 
striking or discordant tints, separate them by 
the length of the yard, or at least by a mass of 
white or green, combinations which, fortun- 
ately, may always be used. 

Another point is to get as many ever-bloom- 
ing plants as possible, that your yard may not 
be barren of flowers a good part of the year; 
and where you have shrubs or plants which 
bloom at one season only, to so arrange them 
as to make the best showing. 

By planting your pink flowering Weigelia, 

double and single white bridal wreath, and 
purple and white lilacs in a clump, surrounded 
by a wide stretch of pink and white daisies, 
you will have a bed which will be a mass of 
bloom for weeks in the spring. If you arrange 
near that another bed of summer-blooming 
plants and another (of chrysanthemums, for 
instance) which blooms during the fall, you 
may have that side of your garden constantly . 
in blossom, not scatteringly, but in an effective 

If we could select just the plants we most ad- 
mire and fill our garden with them, the task 
would be an easy one, but, unfortunately, some 
bloom in the early spring and some not till late 
summer or fall, and while as individuals they 
are fine, they will not do to plant together 
where effect is looked for. 

Another thing is to plant your tallest growing 
plants in the back and the lower ones toward 
the front. Tall plants hide the low-growing 
ones and the effect is not so good. 

There are many large flowers like dahlias, 
poppies, hollyhocks, etc., which show brilliant- 
ly at a short distance and set off by a backing 
of foliage are most beautiful. There are so 
many shades of color among the dahlias, and 
they bloom so long a time, that it is a matter of 
wonder to me that they are not seen oftener in 
our gardens. Double poppies, too, are very 
beautiful and showy, and a group of them make 
a blaze of color which is very attractive. Right 
here I would put in a plea for the double holly- 
hock, too; while as a mass, the stately spikes of 
bloom are the loveliest possible for distant ef- 
fects, the individual bloom is equal to the love- 
liest rose in shade, texture and shape. I have 
seen those of a delicate pink tint which I 
thought, with their satiny petals, equal to any 
hothouse flower I ever saw, and I have seen a 
whole company of young folks eager to know 
the name of the lovely pale straw-colored ones 
worn by a young lady in her hair. 

The gladiolus is another plant which makes a 
gaudy and beautiful showing. These come into 
bloom just about the time the roses are resting 
from their spring blossoming, and it is a good 
plan to plant clumps of them between your rose- 
bushes. Their range of color is almost endless, 
and a choice collection of gladiolus will alone 
make a garden brilliant for many weeks. 

Blue, while one of the most effective colors 
for a garden, is the most seldom seen, especially 
in free-blooming plants. Indeed, until we stop 
to think of it, we do not realize how few flow- 
ers there are of a real true blue. However, 
there are some plants of that color which bloom 
freely and a long time. Among these is the 
bachelor's button, which grows nearly as large 
as a marguerite, though an annual, and is cov- 
ered with the deepest blue blooms. This is the 
prettiest sort of a contrast for red or white, and 
does a "sight," as the saying is, toward bright- 
ening your garden. There is, too, a pretty low- 
growing annual of the most intense perfect 
blue and good size, the Convolvulus minor, one 
of the morning-glory family. A bed of this, 
edged with white or yellow, is as pretty as any- 
thiog you can imagine, and gives a dash of re- 
lief to the commoner reds and yellows. 

The Salvia patens, one of the sage family, is 
another lovely blue, and as it grows rather tall 
is very striking if planted in bunches. Always 
put in as much of this color as you can, for the 
more you have the prettier your garden 
will be. 

Don't clap in plants regardless of color, size 
or fitness, and wonder why it is that your gar- 
den " somehow doesn't look just right," and do, 
while you are about it, pay some attention to 
the color of your house, too. I know this is 
seldom done, but I can see no reason for allow, 
ing combinations out of doors which you would 
never think of allowing indoors. Don't, if your 
house is painted a deep, bright buff, put brill- 
iant orange flowers around it; or, if it is the 
fashionable terra cotta, plant intense scarlet 
geraniums against it. There are so many pret- 
ty ways of planting that there is no need of 
such combinations. 

Put your scarlet geraniums in a long sweep 
up against white marguerites. Both of these 
bloom constantly, and with a little trimming 
are always in good shape. In another spot put 
a clump of deepest pink geraniums, and up 
against them a mass of pale purple verbena. In 
one corner, where it will not conflict with any- 
thing else, plant a mass of double yellow mari- 
golds or deep purple verbenas. 

Make whole beds of different colored ver- 
benas, or double white petunias bordered with 
the scarlet verbena. Somewhere, where you 
have space, put in a solid bed of pansies, and 
if they are backed by yellow, all the better. 

Don't leave all reason and good taste be- 
hind when you start to make a garden. You 
wouldn't paint a picture, or, indeed, even ar- 
range your parlor this way. You would go to 
the door and stand and look at it, and try the 
effect of this bit of color here, and that bit 
there, and arrange it after repeated trials, just 
to your satisfaction. Why can't you stand at the 
front gate and do the same ? Why can't you say, 
' ' Let me see, that corner needs some scarlet, " or 
" Right down here it ought to have some blue," 
and "Over there I think some orange would 
look well"? Why can't you, in short, use your 
good taste and judgment in this as well as other 

The particular manner of laying out the 
shapes of beds and walks is for each individual 
to decide for himself, but no matter how poorly 
that may be done, if the place is properly 
planted, or good taste shown in its arrange- 
ment, a garden will always look well. 

North Temeical. 



[July 16, 1887 


CorreepondeDce on Granite principles aud work and re- 
ports of transactioDB of subordinate Oranices are respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 

Hopeful for America. 

Robert Collyer, the beloved and famous Lib- 
eral ChristiaD preacher, is now in California for 
a Bummer visit. An Oakland reporter, speaking 
with him of the ignorant and superstitious for- 
eigners in the U. S , inquired: "Do you be 
lieve this element could subvert this Govern- 
ment if it were thoroughly organized for that 
purpose ? " 

Dr. Collyer answered: 

"Ido not. I believe that if such a crisis should 
arrive, the American will meet the emergency 
firmly and e£fectually. I consider the Ameri- 
can the grandest man on the face of the earth. 
He is slow to apply the crucial measures neces- 
sary to effect his purposes, but when the time 
comes he will assert himself with a power that 
will sweep all before him, leaving not a vestige 

" We must not judge of American energy or 
American principle by the ebullition of the great 
cities. We mast look to the American of the 
agricultural districts, the mountain, plain, and 
valley, for the true sentiment that will oppose, 
with resistless vehemence, the mob of anar- 
chists, socialists, and ignorant bigots of the met- 
ropolitan slums. But I do not apprehend any 
danger whatever from this quarter. These 
people have come to us with the mark of the 
oppressor's heel fresh upon their necks, and 
they are endeavoring to tyrannize over those 
who are weaker than themselves, as they have 
themselves been tyrannized over. They do not 
comprehend the principles of our Government 
and they mistake liberty for license. They are 
not worthy of American citizenship, and never 
will be. 

" A great deal is said about ameliorating the 
condition of the poor, but I do not believe in it 
myself. It is a sentimental philanthropy that 
will have the effect of producing a race of mendi- 
cants and paupers more abject than those that 
to-day infest southern Europe. The poor of 
this country have the power to ameliorate their 
own condition and they should be compelled 
to do so. 

"Moreover, I am firmly of the opinion that 
the American is fully capable of dealing with and 
forever settling this so called conflict between 
capital and labor, this antagonism between the 
laboring man and the corporation. The Amer- 
ican will eventually come to judgment, and he 
will decide the question fairly and impartially. 
I may be an optimist in these matter;, but I am 
convinced that I am right, and the future will 
prove the correctness of my assertions." 

The Grange and Education. 

We have in this country nearly 2,000,000 
voters who cannot read or write, and we have 
7,500,000 children out of the schools growing 
up in ignorance. It is a great problem: What 
are we going to do with this increasing igno- 
rance ? Intelligence and the ballot must go hand 
in hand in a country " of the people, for the 
people, and by the people." Tnis already vast 
number of voters who can neither read nor 
write is a dangeious element in our politics. 
It is bought, sold, and handled " like dumb- 
driven cattle," and is a balance of power in 
many localities already. The Grange always 
has and will continue to push and advocate the 
cause of education. It has a special mission in 
this direction, not only as a local matter, but 
as one of national importance. 

Oar forefathers wisely established the free 
school at the same time that they established 
the free ballot. A ballot in the hands of an 
ignorant voter is as dangerous as a gun in the 
bauds of a child, dangerous to himself and 
to those around him. As our population in- 
creases we must have an increase, and not a 
decrease, in intelligence, or our free institutions 
cannot be sustained. 

There are generals who can command a 
brigade, who are failures in handling a corps. 
There are men who can conduct a small busi- 
ness in a country village, who would fail in 
carrying on a large wholesale business in a 
city. Men who would make excellent mayors 
of a city of a few thousand inhabitants, who 
could not act as the governor of a State. And 
so with our increasing millions of people and 
voters; we need more intelligence, higher 
statesmanship. The thousands of Granges scat- 
tered all up and down our land are the schools 
of political economy, the schools of citizenship, 
from which are going out more intelligent vot- 
ers and legislators. Slate and national, prepared 
to grapple with the new issues that an ever-ad- 
vancing age is bringing to the front. — Mortimer 

Badoely Grange, Illinois, has a "Mission- 
ary Committee, ' whose duty is implied in the 
name. They have ordered a lot of Grange lit- 
erature from the Lecturer of the National 
Grange to distribute among farmers in their 
county. Every Grange should have such a 
committee, and every good Patron should feel 
it a duty to do volunteer work of the same 

Grass Valley Gra.noe gained eight mem- 
bers last quarter, and has just elected two 
more. They hold a meeting every Saturday 
night, and appear to be thriving. 

Grange Work and Progress. 

(Prepared Weekly by M. Whitkhead, National Lecturer.] 

There has been another great corner in wheat. 
Fortunes have been made and lost. Of course 
the " break " came, as usual, just as farmers 
are busy harvesting the new crop, and the 
" bears " will rule, with low prices, until the 
main portion of the crop passes out of the hands 
of the producers. 

Adam Smith thought wheat less liable than 
any other commodity to be monopolized by 
speculators, because " its owners can never be 
collected in one place." But this supposed im- 
possibility is practically overcome by the rail- 
way and telegraph, and now Boards of Trade 
arbitrarily make aud unmake the prices of food, 
and wheat is as easily " cornered " as anything 
else. A single firm in Chicago, five years ago, 
gained control of the pork market, more than 
doubled the price, and cleared over $7,000,000 
on a single deal, the influence of which was felt in 
every part of the world. Farmers should think 
of these things while busy in the harvest-Geld, 
remembering bow little supply and -demand, 
good or poor cropf, has to do with the price he 
is to receive. It is all in the hands of gamblers. 
Organized farmers will one of these days put a 
stop to it. 

The growth of the spirit of speculation isominouK. 
The salaries of clerks, the busuiess capital, the bank 
deposits and trust funds of all sons, which disappear 
" on 'Change," indicate how wide-spread is the un- 
healthy hasie to be rich. And such have the meth- 
ods of speculation become that ' ' The Exchange " 
has degenerated into little better than a euphemism 
for " gambling hell." While one bushel in seven of 
the wheat crop of the United States is received by 
the Produce lixchange of New York, its traders buy 
and sell two lor every one that conies out of the 
ground. When the cotton plantalions of the South 
yielded less than 6,000,000 bales the crop on the 
New York Cotton Exchange was more than 32,000,- 
000. Pennsylvania does well to run 24.000.000 of 
barrels of oil in a yi ar; but New York City will do as 
much in two small rooms in one week, and the 
Petroleum Exchanges sold altogether last year 2,- 
000,000,000 barrels. — Henry D. Lloyd. 

The Grange in Oregon has, during the past 
year, steadily increased in numliers. Three new 
Granges have been organized and nine dormant 
Granges revived. Our business co-operation has 
increased and is in a healthy condition. .\ number 
of new Grange halls have been erected and dedicat- 
ed. Every new hall is an important acquisition and 
aid in our work, for it creates a new center for gen- 
eral and intellectual culture, and is a rallying place 
for the farmers of the neighborhood. Under our in- 
fluence, our agricultural college is being established 
as an institution exclusively devoted to the promo- 
tion of agricultural education and the development 
of practical farming. Wherever in any community 
an active, live Grange has long existed, Iwtter farm- 
ing is done, fewer mortgages on the Und, more or- 
namental trees shade the wayside and adorn the 
homesteads, and more culture and refinement are 
apparent everywhere among tie people. — R, F. 
Boise, Master Urei;oH State Grange. 

Unber the title of " Men who Own Themselves," 
the Kennett Advance (Penn'a), says: "Farming 
may be a laborious and irksome business and the 
profits of agriculture discouraging, but there is one 
thing which the farmer may possess which every man 
in any other avocation may well envy him, and that 
is his absolute independence. Men engaged in trade 
frequently feel obliged to refrain from doing what 
they consider their duty, lest in its performance they 
may injure their business. In Kennett Square the 
house-to-house canvass for signers to a remonstrance 
against the granting of a license to our one hotel 
d'-veloped a number of cases of this kind, and two 
or three persons who signed the remonsirance were 
subsequently overcome by their fears and had their 
names stricken off, the tear of a boycott proving too 
powerful for their sense of duly. I'he farmer, how- 
ever, has nothing of this kind to fear. He is ab- 
solutely his own master, and neither his religious, 
moral, political nor social beliefs or disbeliefs may in 
any way be used to the injury of his worldly pros- 
pects. He wears no roan's collar. And after all, 
ihii is more desirable than riches or place. One's 
manhood is something more to be desired than 
something that has to be gained by constantly 
' crooking the pregnant hingf s of the knee, or bow- 
ing to the capricp and whim of people we may in 
our inmost soul loathe and despise. The Grange is 
educating the farmer how to use this independence, 
not only for his own good in correcting existing 
evils, but in helping those who dare not help them- 
selves 'tor the good of our country and mankind.' " 

If any one can possibly be held back on account 
of the Grange being a secret society, let me say to 
such that the secrecy of the secret societies, so called, 
in this State, compares with the social, fraternal and 
moral objects of those societies as the secret threads 
in the binding of your Bible compare with the con- 
tents of the Bible. I have belonged to a number of 
the secret societies, so called, and it seems to me 
that all these societies' secrets are but as the little 
hidden, almost inconsequential, yet necessary 
threads which held the members together in a 
brotheihood for the accomplishment of worthy ob- 
jects, as the secret threads in the back of a book 
bind together in a precious volume what were other- 
wise loose and scattered leaves. — John D. Lyman, 
Lecturer A'. H. State Orange. 

" High Taxes, extortionate interest and exorbi- 
tant rates of transportation are rapidly pauperizing 
the millions and multiplying our millksnaires. These 
evils can all be cured by legislation." Yes, and the 
Grange is educating farmers and their sons in politi- 
cal economy and how " to take a proper interest in 
the politics of our country." — Five more new Granges — one each in 
Connecticut, Oregon and Alabama, and two in Penn- 

The ofticers of the Illinois State Grange have 
planned an active campaign. The State has been 
divided into three Lecture Districts, in charge of 
Major E. A. Giller, State Master, O. Wilson, Stale 
Lecturer, and J. R. Miller, each to choose his help- 
ers. Preliminary work to be done in the Subordi- 
nate Grange at once, and then pushed after harvest. 

The Secretary of the State Grange. Thomas Ready, 
writes: "Most of our Granges are in a hopeful, 
and a good propoition of them in a flourishing, con- 
dition, receiving new members and making an im- 
press for good in their several neighborhoods." 

Red Willow Grange, No. 628, Nebraska, has 
just received 17 new members, and has fresh appli- 
cations under consideration. 

ARKANSA.S has a called meeting of her State 
Grange ihis month. Mississippi holds her Patrons' 
Union July 19. Texas State Grange commences 
August 9. Alabama holds her State Grange meet- 
ing the last of August. 

" Wrong breaks ranks, and right is leading; 
Sleep not on unstirred, unheeding." 

Danville Grange on Interstate Com- 

The following peoaliar report of a committee 
of one was recently adopted by Dinville Grange: 

Worthy Master; Your committee, to whom it 
was assigned to draw up resolutions expressive of 
the sentiment of ihis Grange on the Interstate Com- 
merce Act, beg leave 10 submit the following: 

Whereas, The great wheel of misfortune has 
.igain completed its circuit in the matter of the 
Interstate Commerce Act, and again, as usual, the 
people stand head down at the bottom, while the 
oily-skinned plutocrats dance on high the step of 
victory; be it 

Resolved, That, in our judgment, it is the sacred 
duly of the farming classes especially, with the 
people, in a body, to rise from their dogged sub- 
mission to telf-selected political slave-drivers, or- 
ganize and arm themselves with the ballot, a proper 
sense of right and justice, a determination to see it 
enforced, and go to the polls with a sovereign vote 
for men, regardless of fossilized party mania, elect- 
ing as their honored servants, and not their dreaded 
rulers, men from among their own ranks, whose 
profound learning has not unfitted them to see the 
needs and hear the demands of common people. 

Resolved. That, in our judgment the conviction 
of the New York aldermen and other signal vic- 
tories of law against disorder of late are the signs of 
the times that indicate a return to our orijinai cus- 
toms, that of a government by and for the people, 
as opposed to by and for a moneyed aristocracy, 
and that we have unbounded faith in the restoration 
of the people to power in the near future. 

So.voMA Pomona Granoe.— The next regolar 
meeting of Pomona (icange of Sonoma county 
will be held in the hall of .Santa Rofa Grange, 
on Wednesday, July 20, 1S87. There will be 
a good deal of important business, and not a 
little social enjoyment. The usual Grange din 
ner will be served, to which only Grangers will 
be admitted. The following program appears 
in the Rejiublican : Opening song, by double 
quartet of Sebastopol Grange; select reading, 
L. J. Hawkins of Santa Rosa Grange; address, 
by Edwin Peterson of Bjunett Valley Grange; 
vocal duet, by Mrs. G W. Huntley and Miss 
Wightman; address, by S. T. Coulter of S.»nta 
Rosa Grange; vocal solo, by Mrs. Huntley; 
reading, by Will Grain of B nnett Valley 
Grange; select reading, by Miss Emma Mills of 
,Santa Koi<a Grange; double quartet, by mem- 
bers oi Sebastopol Grange; "Good of the Or- 
der;" closing song, by Grange. 

The Farmer.s' Co operative U.vion of .Sut- 
ter county is one of the powerful and benirticial 
institutions of that county. Its object is to 
promote agriculture, horticulture aud stock- 
raising. It has a capital stock of $o0,000. 
The officers are G. W. Carpenter, president 
and manager; Hon. George Ohleyer, secretary; 
B. F. Walton, treasurer. The directors are 

G. W. Carpenter, George Ohleyer, B. F. Wal- 
ton, Hon. A. L. Cnandlei, A. H. Wilbor, J. 

H. Kimball and James Littltjohn. They have 
a balance sheet showing from SloO.OOOto S'250,- 
000. The union owns two warehounes of grain 
and other produce of a capacity of L5,000 tons. 
They sell and ship grain fur the farmers, and 
receive deposits of money. This union of farm- 
ers has done incalculable good to its members 
and to the community generally. — Dr. Latham 
in Record- Union. 

Gen. Theodore Wagner's beautiful residence 
on Ban Pablo creek, in Contra Costa, was 
burned up Wednesday night, the lith. Noth- 
ing was saved but the piano and some chairs. 
How the fire caught is not stated. 

Berkshires and _8HROPSHrR88. — Mr. An- 
drew Smith of Redwood City, long known to 
our readers as a breeder of prize pigs, has just 
received direct from England four Berkshire 
swine (his fonrth importation) and 13 head of 
.Shropshire sheep — the very finest thai he could 
secure in Great Britain by expert selection. 
Among the sheep are three young rams which 
Mr. Smith intends to dispose of — thus affording 
breeders a rare opportunity of securing a choice 
imported animal at reasonable expense. 

Handfome Aprioots.— It wonld be hard to 
produce dried apricots munh finer than some 
which J. W. A. (jlilmor of V^acaville sent to Jas. 
Linforth, a few days since, and the latter 
brought in for ns to see and taste. We do not 
know that we have ever seen their superior in 
richness, flavor and beanty of appearance. They 
were prepared in one of the Zimmerman evapo- 
rators, whereof Mr. Linforth is general agent 
for the Pacific Coast. 

The Hay-Fork Swindler is again abroad in 
the land, and this time it is the Los Angeles 

I county farmer who is credulous enough and 
green enough to oblige the scoundrel with his 



H0R.SF-P0WER PcMP.— Gridley Herald: List 
Thursday evening we visited Mrs. Levi .Smith's 
little fruit ranch a mile north of town, to witness 
the operation of W. B. Bishop's patent horse- 
power pump. The horse power consists of a 
circular tilting table, 20 feet in diameter, upon 
the top of which the horse walks. The table 
tilts about 28 inches. On the east and west 
sides of the platform — the beam upon which it 
oscillates running north and south — connections 
are made with the ends of walking-beams "20 
feet long. At the other ends of these beam* 
the pumps aie attached — one at the outer end 
of each beam working in a 10 inch well. The 
weight of the horse is the motive-power, caus- 
ing the table to tilt, thus raising or lowering 
the beam and working the pump. The f alcrums 
upon which the walking-beams work can l>e so 
changed as to increase or decrease the length of 
the pnmp stroke, thus giving the horse more or 
less power, as may be desired, increasing or 
decreasing the flow of water. It is the simplest 
and at the same time most effective horee- 
power pump we have ever seen. 

Contra Costa. 
Sample Proditcts. — Martinez Item: Capt. 
F. B<ibbe has sent to tbe Board of Trade rooms 
tome apricots, apples and plums, that tell vol- 
umes for the fertility of the soil in the vicinitv 
of Bibbo's L inding. One branch of an apple 
tree conttins 40 apples, although it is not three 
feet long. Samples of early apples are superb, 
while the plums and apricots cannot be ex- 
celled. A bunch of alfalfa, two weeks' growth, 
measures 21 inches in hight. It is cut, not 
pulled up by the roots, and was grown without 
irrigation or cultivation. Babbe's Landing is 
about five miles north of Brentwood. 

EI Dorado. 
Royal Indeed. — Georgetown Gazelle: The 
Ruyal Ann cherry tree on the premises of Mrs. 
C. H. Jones, from which she has just picked 
and sold 2.S0 gallons of cherries, this season's 
crop, has been carefully measured by .Jos. F. 
White, with the following results: Circumfer- 
ence of trunk, 7 ft. 5 in.; of first branch, S ft. 
.3 in.; second branch, 3 ft. 4^ in.; third 
branch, 4 ft. .3i in.; fourth branch, 2 ft. 6 in.; 
fifth branch, 2 ft. 7^ in.; sixth branch, 2 ft. 
2 in.— all below four feet above the ground. 
Hight of tree, .SO feet; diameter across tiee top, 
.57 feet one way ana 60 feet another. Age of 
tree, 24 years. These cherries sold readily at 
oO cents per gallon, and were purchased by J. 
A. Campbell for the Newcast.e shippers, who 
forwarded them to Chicago for the Fourth of 
July trade. The Newcastle dealers declared 
these cherries to be the finest they ever handled. 


Rettrns FRfiM A Small Vinkyard. — Fresno 
Republican: I. A. Grout, on lot 28, Central 
California Colony, had 1000 vines of the Mus- 
cat variety. These vines are set eight feet 
apart, hence wonld cover just one acre and a 
half of ground. Being sick and unable to care 
for the crop when ready to pick, Mr. Grout sold 
the grapes to Col. Forsyth on the vine for SIS 
per ton. The vines yielded 19 tons of grapes, 
bringing Mr. Gront $345 for the acre and a 
half, sold on the vines. Had the second crop 
been harvested, aboat three tons more would 
have been secured. These vines were six years 
old from the cutting, and give promise of yield- 
ing 23 or 24 tons this season. 

A Cluster of Crabapple.s.— J. G. Tuttle 
has brought us a twig trom a Siberian crab- 
apple tree. The twig was 11 inches long and 
about the siza of a lead pencil. Growing npon 
it in a cluster resembling an enormous bunch of 
grapes were 85 fair-sized crabapples. Taken 
trom the twig they weighed four pounds exact- 
ly. Mr. T. has two of these trees, and says 
every branch is loaded, and the trei-s are only 
prevented from breaking down by the fact that 
their bodies are short and the bending branches 
rest their burden npon the ground. Two years 
ago the fruit from these trees sold for $15, and 
the yield will be double this year. 

EditoR-S Pre.s.S: — I have just returned from a 
trip through Pepperwood, fnglewnod, Meyers, 
Pbillipsville (commonly called Snutllevitle), and 
Sliverville. I met Mr. Tuttle driving eight 
yoke of as fine graded Durhams as ever went 
over this road. Thev are sold for work cattle 
to the Occidental Mill Co. of Kareka. He 
had also an Ashburner bull, which is generally 
pronounced the best in thi« part of the county — 
weight 2200 pounds. The yield of wool was 
never better; feed was good throughout the 
ranges; Mr. Tuttle reporU 108 bales. At Pbil- 
lipsville they have just got throueh baying; 30 
acres of volunteer yield over 50 tons. Mr. 
Stegmeyer was taking a few boxts of peaches, 
the first ripe ones around here. At Inglewood 
they are very busy haying yet. It was 92° in 
the shade at 12 o'clock, and at Rio Dall it was 
about .')8^, with a heavy fog at 5 :.30— considering 
it is only about 22 miles, it is quite a change. 
Yesterday it was 98° in the shade in the draft 
at .Tacobson valley. L«nd can be bought for 
S300 per acre at Rio Dell, planted in fruit. — 
E. P. S., Bio Bell, July 3d. 


Hb Knew Better. — Independent, July 9: 
Four years ago John S. Gorman bought and 
located 2S0 acres at Camp Independence. He 

July 16, 1887.] 

fACIFie f^URAb f RESS, 


had been a miner and never bad any experience 
in farming before. When he went upon the 
land he was laughed at for hia ignorance. " It 
was no good. Nothing would grow upon it. 
There was no water for it. The soil was full of 
alkali, and, worse than all, nothing could be 
got from the land without work." Mr. Gor- 
man was not scared by the last assertion, and 
he did not believe the others. He planted 
corn, wheat and oats where the alkali was sup- 
posed to be thickest; he made deep drains 
to carry the water away from the land they 
said was too dry. Since the drains were made 
the soil is far more fertile than before. No 
stagnant pools of alkaline water are left to poi- 
son cattle; running streams flow through the 
pasture, and the cattle are rolling fat and as 
slick as otters. At present he has 60 acres in 
alfalfa, 40 acres of which were broken up and 
seeded this spring. The newly seeded land will 
give a fair crop this season. The total hay crop 
will be quite 200 tons; part of this will be wild 
hay, of blue joint, red clover and other native 
grasses. Fifty five acres are in grain, includ- 
ing corn, wheat and oats. Ten acres are laid 
out for orchard, six being already planted, and 
some of the young apple and peach trees are 
now bearing. Mr. Gorman began raising horses 
three years ago; he started with a few head of 
good mares, and now has 25 head of as good 
horses as the county can show. His success 
shows the value of energy, industry and good 
hard common sense. The old fogies who 
laughed at him when he started now begin to 
rub their eyes. Perhaps they would try, if it 
were not for the fact that to try means to work. 

The Hop-Growers. — Ukiah Press, July 8: 
The Mendocino County Hop-Growers' Associa- 
tion met last Saturday, but a quorum not being 
present, adjourned for two weeks. President 
L. F. Long called attention to the advantages 
to be derived," both by growers and pickers, 
from the adoption of boxes in which to pick 
hope, stating that boxes were in general use 
everywhere outside of this part of the State; 
and he read a description of the standard hop- 
box of Washington Territory, as follows: They 
are 5 feet 10 inches by 2 feet 10 inches at the 
top and 4 feet 14 inches by 1 foot 4 inches at 
the bottom, all inside measure; the corner posts 
should be of fir and 2x2 square; the box when 
completed should be 28 inches deep on the slope 
of the sides and ends; the lower board of both 
sides and ends should be fir 1x4 to nail the bot- 
tom to; the bottom should be one board jxlV, 
and in this country could be made of redwood; 
above the 1x4 at the bottom of the sides shouM 
beaJxlO of redwood, then the handles ^xlO 
and last another ^xlO for the top; the handles 
should project about 10 or 12 inches past the 
ends of the box, and be rounded at ends; the 
ends are made of two boards ^xlO placed next 
to the 1x4 strip at the bottom, and capped 
with another 1x4 at the top to keep the boxes 
from being split by being piled in each other; 
the corner posts should be on the outside of the 
box, and in cutting the lumber for the sides an 
allowance of 2^ inches should be made for each 
end of the box. The ends are made first, the 
lumber being cut neat measure, and the sides 
put on a piece at a time, the bottom being 
nailed on last and over all. The bandies should 
be put on with ten-penny nails; the 1x4 strips 
with eight- penny ; the bottom with a six-penny, 
and the ^-inch stuff with four-penny.... 
Another important matter was mentioned — 
that the brand of the Mendocino Hop-Growers' 
Association has been fraudulently imitated, 
and buyers thereby deceived into believing they 
were buying Russian river hops when they 
were not; and it was suggested that the asso- 
ciation had a duty to perform in enforcing the 


Crops.— J. S. Tibbits in Index: Following 
is a brief statement of the condition of tne 
growing crops throughout the county for the 
month of June, as ascertained from correspond- 
ents at Gonzales and Monterey, and from per- 
sonal observation: Taking 100 as the standard 
of comparison, corn stands at 75, wheat 40, bar- 
ley 50, potatoes 75, beans 50, peaches 100, ap- 
ples 75, grapes 100, pasture 75, hay 75. Amount 
of wool sheared compared with last year, 100. 


Pope Valley Items. — St. Helena Star, July 
8: June apples, peaches and apricots are now 
ripe here, and blackberries will soon be abun- 
dant. Wheat harvest is near its hight, and 
the weather for the past week has been regular 
harvest weather, the mercury ranging from 90° 
to 100°. Many fields in this section are bearing 
finer crops than for several previous seasons. 
Vineyards are looking well, the warm weather 
rapidly developing the grapes. The viae luxu- 
riates in the sun, and in consequence of our 
long, even spring, our vineyards will not on an 
average yield so abundantly as last year. 

Silkworms. — St. Helena Independent: Mrs. 
M. F. Inmann has successfully carried 15,000 
silkworms through the season. As it requires 
300 cocoons to the pound, it will be seen that 
the lady raised 50 pounds, all of which were in 
first-class order and which sold for $1.40 per 
pound, yielding her nearly $75. Counting the 
time actually given to the work, she estimates 
that the income is equal to $2 a day. 

San Dleso. 

Our Varied Proudcts. — San Diego Union: 
We attended a dinner party recently in this 
county, at which the entire menu consisted of 
articles grown, raised, made or caught within 
10 miles of where we dined. We bad green 

turtle soup and Spanish mackerel, caught in 
the ocean near by. A young steer from the 
herd of our host supplied the fillet of beef. The 
pepper and limes for seasoning, and the olive 
oil for the mayonaise, as well as the guavas 
which furnished the jelly, came from the garden 
under our window. All manner of vegetables, 
including green corn, cucumbers, and green 
peas, with oranges, strawberries and peaches, 
were likewise from the garden aforesaid. We 
had canvas-back duck from the lagoon below 
th e house, and quail from the mesa above. 
Banana fritters were prepared from plants 
which grew in the ravine at the foot of the 
garden, and we drank as fine sherry and claret 
made from grapes grown on the ranch as were 
ever imported from Spain or France. There 
was no coffee, for that had not been raised, 
but there were tea plants growing in the garden 
from which we m'ght have had tea if so inclined. 
The raisins and Zinte currants for the pudding 
were also from the ranch. Is there any piece 
of ground in the civilized world, outside of this 
favored land, where such a dinner could be pre- 
pared from home products? We think not. 

San Luis Obispo. 

Stacking Squirrels. — L»8 Tablas Cor. Trib- 
une: Over 2800 squirrels have been killed and 
piled on Ed Smith's fine ranch by Mr. Benton 
and assistants. They showed me one pile 
that had over 600 dead squirrels in it, and nu- 
merous others with their hundreds. The buz- 
zards had a regular picnic, coming from every 
direction to feast. Mr. Benton and Mr. Smith 
think they did not find one-half that were 
killed. Just think for a moment, 5000 squir- 
rels on one ranch I What an enormous amount 
cf grain and range they would destroy ! Mr. 
Smith thinks that the amount of grain de- 
stroyed on his place would pay all the expenses 
of harvesting the crop, say one sack to each 

Santa Barbara. 

Honey Scarce. — Independent, July 9: Kelley 
Bros., who run an apiary in the Sinta Yupz, 
were in town last evening. Out of their 400 
colonies of bees they report that there will be 
little if any honey gathered this season. This 
seems to be the case with not only the apiaries 
in Santa Barbara county, but Ventura, Los 
Angeles and San Diego as well. 

Santa Cruz. 

Domesticating the Wild Raspberry. — 
Courier-Item: Some of our orchardists have 
been experimenting with the wild raspberry, to 
ascertain whether it will be profitable to culti- 
vate, as the berry ripens much earlier, and the 
vine is a very prolific bearer. Their experi- 
ments prove that with cultivation the berry im- 
proves in size, and is of much finer flavor than 
in its natural state. 


Editors Press: — The weather is pleasant 
and warm, and has been fine for sun-drying 
fruit. The main business here now is taking 
care of the apricot crop, which is pretty well 
gathered in Pleasant valley and on Putah creek. 
In Vaca valley we are in the midst of gathering 
it. Thousands of pounds of fruit have been 
lost this season between Vacaville and Putah 
creek on account of heat, high winds and lack 
of help. Hands to work are very scarce. The 
driers are run to their full capacity, but do not 
accomplish as much as was expected of them. 
Those that dry in the sun have had no trouble 
with the machine. The finest fruit that I have 
seen this year was put up by Mr. Thissell, in 
Pleasant valley. He sun-dried a large crop and 
has sold to Porter Bros, of S. F. at 12^ cents 
per pound for first grade, and 10 cents for sec- 
ond grade, sacks found. He has also contract- 
ed his peaches at 16 cents for peeled and 10 
cents for unpeeled. Dryers are paying from 20 
to 25 cents per 100 for cutting apricots, cutters 
boarding themselves. Mr. Dobbins of Vaca- 
ville has a large number of girls, boys and 
women at work. I have heard no complaint 
about the work not being done well. Sun- 
dried apricots are selling for 12^ cents per 
pound at Winters and 10 cents at Vacaville. 
The apricots on young trees near Vacaville are 
turning bUck at the pit and cracking. This is 
supposed to be due to excess of moisture in the 
soil, which causes the fruit to ripen at the pit 
too soon. Many 'cots ripen and begin to decay 
inside, while the outside is perfectly green. 
There are various opinions about sulphuring. 
Some contend that 15 mintites is long enough, 
while others sulphur three hours. I think the 
time required to make it look well depends on 
the condition the fruit is in, If it is ripe and 
of good color, 30 minutes is long enough, but if 
it is green or Ijruised, one to two hours would 
make it look better; bat I think the fruit is 
really better without any sulphur. — G., Vaca- 
ville, July lOlh. 

Tons of Fruit. — Dixon Tribune, July 9: 
One hundred and sixteen tons of fruit were 
shipped from Vacaville Tuesday. This is said 
to be the largest shipment ever made from that 
station. It was estimated that on the same day 
100 tons were dried at various places in and 
near town. This gives a slight idea of the im- 
mense quantity coming into market from the 
fruit belt, and there are hundreds of acres of 
orchard yet to come into bearing. 


Canned Fruit in Demand. — Telegram from 
Petaluma, July 10: The owners of the can- 
nery had orders for 6500 dozen cases of fruit in 
their patent glass jars, and now comes an East- 
ern dealer, who wants all they can put in the 
jars. Although the capacity has been more 

than doubled, they will run to its extreme 

Hop.s. — Democrat, July 9: The hop pros- 
pect within the last two weeks has brightened 
perceptibly. Prices have increased to 20 cents, 
at which figures a few crops have been con- 
tracted. The indications are favorable for an 
average crop, and growers generally apprehend 
no difficulty. 


Bouncing Barley. — Farmer, July 8: Last 
week we stated that J. W. Messick of Meridian 
had thrashed from a certain field 77 bushels of 
barley to the acre. Mr. Messick's modesty did 
not permit him to go any higher. Since then 
his neighbors have measured the field, and 
found it of less acreage than was supposed, 
which runs up the yield to 94 bushels per acre. 


New Fruits.— jDe/<a, July 7: The Barr 
seedling apricot, which originated in Visalia, is 
one of the finest varieties of that fruit grown. 
It is of a very light color, showing a slight 
greenish tint when ripe, smooth skinned, and 
has a very agreeable flavor. It would be an 
excellent fruit for our orchardists to grow on a 

more extensive scale I. H. Thomas has on 

exhibition at his fruit store some samples of 
the Prunis simoni, or apricot plum, from North 
China. The fruit when ripe is of a dull brick-red 
color and flat, being 6.^x5^ inches in circumfer- 
ence. The fruit is very firm and meaty and has 
the appearance of being a good shipper; ripens 
soon after the wild goose plum. This is prob- 
ably the first that has ripened in this State. 


Dried 'Cots. — Winters Express, July 9: The 
oanrery finished cutting apricots for drying 
on Wednesday last. Altogether they have 
bandied 2.50 tons of fresh fruit, which made 
about 50 tons of dried fruit. They would have 
cut as much more but for the north wind, 
which burned the fruit on the trees. The com- 
pany gave employment for over three weeks to 
an average of 100 persons, and paid out for 
labor alone over $2000. The fruit dried is of 
first quality and will undoubtedly command top 
prices. This enterprise has been a big item in 
the business of our town this season. 

Spontaneous Combustion? — Woodland Dem- 
ocrat : Monday afternoon a barn on Bryte's 
dairy ranch, on the Yolo side of the river, was 
destroyed by fire, together with 100 tons of 
hay and sevoral agricultural implements. The 
fire seemed to burst out over the whole building 
at once, and consequently is not thought to 
have been incendiary. Possibly the hay was 
packed too closely, and occasioned spontaneous 
combustion. Great care should be taken by all 
farmers not to pack hay too closely. When 
put in the barns it is always more or less green, 
and generates an enormous degree of heat. 


Grain Experiment. — R<^no Qaze.tte, July 7 : 
Quite an encouraging result has been obtained 
from the experiment of planting grain where it 
can only get the natural rainfall in Spanish 
Springs valley, 12 miles northeast of Reno. 
To people passing along the road, the field 
makes as good an appearance as an average 
Colusa county grain-field. The wheat and rye 
are yellow, and look ripe and strong. The bar- 
ley is a rich green patch between the two pieces 
of older grain. On closer inspection, the rye is 
found to be i very tolerable crop, considering 
that it is the first time the land was ever 
plowed and that it could not be cultivated 
very deeply. Ic started out fairly and got a 
stalk over two feet high. The wheat has head- 
ed out and is filled, but the grain is small, of 
course, for reasons given above. The Australian 
rye grass made a good set. The plants did not 
come up very thick on the ground, but they 
look strong and healthy. It is a perennial 
plant, and if it lives through the season it will 
make a noble pasture. The field will be plowed 
and sowed again with almost a certainty of a 
much better result next year. 


Mottled Colt. — Willamette Farmer, July 
1: Mr. C. Cunningham of Fort Klamath had 
an equine curiosity in Ashland, Saturday, which 
attracted much attention — a handsome spotted 
colt, as even and symmetrically marked with 
the two colors as if painted by an artist from a 
balanced design. The colt is four months old, 
and came over the mountains beside its mother, 
who was in a working team. Its sire was a 
mottled horse owned by H. P. Deskins, and 
said to be a descendant of one of the oriental 
breeds allied to the Arabian stock. Nearly all 
the colts gotten by this horse have been 
marked in a similar manner, showing a charac- 
teristic which must have become firmly fixed in 
the breed from which be sprang. 

Correct Name. — Our correspondent McD. 
asks to have the name of our old friend Blanch- 
ard, which occurs repeatedly " In the Santa 
Paula Country," on the second page of this 
issue, so changed as to read Nathan W. 
Blanchard. That page being already off the 
press, we take this way of making the desired 

We notice another of our exchanges has 
fallen into calling a new style dairy factory a 
"creamatory." The word is a little too warm 
in its suggestions. " Creamery " is the accept- 
ed term. 

Santa Barbara Jottings. 

[Written (or tlie Rural Press by L. B. Cadwbll.] 

Crops throughout the county are looking 
well. There has been no hot, blasting weather 
here to injure the prospects. Harvesting the 
grain in the west end is progressing. The Lima 
bean crop in the east end is at least as promis- 
ing as in former years. 

Many apricots are going to waste in Goleta, 
Montecito, and Carpinteria valleys, the raisers 
not having taken the necessary steps to save 
them. Many placed dependence on the hope 
that the Coleman drier would buy them; but 
the company was not anxious to secure them 
and oflFered but three-fourths of a cent per 
pound, delivered at the drier in Santa Barbara. 

Applfs are very full; also most varieties of 
pears — Winter Nelis and Beurre Bosc being the 
exceptions — and they are not troubled with 
codlin moth. The pears are free from blight — 
better than for some years past. Peaches, nec- 
tarines, plums and prunes, are very full. 
Grapes promise better than for many years. 
Elnglish walnuts are estimated at one-quarter 
above the average yield. 

The County Horticultural Society had its 
regular monthly meeting on the grounds of Mr. 
P. C. Higgins, Carpinteria, the 6th inst. About 
75 members and friends were present and the 
meeting was full of interest. A long table was 
spread in the shade of oak trees and a grape 
arbor, and a fine dinner indulged in. The so- 
ciety thinks of incorporating under an agricult- 
ural charter, which would enable it to hold and 
improve property. The city of Santa Barbara 
will present them with one of the plazas when 
so incorporated. This society is one of the live- 
liest, gets up many good fairs, and aids greatly 
in the advancement of the county. Mr. H. C. 
Ford has been its president for many years — 
since its organization, in fact, and their success 
is largely due to his efi'orts and zeal in the work. 

The great beds of asphaltum in Carpinteria 
are about to be used for street paving and side- 
walks. A San Francisco company has leased 
the beds on Mr. Higgins' ranch and is now ex- 
perimenting with the material. The deposits 
of bituminous rock in this valley may yet be 
used for making gaslight. The railroad com- 
pany's graders set fire to this rock two or three 
months ago, and it is still burning. The tire 
covered one-quarter to one-half an acre, and 
burned so fiercely at times as to greatly hinder 
the work on the railroad. 

The terminus of the S. P. Branch railroad ia 
now at Carpinteria. The graders are working 
with all haste to get to Santa Barbara by 
August. The railroad company is going to 
build a fine depot at the latter point, and it ia 
said will put up a fine hotel on the Hope ranch, 
which they have bought for the purpose. This 
hotel promises to rival the Del Monte for ac- 
commodations. It is the intention of the rail- 
road company to boom Santa Barbara as a 
health resort; and certainly no better place can 
be found for that purpose. Much building is 
going on in the city and everything points to 
its material prosperity. 

Carpinteria, Juhj 10, 1887. 

Stockton Notes. 

[Written for the Rural Prbss by Mas. W. D. A.) 
Two weeks of the harvest are gone and the 
work is at its bight, with satisfactory working 
of the Houser, Holt, Myers and other ma- 
chines, and a better yield than was expected 
from the severe drouth and sudden heat of 
May 27 and 28. All grain is shrunken some- 
what, save at New Ilope, on the islands, and 
in exceptional fields. A field near, that was 
plowed in just after the last rain and was too 
young for the May scorching, is yielding a 
plump berry and finely. Summer-fallow is 
fair throughout the county. 

Average wheat brings $1.72. Some sold their 
crop before harvesting and h>»ul from the har- 
vester to the warehouse. The past week has 
been very hot, with good wind. Thermometer 
102°. If a match was touched to one of the 
dry fields, all creation would be on fire, so dew- 
less are the nights, so fiercely bright the days. 

It is a good year for windmills, and the 
ground, not having had half the usual rain, de- 
mands frequent watering. 

Four capitalists from San Diego county 
bought the controlling stock of the Mokel- 
umne Ditch and Irrigation Co., and with the 
largest stockholders, Messrs. Langford, Sar- 
gent, Kettleman, Treadway and others, will 
begin the work so that water will be brought 
down before another harvest. They expect 
to water at least 300.000 acres. 

The Stanislaus Ditch and Irrigation Co. 
has incorporated with directors, M. F. Tar- 
pey, Dr. Gibbons, J. S. Morris, J. D. McDou- 
gald and J. Gambetta, to take water from the 
Stanislaus for the adjacent lands and Stockton. 

Beetles are nearly gone, bnt linnets secured 
most of the cherry crop and are now at work 
on figs. Apricots were good and plentiful; so 
are peaches. Pears and apples are less wormy 
this year. Housewives are busy canning, pick- 
ling and drying the fair yield of fruit. 

On the Fourth, Stockton and its hotels were 
full of visitors, who came to see the glorious 
day's parade and the evening's " Horribles," 
with their burlesque oration by the young and 
witty lawyer, Arthur Levinsky. 

It is well for the Sons of the Golden West 
that they took this day in hand and reminded 
us of patriotism, and to inculcate it in our 

Stockton, July 6, 1887. 


pAClFie f^URAlo PRESS. 

[July 16, 1887 

Little Coats. 

[Written (or the Rurai, Prsbs bv Fannis H. Avkrt.) 
" Mureover Lis mother inade him a little coat."— 1 Sam- 
uel, ii: 19. 

'Tis long since Samuel's mother wrought 

A little coat for him to wear, 
In token of her loving thought. 

Her tender, unforgetful care. 

Strong emblem of maternal love ! 

Sweet story from a distant age ! 
We mothers prize it far above 

More striking themes on history's page. 

For we, too, fashion little coats. 
For loved ones of our own to-day; 

While Fancy many a banner floats 
Above our needle's gleam and play. 

The prophet's mother's hopes and fears. 
Her love, are changeless links that bind 

Our hearts to hers through all the years. 
And ebb and flow of humankind. 

A Woman as a Locomotive Engineer. 

For some time there has been a good deal 
of quiet talk among railroad men in the vi- 
cinity of Bridgeport, Conn., of a singular 
discovery that a woman disguised in male 
attire had been running an engine for many 
months. The fact has been kept secret by 
the railway officials, and was at first received 
with incredulity by their subordinates, but 
is a fact nevertheless. The heroine is an 
English girl named Mattie Morgans, who 
came 'to this country about two years ago 
after serving an apprenticeship as stoker on 
the Great Northern railway, between Lon- 
don and Edinburgh. 

She concealed her sex so cleverly that she 
readily secured a position as fireman on the 
Naugatuck railroad and was eventually 
promoted to the post of engineer, first on a 
freight and afterv/ard on a passenger loco- 
motive, a post which she might have held to 
this day but for her voluntary retirement 
about six months ago. The cause of her re- 
tirement is told below in her own words. 
Five years ago Mattie Morgans, then a 
pretty girl of 19, fell in love with Tom Win- 
nan, an engineer of the " Flying Scotch- 
man." Tom's run was from King's Cross 
Station, London, to York and return alter- 
nate days. The Government contract calls 
for a forfeiture of a pound sterling for every 
minute the train is behind schedule time, 
which seldom happens. 

Several evenings a week Mattie Morgans 
would wait at King's Cross and listen (or 
how Bells and St. Paul to ring out 7 o'clock. 
With that hour would come thundering into 
the station the " Flying Scotchman," Tom 
Winnan and the royal mail. Weeks and 
months passed, and in that interval Tom 
Winnan, after his day's work was done, 
would stroll out to Hyde Park, St. James', 
Kew Gardens, or perhaps float up and down 
the Thames with his fair young friend. She 
would listen to the thrilling recitals of his 
adventures until she learned to love her hero 
as Desdemona loved the Moor. She 
yearned to fly through the air with him and 
share the dangers, excitements and triumph 
of a life so foreign to her own. It is not an 
uncommon thing in England and Scotland 
to find men's work performed by women, 
and what more natural than in this case to 
find woman's love of adventure, curiosity and 
love overcoming all objections. A short 
time only was required to bring out her 
plans. With Tom's earnest assistance she 
was duly installed as stoker under his 
charge, her rough fustian suit and face pur- 
posely besmeared with coal dust and oil 
completely disguising Tom's sweetheart. 
Day after day the " Flying Scotchman " en- 
gine No. 362, with seven-foot drivers, and 
just from the shops at Dundoon, flew over 
the rails at the rate of 52 seconds to the 
mile, honest Tom's hand upon the throttle 
and his sweetheart fighting at the fire-box. 
Never minded she the steam, the dust, the 
roar, neither confusion nor fatigue, for Tom's 
cheery words and encouraging sinile were 
ever ready, and his strong arms saving her 
the heavy burdens from day to day. It was 
her pride to keep the steam gauge pointing 
at high-pressure mark. She understood the 
duty of oiling and cleaning, and was always 
ready to " hook out the grate " or " set the 
guide cup." 

The engine had no cab, but instead the 
conventional English dashboard, an almost 
useless thing against a storm. It was not 

long before her face became weather-beaten, 
which, together with the coal dust and grime, 
made the chance of discovering her identity 
less and less. Tom was very careful. He 
watched to see that no meddling engineer 
should observe that his "stoker" was a 
woman. So matters went on for nearly a 
year. Tom and she were to have been mar- 
ried. With the forethought of Traddles in 
" David Copperfield," bits of furniture and 
household utensils were bought, and the day 
looked forward to for happy housekeeping; 
but fate had decreed otherwise; Tom W'in- 
nan was killed. He was run over in the 
switchyard by a shunted car and died within 
an hour, his head upon his " stoker's" lap. 
It was then, when in anguish, Mattie Mor- 
gans betrayed her womanhood. 

She fled the country and came to the 

a relief engine. I suppose you will think it 
strange if I tell you that I have been inside 
of my engine's fire-box, but of course it was 
cold. I have also been inside the spark- 
arrester and shifted the diaphragm. Once 
while running a passenger tt;ain I keyed-up 
and fastened a slipped eccentric. We were 
running 40 miles an hour when it happened. 
I shut off, gave her sand, turned the air- 
cock for brakes, and brought up the train all 
standing. My fireman and I climbed under 
the forward driver-axle and pried the eccen- 
tric into place. The passengers gathered 
about and looked on. My fireman climbed 
back into the cab and worked the lever un- 
til the links came into place, and then I 
tightened the set screws holding the eccen- 
tric in place. I could not adjust the 'throw' 
' to a nicety, and in consequence the ' lead ' 

Author of " Star-Spanarled Banner." • 

United States. Her stock of money began 
to dwindle. What to do next puzzled her. 
The situation daily became more alarming. 
Desperate at last she determined to disguise 
herself again and apply to some railinaster 
of motive-power for a place as fireman. 
She was not long in securing a situation 
upon a Connecticut railroad, and after serv- 
ing for nearly two years was appointed as 
engineer of a freight locomotive. 

Perhaps her experience is best told in her 
own words: 

" Yes, I was appointed engineer of the 
night freight. I had a 74-mile run and old 
'27' was my engine. The first night I ran, 
a forward strap of the main rod broke. I 
disconnected the main rod, covered the 
' ports,' wedged up and fastened the * cross- 
head,' and crawled 20 miles with only one 
side working, losing less than one hour of 
my running time. Then we got stalled in 
an up-grade and stood there till morning for 

was a trifle ' off' on one side, so that when 
we started again the ' exhaust ' barked un- 
evenly, sounding like the exhaust of an en- 
gine properly ' quartered.' I performed this 
job in six minutes, which drew considerable 
attention from the railroad men. I received 
a letter of coinmendation from the superin- 
tendent and was shortly thereafter given the 
' day express ' to run. I never had any seri- 
ous accidents, but I have killed two men. 
One was walking on the track; I blew and 
blew for him, but he did not hear me and 
was struck. The other man attempted to 
drive his wagon over a grade crossing. I 
struck him and killed him and his horse also. 

" These accidents had a strange effect 
upon me. Of course I was not to blame 
and was exonerated by the officials, but see- 
ing these men killed produced insomnia. I 
could not sleep. Their faces were con- 
stantly staring at me. I began to run down 
in health and my last accident drove me 

from my trade. I cannot even refer to it 
without a shudder. I was running my train 
with a new engine, No. 120, and was going 
nearly 50 miles an hour. Far ahead on the 
track, between the rails, I saw something 
white which I thought was a piece of news- 
paper. As I drew nearer, O horror ! it 
was a little child. It was sitting facing me 
and playing with the dirt a^id stones. I re- 
versed and tried to stop, but it was impos- 
sible. As I got nearer the little thing looked 
up and clapped its hands apparently in de- 
light of the big engine, and in an instant the 
ponderous monster had passed over it. I 
almost fainted, but stopped the train. The 
people went back. The poor little thing 
was ground to atoms. That was my last 
trip. That child haunted me day and night. 
I was taken ill and when at last I recovered 
I resumed my skirts. You have in Bridge- 
port, Farini (the photographer), who so 
many years was ' Lulu' and electrified audi- 
ences in Europe and America as a beautiful 
and shapely young girl. At Niblo's Garden 
'Lulu' broke the hearts and won many 
favors from rich men. ' Lulu ' was hurled 
from the catapult. He was shot out of a 
cannon. From concealed springs on the 
stage at Niblo's he was fired to dizzy hights, 
and his graceful figure deceived the poor 
deluded men into oflTers of marriage. 
' Lulu ' made a living by his disguise. Why 
should not I do the same ? It is an even 
exchange. But I am done with my disguise, 
for I am going to be married. My affianced 
is a stationary engineer, and has charge of 
the 60-hofse power engine in one of the 
large manufactories. After I am married I 
hope to be able to make a visit some time 
to England and point out to my husband 
the 'Flying Scotchman' where first I 
learned to run a locomotive." 

Mattie Morgans is but 24 years old. She 
has light-colored banged hair, dark eyes, 
and is quite handsome. Her face ap- 
proaches, perhaps, the masculine and has a 
determined expression of character, yet 
withal it lights up with pleasant smiles and 
betrays in unguarded moments the gentler 
feelings of the weaker sex. 

Francis Scott Key. 

Among the many handsome bequests of 
James Lick was one of $60,000 for the erec- 
tion of a monument to the memory of 
Francis Scott Key, author of the National 
Hymn, " The Star-Spangled Banner." In a 
few days this monument will grace the 
Golden Gate park, and add one more to its 
many attractions. The contract for the 
structure of this monument -was awarded 
February 7, 1885, and the eminent American 
sculptor, VV. W. Story, was selected to design 
and construct the beautiful tribute of honor. 
Mr. Story went to Rome, and in the desolate 
palace of Barbeni for two years toiled upon 
his task. It is now complete and is in 
transitu to this city. Work has been com- 
menced in the park in the children's play- 
ground, south of Conservatory valley. 

The accompanying cut is from a photo- 
graph taken from a model of the monument. 
The two main statues and bas-reliefs are of 
bronze, while the monument proper is carved 
out of travertine, a calcareous stone, some- 
times known as Tufaceo marble. It is a 
reddish-yellow, slightly variegated with dark- 
blue lines, and its durability is amply at- 
tested by St. Peter's Cathedral, at Rome, 
portions of the Colosseum and the Porta 
Civita V^ecchia, all of which are in perfect 
state of preservation. Mr. Story suggested 
travertine because its yellowish tone was 
agreeable to the eye, and it was susceptible 
of the most delicate artistic finish. 

The monument will, perhaps, be one of the 
largest and most imposing in California. It 
will be 51 feet from the base to the top of 
the flag. The figure of America surmount- 
ing the flag will be eight feet high, and that 
of Key will be little larger than the life size. 
The reader may see from the cut that the 
figure of America stands in a bold attitude 
and embodies the spirit of patriotic freedom. 
In her right hand she holds the " Star-Span- 
gled Banner," the folds gently drooping 
over her back. The pedestal upon which 
America rests is a delicately beautiful block 
of marble, each corner of which is sur- 
mounted by a miniature eagle, the typical 
bird of liberty and power. 

The figure of Key is one of graceful pen- 
siveness; his head resting on his right hand 
with a far away look. It is the poet sitting in 
an attitude of thought. The bas-reliefs on the 
sides of the monument will be four feet in 
hight and will be in bronze. The side pre- 
sented to view in the cut is a group of 
figures singing the " Star-Spangled Banner," 
and on the other side is a fac-simile of the 
verses as written. 

The philanthropist in making his bequests 
was anxious to leave some token of his 
patriotic love for his country, as well as his 

July 16, 1887.] 



gifts to science, charity and education. His 
own soul had been stirred and thrilled by 
this national ode. A monument to the 
memory of the gifted soul whose patriotic 
words had so long been the inspiration of 
the American people, and had become an 
imperishable part of their literature, seemed 
to Mr. Lick eminently fitting. 

Francis Scott Key was more than a poet, 
he was an eloquent lawyer, and honored by 
the generation who knew him as a worthy 
citizen. He died suddenly in January, 1843, 
in the city of Baltimore, and was buried in 
the Mount Olivet Cemetery. Years after a 
plain marble slab was placed at the head of 
his grave by the Hon. George H. Pendleton, 
who married the poet's daughter, with this 
inscription: "Francis Scott Key, born 
August 9, 1780; died January ii, 1843." 

Some attempts have been made to erect a 
more fitting monument to the poet, but they 
were unsuccessful. A bill was introduced in 
Congress by Congressman Unger, of Mary- 
land, for this purpose, but nothing came of 
it. Afterward a bill was introduced into 
the Maryland Legislature praying the dona- 
tion of $5000 for a monument, but the meas- 
ure failed. It is more than likely the name 
of the author of the "Star-Spangled Banner" 
would have gradually faded from memory, 
but for the thoughful patriotism of James 

The recent kmd and liberal act of Mr. W. 
W. Corcoran in bringing home and furnish- 
ing an honorable burial of the remains of 
John Howard Payne, author of "Home, 
Sweet Home," was a noble and graceful 
tribute to the memory of one who had made 
so many hearts happy and invested home 
with a new charm. It refreshed the dear 
old song in memory and seemed to give a 
sweeter charm. The monument that will 
soon be a prominent ornament in our Gold- 
en Gate Park will not only keep alive the 
memory of Key, but will cause us all to 
sing with new fervor the immortal effusion 
of his patriotic heart. 

The Heated Term. 

Perhaps there is no country in the world 
where so many people enjoy themselves in 
the woods, up in the mountains, by the sea- 
shore and various other summer resorts, 
during the heated term. The President has 
just got home from a fishing bout in the 
Adirondack woods, and no doubt wishes he 
had staid there longer. His Constitutional 
advisers are all seeking rest and recreation 
somewhere. Congressmen are scattered as 
widely as the leaves whose breezy shades 
they are wooing. There is no politics worth 
speaking of. There is just enough business 
to keep the wheels of trade in motion. Now 
that the Fourth of July is over, Uncle Sam 
is inclined to snooze and take things easily. 

As we are prone to take pleasure in con- 
templating the misery of others, the restless- 
ness of other lands may give some zest to 
our summer siesta. England is still tugging 
away at the Irish question; France and Ger- 
many are making faces at each other and 
playing at mimic war; Russia is plotting 
how to outwit the Nihilists; Italy is still in 
the feverish flurry of trying to be somebody, 
and ever and anon are flitting rumors of the 
Pope's health. Surely it is a great blessing 
and comfort to live in a free country that 
has nothing to fuss and flurry about, that 
does not care to fight anybody and has got 
so big that no one cares to fool with it, and 
where the people are content with the pres 
ent and proud of the future. About the on- 
ly trouble we have is to know how to dis 
pose of our surplus money. We have the 
Anarchists here and sometimes they throw 
bombs and make threats, but they are merely 
a sort of itchy pustule or parasitic vermi^n 
on the surface of the body politic, producing 
an irritating sensation, but in no wise en- 
dangering the political life and health. Hap 
py the people who have no special National 
ambition only to be happy, prosperous and 
at peace with all the world. 

Young lady (educated in Boston) — Have 
you any genume maple molasses .'' 

St. Louis grocer — We have some that are 
very fine. How many ? 

Young lady (recoiling in horror and mov 
ing toward the door) — None at all, if you 
please. Is there no store on this street 
where English is spoken ? 

It was the late Granville Moody, the 
" Fighting Parson," who at the battle of 
Stone River rode along his lines, shouting: 
"Give 'em hell, boys; give 'em hell in the 
name of God and your country ; " but the 
pious old man always insisted afterward 
that what he really said was " Give 'em 
Hail Columbia." — Burlington Free Press. 

A GOOD bill that no legislature ever passes 
a thousand-dollar bill. — Jersey City Argus. 

*Y^OUNG ]E[0LKS' C[oii>UMJM. 

Dobbin's Friend. 

Dobbin has a little friend, 

Spotted, white and sable; 
Every day she goes lo him. 

In his lonely stable. 

Not a mite of dread has she. 

Not a thought of danger; 
Lightly runs between his hoofs, 

Jumps upon his manger; 

Lays her soft, warm cheek to his. 
Purs her meek "good-morning I" 

Gives the flies that hover near 
Such a look of warning ! 

" Dobbin, dear," she sometimes says, 
" Feel my winter mittens; 
Nice and warm, you see, and made 
Purposely for kittens. 

" Dobbin, dear, such times at home I 
Mother has caught a rat ! 
Brought it home to show to us — 
What do you think of that ? 

" Now, Dobbin, if you weren't so big 
I'd take you to our house. 
And give you for your supper, dear, 
A plump, delicious mouse ! 

" Dobbin !" she whispers, purring still, 
"You often get so weary; 
Why don't you balk or run away. 
And get your freedom, dearie?" 

Then Dobbin gives his head a toss. 
And says, " For shime, MissKiily ! 

If I could do so mean a thing, 
'Twould be a monstrous pity. 

" No, no; my master's good and kind; 
Pll never vex him, never I" 
And Pussy, pleased, still rubs his cheek, 
And likes him more than ever. 

Cats to Give Away. 

The following " cat essay," by a couple of 
misses of Oak Vale school, was read in their 
school paper at the close of school on .last Mon- 
day : 

Great big cats and little young cats; All extra 
good for catching rats. There are 12 in number 
different size ; And whenever one eqaalle, the 
old ones rise. Some yellow, some gray, some 
spotted, some black; But I must say, in mean- 
ness, not one of them lack. Tbey may always be 
found in the house at night; And I'm sure a 
preacher would swear and fight. If your back 
is turned, or you're out of sight, They lick the 
pots and dishes just for spite. Bat the most are 
young and if trained with care, would be better 
cats than you'd find anywhere. If you don't 
believe it, come up and invest in a few, and 
you'll greatly oblige Dolly, and Eva too. — Santa 
Maria Times. 

Harry and Charley — aged five and three 
respectively- — have been seated at their nursery 
table for dinner. Harry sees that there is but 
one orange on the table, and immediately sets 
up a wailing that brings his mother to the 

" Why, Harry, what are you crying for?" 
she asks. 

" Because there ain't any orange for Char- 

G(oOD ^E/fLTH. 

How Howard Bought the Baby. 

Howard is a little hoy, only six years of age, 
and lives with hia papa and mamma in a village 
in the State of Michigan. One day he came 
running into the house, calling " Mamma, mam- 
ma ! " and seemed very much excited. His 
mother asked him what he wanted. 

"I do wish," said Howard, "we could buy 
Mrs. Lamb's baby. He puts his little arms 
around my neck and hugs me so cute." 

"Buy Mrs. Lamb's baby!" exclaimed the 
astonished mother. 

" Why, yep," answered the little fellow. " I 
will take care of him all the time. We can buy 
his^ clothes, too; and you won't be bothered 
one bit." 

"But," said mamma, "Mrs. Lamb will 
charge more for her baby than we are able to 

"I know what we can do," said Howard. 
"We can trade something for him." 

Mamma laughed, and said: "I don't think 
of anything I can spare, unless it may be the 
basin of soft soap the soap-man left here this 
morning. But, as Betty is doting on that for 
scouring the kitchen floor, you will have to ask 
her about it." 

Away went Howard to the kitchen. 

"Take it along. Oh, law! what a child!" 
said Betty, when Howard made known his 

In a few minutes Mrs. Lamb was surprised, 
on answering a knock at her back door, to find 
there a small, red-faced boy with a large basin 
of soap. 

" I've come to buy your baby and all his 
clothes with this soap," said the little man. 

As soon as Mrs. Lamb could speak for laugh- 
ing, she said: 

" Do you think I would be willing to part 
with ray dear little baby for a basin of soap ? " 

"Oh, I do want him so much! Can't you 
trade him for something ? " 

"Well," answered Mrs. Lamb, "I might 
trade him for a big boy that I wouldn't be 
obliged to carry in my arms." 

" Oh, goody good ! " exclaimed the delighted 
boy. " I'll trade Fred for him, and send him 
right over when he comes from school." Fred 
was Howard's brother. 

" Take the soap home, and I will put the 
baby in his cab, and you may come back and 
get him," said Mrs. Lamb. Howard ran home, 
and told his mother that he and Mrs. Lamb 
had made a trade, and that he would soon have 
a sweet little baby all his own. 

In a short time, Howard appeared at the 
front gate, looking very happy indeed, and 
wheeling the baby carriage. " Mrs. Lamb says 
she will give me the clothes when Fred comes. 
She wants time to pick 'em all up," ho explained 
to his mother, who had been inquiring after the 
wardrobe. Hia mother told him that he had 
better amuse baby by wheeling the carriage 
about the lawn, and then returned to her 

All went well for a time; but, by and by, the 
baby became tired, and began to cry. Howard 
sang, turned somersets, whistled and played all 
sorts of pranks, but to no avail. The baby only 
cried the louder. He then in despair called his 
mother; but mother was too busy, and only re- 
minded him of his promise. It was not long 
before Mrs. Lamb saw a tired and disgusted boy 
enter the gate, with her baby screaming at the 
top of his voice. 

" Mrs. Lamb," said Howard, "you needn't 
'spect Fred over. I don't want to keep this 
baby always. When I do want him, I'll bor- 
row him." 


Wrinkles are due to the gradual wearing away 
of flesh underneath the cuticle. Why does it 
wear away ? Because the facial musclea have 
either too little or the wrong kind of exercise. 
It will be observed that wrinkles usually take a 
downward course. This is due to the wrong 
kind of exercise. What exercise? Why, the 
washing and wiping of the face, to be sure. Re- 
verse the process, and, instead of rubbing the 
face down in washing and wiping, always rub 
upward. This will have the effect of counter- 
acting the tendency of the flesh to depart from 
under the cuticle, and will keep the face free 
from wrinkles. It is rather an awkward habit 
to acquire at first, but perseverance will make it 
second nature, and the result is worth many 
pains. This exercise is designed particularly 
for the benefit of the eyes and the upper portion 
of the cheeks. Then, for the middle and lower 
portion of the face, where hoHowness rather 
than wrinkles is often noted, another plan must 
be taken. The facial muscles are aubjected to 
very slight activity in the ordinary exertions of 
eating and talking. To fill the cheeks out round 
and plump it is necessary to develop the muscles 
there. These muscles are very slight at the 
best, and any special efl'ort well directed will 
increase them in capacity and size. An excel- 
lent exercise for this purpose is this: Take a 
piece of soft leather — kid or chamois skin will 
do — and put the end of it between the teeth; 
then chew gently upon it for several minutes, 
taking care not to raise the teeth from the 
leather. If the teeth are raised it will bring 
into play only the ordinary muscles of mastica- 
tion, whereas the purpose is to develop those 
that are seldom used. One who tries this 
method will find the cheek going through a 
queer action that ia anything but graceful and 
pretty; nevertheless, it is immensely efi'ective 
and will restore to its youthful plumpness even 
the most hollow cheek. Try it faithfully and 
you will be convinced. — Journal of Health, 


Remedy for the Poison Rhu.s (Oak). — I 
notice in January issue that Dr. Frank Jones 
considers a strong solution of bi-carbonate of 
soda the most efficient application for the cure 
of rhus poisoning. Nearly 20 years ago I was 
first poisoned while botanizing, and have been 
poisoned every year since, from one to four or 
more times. I have tried the above named 
remedy and numerous others, and now use ex- 
clusively a strong (saturated) solution of alum, 
which relieves me quicker than any other apg^li- 
cation ever did. I would remark that, as is 
well known, the rhus affects diflferent persons 
in different degrees, and some not at all; and I 
have thought it may also affect them in a differ- 
ent manner, as I have known several persons, 
one of whom would experience greater relief 
than another while using a similar remedy. 
Tlierefore all may not be so readily relieved by 
the application of the alum solution as myself 
and others to whom I have recommended it, 
but to all whom the soda bi-carbonate does not 
cure, I would say, try the alum solution. — C. 
A. Uhek, in Gardener Monthly. 

The Uses of Lemons. — Lemons are one of 
the moat useful fruits in our domestic economy. 
Lemonade is not only a luxury, but exceedingly 
wholesome. It ia a good temperance drink. 
The juice of half a lemon in a glass of water, 
without sugar, will frequently cure a sick head- 
ache. If the hands be stained, there is noth- 
ing that will remove the stain better than a 
lemon or a lemon and salt. After the juice has 
been squeezed from the lemon, the refuse can 
be used for the purpose. Lemon juice and 
sugar, mixed very thick, is useful to relieve 
coughs and sore throats. It must be very acid 
as well aa sweet. Lemon juice ia also a very 
good remedy for rheumatis/r. and the so-called 
biliousness of sprint;. In the latter case the 
juice should be taken before breakfast. 


The Milling World gives the following facts, 
which will be of interest not only to all house- 
wives, hut to flour manufacturers as well: 

A barrel of good flour should make from 270 
to 28.5 five-cent loaves. Many bakers blend 
four brands, as two Minnesota springs and two 
Indiana winters, before they get the right alloy. 
Others use only one grade of spring and two of 
winter wheat. These make the best brands of 
fancy bread. Formerly yeast was made of 
malt, potatoes and hops, and this is extensively 
used. Fancy bread bakers use a patent yellow 
compressed yeast. It is popularly supposed 
that bakers use alum extensively in order to 
whiten their bread. That is not the fact. 
There ia no necessity for the use of alum, and 
it is not used in the trade. There are about 
20 large steam bakeries in New York, which 
give employment to several hundred men. One 
of these, a noted Broadway establishment, 
makes a specialty of Vienna bread and does 
an immense business. Vienna bread is made in 
air-tight ovens, of the best grade of flour, and 
milk is used instead of water in mixing the 
dough. In baking, the steam settles back on 
the bread instead of escaping. This makes the 
outer crust thin and tender, and gives the 
bread a peculiarly rich taste and pleasant 
aroma. What is known to the trade as " steam " 
bread is another recent invention. It is made 
of the very finest of flour and baked in air- 
tight pans, which inclose it on all sides. It is 
thus baked in its own steam, and possesses a 
flavor peculiarly its own. One very large bak- 
ery in New York is devoted solely to the pro- 
duction of aerated bread. It is a steam factory, 
and the bread so made is extremely light and 
spongy. The invention is an P^nglish one, but 
has been in use here for years. When the 
dough has reached a certain consistency, it is 
run into an air-tight cylinder and strongly im- 
pregnated with carbonic acid gas. This creates 
the lightness and sponginesa without detracting 
in the slightest from its nutritious qualities. 

Rice Pudding Without Egos. — Two quarts 
of milk, two-thirds of a cup of rice, same of 
sugar, small piece of batter and a little salt; 
stir occasionally on the stove until boiling hot, 
then put in a slow oven and cook until of the 
consistency of cream. 

Flour Gems. — One egg, one tablespoonful of 
sugar, two tablcspoonfuls of butter, IJ cupfnls 
of sweet milk, three teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder, 2J cupfula of flour. Beat well, have 
your gem pan hot and buttered. Pour in and 
bake quick. 

White Cake. — Two cupa of sugar, one cup 
of butter, five eggs, beaten very light, one cup 
sweet milk, ,34 cups of flour, two tablespoonfuls 
of cream of tartar and one of soda. Flavor 
with bitter almonds or vanilla. 

Puff Pudding. — One pint of boiling milk 
and nine tablespoonfuls of flour; mix first with 
a little cold milk. When cold, add a little salt 
and flour, three well-beaten eggs, and bake in a 
buttered dish. Serve at once. 

Lemon Soda Cake.— One cup of sugar, one 
tablespoon of butter, two eggs, one-half cup of 
sweet milk, one teaspoon of soda, two tea- 
spoons of cream tartar, one pint of flour 
measured after sifting. 

Excellent Cake.— Take one cupful of sugar, 
three cupfuls of flour, 1^ cupfuls of milk, half a 
cupful of butter and two eggs; mix thoroughly, 
adding two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. 
Bake in a hot oven. 

Mint Sauce. — Chop fine one bunch of mint, 
mix with it a tablespoonful of white sugar, a 
pinch of salt and pepper each, and five table- 
spoonfuls of vinegar. Stir well and serve with 
roast lamb or veal. 

Yankee Muffins. — To one quart of milk add 
one gill of yeast, one teaspoonful of salt, with 
four or five eggs beaten. Add flour sufficient 
to make a thick batter. Bake in muffin rings. 
Serve with butter. 

Lemon Jelly. — The yolks of two eggs, one 
cup of sugar, one cup of water, one tablespoon- 
ful of cornstarch and the juice and grated rind 
of one lemon. Cook till thick. This ia nice 
for layer cake. 

Mock Sausage. — Soak dry bread in water. 
Take as much cold meat, ctiopped fine, aa you 
have bread. Mix, and season with salt, pepper 
and sage. Make into small cakes and fry in 
hot lard. 

Beef Cakes. — Cut cold beef in slices and soak 
in vinegar over night, then dip in beaten egg 
seasoned with salt and nutmeg, roll in dried 
breadcrumbs and fry in butter to a nice brown. 

Graham Flour Pudding. — One cup of 
graham flour, one cup of sweet milk, one cup 
of molasses, one cup of chopped raisins, one 
teaspoonful of soda. Steam three hours. 

GiNGERiiREAD. — One cap of molasses, one- 
half cup of butter, two tablespoonfuls of water, 
one teaspoonful of soda, flour enough to mold. 
Roll out thin and bake in a quick oven. 

Salad of Salmon. — Cut some cold salmon 
into slices or pieces about the size of a dollar, 
garnish with capers and strings of lettuce hearts; 
pour a salad dressing over the whole. 


f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 

[July 16, 1887 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, 220 Market St., JV'. E. eor. Front St., S.F. 
tr '.Cake the Elevator. Mo. It Front St."^ 

Our Subscription Rates. 

Ot-R SuBSCRiFTiOK Ratks iKi TiiRSE DOLLARS R year, in 
advance. While this nutic« apf^ars, all subscribers pay- 
ing in advance will receive ISJ months' (one year and 
eix weeks) credit. For 91.50 in advance, six months and 
three weeks. All agents and clerks are required to 
adhere to these terms. No new names entered on the 
list without pa,\-ment in advance. Our preBiium offer- 
ings are subject to these terms. 

Advertising: Rates. 

1 Week. 1 Month. S Montht. 1 Tear. 

Per Una (agate) $ .26 * .80 t 2.20 t 5.00 

Half inch (1 square). . . 1.00 3.00 8.00 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 U.OO 45.00 

Larre advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, le^l advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month 

DEWET & CO., Pimrt SoLicrroRS. 

A. T. DIWBT. W. B. BWIR. «. ■. tTBOMS 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday everang. 
Ragistered at S. F. Post Office *■ secoud-olass mail matter. 


Saturday, July i6, 1887. 


ILLnSTRATIONS.-The Sweet Gum Tree of the 
Houth. 41. James Lick's Monument to Francis Scott 
Key, 46 Foes of the Cottony Cushion Scale Found 
in California, 49. 

BDIl-OKl A LH. -The Sweet Gum; Forestry, 41. The 
Wiek; Advertising Methods; Intere^iug Figures cn 
Fruit; Fruit for tlie Kast; The Coming Fairs o( 1887; 
The Hanger of Wheat Ginibling. 48 Fire! Fire, 49. 

OORRESHOMDENCB.-ln the Sania Pau'a Coun- 
try, Ventura County; Use^ of the Water Barrel, 42. 

THE FIELD.— Agriculture and Cheniistty, 42. 

THE STABLE.— Treatment of Mires in Foal, 42. 

THE VBIEBINARIAN .-Instinct and Intelli- 
gence, 4S. 

FIXDHICULTURE.-Plantlng Gardens for Effect, 

and Progress; Grass Valley Grange; The Farmers' Co- 
operative Union; Danville Grange on Interstate Com- 
merce; Hopeful for America; Ths Grange and Educa- 
tion, 44. 

AORIOULTURAL NOTES-From the various 
counties of California, 45. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— Little Coats; A Woman as 
ft ixjcoiuotivo Kiigineer; Francis Scott Key, 46. The 
Heated Term, 4'7. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -Dobbin's Friend; 
How Howard Bought the Baby; Cats to Give Away; 
Harry and Charlev. 47- 

GOOD HE4LTH.-Wrinkle»; Remedy for the Poison 
Khus (Oak); The Uses of Lemons, 47. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. - Bread-Making; Rice 
Pudding Witliout Kggs; Flour Gems; White Cake; 
Puff Pudding; Lemon .Soda Cake; Exci-llent Cake; 
Mint Sauce; Yankee Muffins; I>emon Jelly; Uoi k Sau- 
sage; Bwf Cakes; Graham Flour I'udumg; Ginger- 
bread; Salad of Salmon, 47. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Natural Foes of the Cottony 
Cushion Scale, 49- 

Bnsiness Announcements. 

New Music— Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston. 

Price Ha» Press Co.— San I^eandro, CaL 

Orange Seed— L. O. Sresovich & Co. 

E\'a orators— Bachelder & Cnates, Napa City, Cat. 

Purchasing Agent — Mrs. F. E. Smith. 

Scientific Tools- O. O. Wlckson & Co. 

Catarrh Cure— Wilson's Vaporizing Inhaler. 

tWSee Advertising Columru. 

The Week. 

A good note can be made of the progress in 
irrigation endeavors. Oar columns from week 
to week have mention of organized effort here 
and there for the utilization of idle waters, and 
the result must be great toward the upbuilding 
of the regions iuterested. Upon large enter- 
prises there must always be conflict of opinion 
and sometimes of interests, but there is quite a 
commendable spirit of union and co-operation 
in most of the efforts which have been under- 

The cloud of litigation on the water question 
seems also to lift now and then; one of the 
most cheering rifts in the cloud this week being 
the dismissal of the riparian suits brought 
against irrigators using Kings river water. 
This action of the court will give peace aad a 
great progressive impetus to the adjacent land 
in Fresno and Tulare counties. 

Crop reports are still good, the increased 
yield in some fields being very satisfactory to 
the owners. According to all reports, every 
one who wants work can get plenty of it, and 
there is some complaint of a lack of hands. It 
is, of conrse, the busy season, but as our indus- 
tries multiply, the opportunity for labor 
widens. Thus may it continue. 

AdvertlsiDg Methods. 

A very interesting chapter might be written 
on the science of advertising, as it has been am- 
plified and improved with the growth of maga- 
zines and newspapers until it has nearly reached 
the last degree of perfection. It is a wonder 
that Herbert Spencer or some of his disciples 
have never taken up the history of this art in 
order to illustrate the doctrine of evolution. 
The earliest methods were of the clumsiest sort. 
They seemed based upon the theory that the 
more cumbrous the vehicle of information the 
greater the importance of the information they 
conveyed. The first we hear of advertising 
was by public criers, a method still in vogue in 
some parts of Europe and even in this country, 
and the red and black lettered theatrical posters 
of the ancient Romans still hold their place on 
the bill-boards and deadwalls of the present 
day. It was a considerable period after the 
establishment of the newspaper before it was 
recognized as the cheapest, quickest and most 
effective way of advertising. 

In the early period of advertising journalism, 
the merchant who wanted to proclaim his 
wares was fond of making his notice cater at 
the same time to his personal or lyrical vanity. 
To simply and tersely state the facts, the kind 
of goods for sale, merits and prices, was hardly 
thought sufficient. The merchant himself, or 
some rhymester employed for the purpose, would 
set forth the excellency and desirability of the 
goods in jingling doggerel. The effusion often 
gave only the faintest idea of what was to be 
bought, but if some odd quirk or queer conceit 
was woven into the lines the end was attained. 
It was hoped that while the reader laughed at 
an epigram, he would remember that Jones' 
goods were really going at a fearful sacrifice, or 
that fortunes were to be made by patronizing 
Smith's store. But it was soon discovered that 
the public laughed and that was the end of it. 
The jingling lines gave no reason why one 
should trouble himself to visit one shop or store 
more than another. 

The newspaper has not attained its present 
supremacy without a struggle. For a long time 
it had to divide the honor of the most sedate 
merchants with all sorts of sonorous and violent 
devices. Bjinners, wagons bearing garish signs, 
harlequins, street bands, processions, strange 
animals, and divers other attractions have been 
employed by auctioneers and even merchants. 
Much of thid sort of advertising is still 
employed by traveling shows, patent medi- 
cine venders, flaring posters, marching ele- 
phants, painted mules, the calliope and 
street parades. On one of the deadwalls 
of Market street may be seen a group 
of California's greatest men in the complacent 
attitude of putfiag Pet cigarettes, and in depots 
and other public places may be seen the por- 
traits of the most beautiful girls as the trade- 
mark of some new brand of cigars or tobacco. 
Even the Maltese cross and other fraternal so- 
ciety devices may be seen doing duty on claret 
bottles and petroleum cans. Hardly a day 
passes that we do not learn of some sensational 
device to attract attention. A New York 
bootblack could scarcely keep soul and body 
together till he took it into his head to jump off 
the Brooklyn bridge, and now he earns $100 a 
week in a dime museum. A few days before 
the charming Sara came to the United States, 
we had a cock-and-bull story of a duel between 
a high-toned Frenchman and Italian caused by 
some criticism of the French actress. The 
Prince of Wales is one of the best advertising 
agents of the day in giving London stars a lift 
into notoriety. 

But while all these and various other allure- 
ments may be resorted to, the newspaper is 
bound to absorb the bulk of the adver- 
tising patronage of the world. The reason 
is obvious. It is the chief medium of 
information. It goes everywhere. It is 
valuable intrinsically, and its advertising 
columns reap the benefit of all the thought and 
money expended on its news and editorial pages. 
The newspaper has become the public bureau of 
information. It is the place where everybody 
looks to find everything. Ko catch-penny 
trick or perambulating street device can ever 
rival that daily and weekly budget of simple, 
necessary facts, to know which is the intellect- 
ual pabulum of millions of people. Recognizing 
all this, advertising in journals is the most im- 
portant part of legitimate trade. For saying 
the most in the fewest words and in the most 

striking way habitual newspaper advertisers are 
pre-eminent. It is only necessary to scan the 
columns of the Rukal week after week to re- 
alize how far the art of placing facts before the 
public, not only in a way that arrests attention, 
but that stimulates inquiry and inspires confi- 
dence, has been studied and practiced. 

Interesting Fii;ures on Fruits. 

We have just received the report of the Chief 
of the Bureau of Statistics at Washington, giv- 
ing exports and imports of the United States 
for the eleven months ending June 1, 1887, and 
the corresponding period of last year. We 
select first as of especial interest to our fruit- 
growers the figures relating to importations of 
dried fruits for the periods described above: 


Kind of Fruit. 




.... 8,723,137 



. . . .90,697,169 






Kind of Fruit. 









Preserved Iruits .... 




. . . .$6,386,759 


This shows that, notwithstanding the re- 
spectable figures which our production of these 
fruits is reaching, the importation of them is 
increasing. Even reckoned upon the basis of 
value, this appears, and if figured in weight 
the increase would be greater, for the prices or 
valuation per pound is shown to be less this 
year than last. The deduction would be that 
the population of the country, or at least the 
consumptive demaud for these articles, is in- 
creasing faster than the California production 
of them. This is a hopeful condition of affairs 
for California, for it postpones indefinitely the 
time when our product shall oversupply the 
demand of this country. Although we look 
forward to ultimately turning hither the mill- 
ions which are now going to the Mediterranean 
regions for these fruits, we can well afford to 
wait for the victory, which will be all the 
greater when it comes. To the pr'joe-growers 
especially the figures are comforting, for, 
although they may be forced to take compara- 
tively low prices fur their fruit, the prospect 
for actual overproduction of prunes seems quite 
remote, as the United States imported nearly 
a million dollars' worth more in 1887 than the 
year before. 

The importation of semi-tropical fruits and 
grapes also reach interesting figures, as follows: 


Kind of Fruit. 1887. 

Lemons $3,286,639 

Oranges 2,104,643 

Other Iruiis (not bananas). 1,758.065 

Nuis — Almonds S'7.934 

All other nuts 663,386 

Totals $8,330,667 $6,528,651 

The weight ofjalnionds was 4, 547,683 pounds in 
188/ and 8,770,836 pounds in 1886. 

Thus it appears that during the year ending 
on the Ist of last June there were brought into 
the United States nearly $15,000,000 worth of 
dried and green fruits and nnts, the produc- 
tion of nearly all of which has gained consider- 
able importance and extent in California. In 
nearly all cases, as we remarked above, the 
importation is increasing in spite of California's 
contributions to the national supplies. It cer- 
tainly does not appear that California's work 
in this direction is likely to be overdone, pro- 
viding we can stand competition with foreign 
producers in the matter of cost; as to style 
or quality, we are quite sure that we can 

Fruit for the East. 

According to telegrams and Eastern ex- 
changes received, the sale of California fruit 
on the auction plan is progressing favorably. 
There has been a little brush in Sacramento 
between the Union and the Bee, or rather the 
Bee seems to have been doing a little brushing 
all by itself. The complaint seems to be that 
the Union offi.;ers do not tell what the fruit 
sells for because the rates are so high that lo- 
cal buyers cannot get any fruit and that the 
Union is helping buyers by not publishing 
prices. It is not long since the Union was 
abused because it would not tell prices because 
they were so low; now it is abused for not tell- 
ing them because they are so high. It is hard 
to please some people, but we imagine if the 
shippers by the Union get good prices and 

quick returns, it will be all right. If they do 
not do 80 we shall probably hear from them. 

Reports from the East are very favorable so 
far. On Saturday last Mr. Blowers telegraphed 
that the receipts for the first five cars in New 
York were as follows : First car, $1500; sec- 
ond car, $1740; third car, $1503; fourth and 
fifth cars, $2700 for the two together. Auction 
sales have been arranged for in Boston and 
Philadelphia, aa well as in New York. The 
regular auction days in New York will be 
Tuesdays and Thursdays through the season. 
The fruit seems to strike the Eist just right, 
after the Florida oranges are gone and before 
the Northern fruits come in. Mr. Blowers 
thinks abjut half of all the fruit shipped from 
California can be sold to advantage in the At- 
lantic Coast cities. 

The Eastern peach crop this year is reported 
short. Both New Jersey and Delaware are said 
to have but one-quarter of a full crop. Eist- 
em peaches will come in about September 1st, 
and then it will be desirable to act cautiously 
with California shipments. 

The ComiDg Fairs of 1887. 

The sea'on of annual fairs comes on apace, 
and the notes of preparation are sounding in all 
directions. Here in San Francisco the directors 
and agent of the Mechanics' Institute are busy, 
while the rivalry between them and the pro- 
moters of the State Fair has been the occasion 
of so brisk and extensive a canvass that both ex- 
hibitions may be gainers thereby. 

The new pavilion at Stockton will be added 
this fall to the number of fine exhibition build- 
ings put up in the State within a few seaions, 
and the Mechanics' Pavilion, iu this city, is 
undergoing enlargement. 

We give below a list of displays to come, ar- 
ranged in order of their dates, and shall be 
grateful for any aid from officers of different 
associations in filling gaps or correcting errors, 
as,we intend to republish it from time to time for 
the convenience of our readers : 

Day Dist. .Assoc., S. F., Aug. 6 to 13. 

Clara Valley Agric. Soc. , Sin Jose, Aug. 15 to 20. 

Sonoma Co. .^gric Park Assoc., bantaKosa, Aug. 
22 to 27. 

Fourth Dist. — Sonoma and Marin — Petalum.i, 
.Aug. 29 to Sept. 3. 

Eighth UisL— JEi Dorado— Piacerville, Aug. 30 to 
Sept. 2. 

Thirteenth Dist. — Sac , Yolo, Yuba and Sutter — 
M.iry-iville, .-^ug. 30 to Sept. 2. 

First Dist. — .■\lameda. Contra Costa and S. F. 
— Oakland, Sept. 5 to 10. 

Third Dist. — Butte, Colusa and Tehama — Chico, 
Sept. 6 to 10. 

Seventeenth Diil. —Nevada and Placer— Grass 
Valley, .Sept. 6 to lo. 

Cal. State, Sacramento, Sept. la to 24. 

L. A. Co. I'oraological —Lx)s Angeles, Sept. 12 
to 17. 

Ninth Dist. — Humboldt and Del Norte — Rohner- 
ville. Sept. 20 to 25. 

Nevada Slate, Reno, Sept. 21 to Oct. i. 

Second Dist. —San Joaquin. Stan., Merced and 
Tuol. — Stockton, Sept. 26 to Oct. i. 

Kilth Dist.— S. Clara and S. Mateo— San Jose, 
Sept. 26 lo Oct. I. 

Nineteenth Dist., S. Barbara, Sept. 27 to 3a 

Tenth Dist. — Siskiyou, Trinity and Shasta — Vreka, 
Sept. 28 to Oct. I. 

Sixth Dist.- I^. A., S. Bernardino and Ventura — 
Lo? Angeles, Oct. 3 to 8. 

Eleventh Dist. — Plumas, Lassen, Modoc and 
Sierra — Susinville, Oct. 3 to 8. 

Seventh Dist. — Monterey and S. Benito— Salinas, 
Oct. 4 to 8. 

Fifteenth Dist. — Tulare and Kern — Visalia, Oct. 
10 to 15. 

Fire! Fire I 

Within the past month, newspapers in dif- 
ferent parts of the State have published scores 
of paragraphs like the following: 

" A destructive fire broke out this afternoon 
in a grain-field on the ranch Buenaventura, 
about three miles northeast of Cottonwood. The 
heavy clouds of smoke that rolled heavenward 
drew crowds of people from that town and 
Anderson, and soon hundreds of spectators 
were viewing the awful destruction of fences, 
headers, header-wagona and grain. Full 2000 
acres of grain was burned, and we are informed 
there was but little of the grain and other 
property destroyed insured." 

" Yesterday a fire broke out on the farm of 
J. Koeebone, south of Grass Valley, destroying 
a quarter section of grain, and spreading to his 
son's place adjoining, destroyed a like amount." 

"About nine o'clock this morning a fire start- 
ed at the Branigan ranch, aud, driven by a 
strong north wind, spread rapid y through the 
hills, devouring everything in its path. The 
whole country is swept clean from the public 
road to the Sacramento river, a distance of five 
miles. Fifteen milea of fencing belonging to 

July 16, 1887] 

pACiFie i^uraid press. 


John Barry has baen burned. If the wind con- 
tinues blowing no one can imagine the result." 

In many cases the origin of the fire is stated, 
for instance: "Sparks from a passing locomo- 
tive caused quite an extensive fire at the Nadeau 
EacalyptuB grove at Florence this afternoon. 
Ten acres of trees were burned down, and about 
100 cords of dry cut wood were destroyed. The 
damage will probably exceed $5000." Again: 
"Sunday morning as the train going south 
pulled up at the depot at Tehama, fire from the 
ashpan was blown into Supervisor Mooney's 
wheat-field near the depot. Miss Mattie Tartar 
jumped into a buggy, drove to town and noti- 
fied the citizens, who soon rallied and put the 
fire out before it bad gained much headway. 
The engineers should be more careful in the 

Again: " There was a fire in the dry grass, 
about half a mile east of the Woodland depot, 
Thursday afternoon, that for awhile had a 
serious aspect. A number of boys had been 
shooting with a shotgun in the dry grass, using 
paper wads. Ten minutes later the fire was 
observed by some person passing. The alarm 
was given and a brigade of men and boys, 
armed with wet sacks aud buckets, were soon 
on the field hard at work, and after almost 
superhuman endeavors, the fire was quenched 
and all danger averted." 

On " Honest John " Biker's Tehama county 
farm an old man was blacksmithing, when a 
piece of hot iron fiew out the door and set fire 
to the grass. The flames spread rapidly over 
several hundred acres, mostly pasture-land, be- 
fore the rallying neighbors could extinguish 

This very week a furious fire near Loom is 
swept over two miles square, burning a large 
amount of fencing, pasture and woodland, and 
scorching vineyards and orchards. This blaze 
was supposed to have been started by careless 
hunters or campers. 

Matches let fall where the sun shines hot 
upon them and sets them ofi' in the dry stubble, 
may occasionally be the beginning; but the 
careless smoker, dropping the match with which 
he has lighted his pipe, or throwing away the 
stump of his cigar, is perhaps the most frequent 
kindler of these disastrous summer conflagra- 

Comment is unnecessary. 

The Danger in Wheat Gambling. 

We had the satisfaction of warning our wheat 
farmers when the fever was on them, that 
selling futures on wheat was a dangerous busi- 
ness. It seems now, according to the Stockton 
Independent, that some from that neighborhood 
have been caught in rather a peculiar way. 
We quote: 

" Same of the speculative farmers who 
wanted to catch the top prices then oflFered for 
July and August delivery, sold large lots of 
No. 1 wheat, signing contracts to deliver that 
grade. They sold at from $1 .75 to $1 . 85. Now 
when they have commenced harvesting they 
bring in samples of their crop and find it will 
not weigh up to the standand. They have en- 
tered into written contracts to deliver No. 1 
wheat, according to the Produce Exchange 
standard, and let me tell you that there is but 
little wheat in this section of the State that 
will weigh up to the standard." 

Farmers who made such sales must deliver 
wheat which will weigh COJ pounds per bushel, 
for that is the standard this year. If their 
weight does not weigh that they have to buy 
some wheat that is up to the standard to fill 
their contract. The Independent tells of one 
case like this : 

One Stockton farmer, who owns land in this 
county, in April last sold 500 tons of No. 1 
wheat. His crop has been harvested and he 
oan't find one bushel in his own grain that will 
help to make good his written contract. He is 
now in the market hunting for wheat that will 
weigh GO^ pounds to the bushel. 

We are sorry when a producer gets into such 
a trap, but such is always the danger when one 
goes into gambling. It is no part of legitimate 
production nor of legitimate trade. If a buyer 
wants the wheat, taking chances of the growth 
himself, it is well enough to sell to him, but 
when a farmer guarantees the weather he does 
something which his experience should have 
taught him is dangerous, to say the least of it. 

A. T. Dewey has just returned, with his 
family, from a vacation in Lake and Napa coun- 
ties, where he devoted four weeks entirely to 


Nataral Foes of the Cottony Cnshlon 

We have given from Prof. Riley's forthcom- 
ing report sketches of the life history of the 
cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi, which 
seem to have proved very acceptable to our 
readers. An esteemed correspondent in St. 
Helena writes as follows: 

I have specimens in my collection that came from 
trees in Napa City several years ago. These trees 
were cut and burned, and it may be there are no 
more /ceryas in this vicinity, but, as they are known 
to have been here, I would suggest the careful 
watching (or them. Your exhaustive articles in the 
Press will certainly properly educate readers so they 
can reconnize the pest if it should occur in the future. 

It will be acceptable to know that some 
progress is being made in discovering natural 
foes of this scale, although it must be acknowl- 
edged none yet found have an appetite commen- 
surate with the reproductive power of the pest. 
The idea of sending a skilled investigator to 

Fig. 1. 

Neither Mr. Coquillett nor Mr. Koebele ob- 
served any bird feeding upon it. The reason 
for this exemption is probably the copious se- 
cretion of wax, which is doubtless distasteful. 
Several reliable persons report that ducks and 
chickens feed greedily upon those scale insects 
which are dislodged from the trees. On one 
occasion a brood of six young ducks gorged 
themselves upon scales which had been washed 
from the trees with pure water, and on the 
same day two ducks died. On the day follow- 
ing three more died, while the sixth recovered 
after an illnesH of several days. This disastrous 
eflfect was probably due to the greed with which 
the scales were eaten, as they were said to pro- 
duce no such result with chickens which ate 
them at the same time. 

Predaceous Insects. — The only predaceous 
insect observed by Mr. Coquillett to feed upon 
the cottony cushion scale was the larva of a 
species of lace-wing tiy (Chrynopa sp.), which 
was not bred and cannot be named more exactly. 

The ambiguous lady-bird (Hippodamia am- 
bigua) has been noticed feeding upon the eggs 
when they were exposed to view by the egg- 
sac being broken open ; but neither this nor 
any other soecies of lady-bird was seen to feed 
upon the adult insect, although commonly at- 
tracted by the honey-dew secreted. 
' Among the predaceous insects found by Mr. 

Fig. S. 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. 6. 


the natural home of the Icerya, when it shall be 
settled upon, to hunt for parasites, is a good one, 
and we hope it will be realized. We cannot 
court too many natural enemies for our im- 
ported pests. The facts brought to light by 
the studies of Prof. Kiley and his assistants 
with reference to predaceous insects found here 
are interesting, and we give them herewith, 
with engravings of the insects described. The 
following is selected from the report mentioned: 
Birds. — The natural enemies of the cottony 
cushion scale seem to be very few in number, 
not only in C.ilifornia but also in South Africa 
and New Zealand. In South Africa the only 
bird which is recorded as feeding upon this 
scale is the common "white eye" (Zosterops 
capensis), and this is given by Mr. Trimen 
upon hearsay evidence only: "I have not 
noticed any of our small birds attacking the 
Dortheaia, but Mr. C. B. Elliot tells me that 
his boys have observed the little 'white eye' 
* * * pecking at them." From what we have 
been able to learn of the habits of this bird, 
however, we are inclined to think that 
it is attracted rather by the abundant secretion 
of honey-dew and the minute insects caught in 
it than by the scale insects themselves. 

Koebele and sent to us for study we may men- 
tion first the larva of a small moth (Blaslobasis 
icerycBella n, sp.). Fig. 1, although as yet we 
are not certain that it ordmarily preys upon the 
living and unicjured scale insects or their eggs. 
Like certain other so-called predaceous Lepi- 
doptera, it may be attracted primarily by the 
waxy secretions of the bark lice, and only inci- 
dentally destrty the insects and their eggs. 

These larvae were often found feeding in the 
egg masses of females which has been destroyed 
by soap washes, and also in sacs, the eggs of 
which had hatched some t'me previously, but 
never upon fresh eggs. One of the larva;, kept 
in a glass tube with living scales and fresh eggs, 
fed slightly on the waxy mass, but did not 
thrive until after the scales died. It then fed 
upon the dead scales and molted, but died be- 
fore transforming. Two nearly full-grown 
larviu fed readily on dead scales which were still 
soft and passed through their transformations 
snccessfnlly. The same insect fed readily upon 
the black scale {Lecanium olea:), in this case eat- 
ing the living insects and their eggs, forming a 
silken tube along the twig, and passing from 
one scale to another, just as does the Coccid- 
eating Dakruma (Dakruma coccidivora) in feed- 
ing upon the cottony maple scale at the East. 
This is probably the same insect as that men- 
tioned by Prof. Comatock, Annual Report De- 
partment of Agriculture, 1880, p. 336, aa fol- 

lows: " Upon one occasion (August 25, 1880), 
I found within the body of a full-grown female 
[of L. oleoe] a lepidopterous larva. * * * • 
The specimen, however, was lost, and no more 
have been found since." From the fact that 
this larva destroys living black scales, we have 
every reason to believe that it will also feed 
upon living cottony cushion scales, and will not 
confine itself, as heretofore observed, to the 
dead females end their empty egg-sacs. 

In his report Prof. Riley gives a full de- 
scription of this new species. — Eds. Press: 
A common Tenebrionid beetle (PlabMnus brevi- 
coUis Lee, Fig. 2), was found by Mr. Koebele 
to occur abundantly among the rubbish at the 
foot of the trees infested by Icerya. Egg-sacs 
which had been completely eaten out nnd the 
eggs devoured were found in close conjunction 
with several of these beetles, aud in conse- 
quence a few beetles were placed in a pill-box 
with female scales and large egg masses. In a 
few days the eggs were all eatf n, but the insects 
themselves were not disturbed. It is probable 
that this is not the normal habit of this beetle, 
yet it may without much question be put down 
as an occasional destroyer of Icerya eggs. The 
habits of the allied Epitragus lomentosus, as de- 
scribed by Mr. Hubbird in his repnrt on "In- 
sects Atfecting the Orange," p. 75 (Fig. 36), 
render this all the more probable. The Epi- 
tragus was observed to feed upon scale insects 
of all kinds in Florida, tearing the scale from 
the bark and devouring its contents, and some- 
times also the substance of the scale itfelf. 

The larva of a Dermested beetle (Perime- 
gatoma cytindricum Kirby, var. angulare) was 
also found among the cottony cushion scales, 
but as it would only feed on dead scales in con- 
finement, it is not likely that it is truly preda- 

Prominent among the true bugs found upon 
the infested trees is the large brown Largns 
succinctus. Fig. 3. This is said to destroy the 
scale insects, although Mr. Koebele could 
never see it do so. He noticed it feeding upon 
the honey dew, and on one occasion noticed 
two immature specimes with their beaks in- 
serted in a male larva of Icerya. They ran 
away on his approach, and the larva was found 
to be dead; but as there were numbers of other 
dead larva: about, he did not consider that 
there was any evidence of the predaceous 
habits of the Largus. On the contrary, he ob- 
served this insect often with its beak inserted 
into young shoots of orange. The other Heter- 
optera found by him among the scales were the 
well-known Pifsmaciuerea Say, Corizus hyalinus 
Fabr (Fig. 4), Peritrechus Ivniger Say, Beosvjs 
sp., Lyctocoris sp., and Piezostelhus sp. These 
list ^five species have been kindly exam- 
ined by Mr. Uhler, our best authority in the 
suborder, and he reports the undetermined 
species as probably new. 

The most efficient destroyer of the cottony 
cushion scale at Los Angeles is perhaps a spe- 
cies of earwig, family Forficulidae (Fig. 5), 
neither the genus nor species of which we are 
able to determine, from the fact that we have 
only seen immature specimens. According to 
Mr. Koebele this insect is often met with among 
the scales, and, from observations which he 
made, feeds greedily upon the Icerya in all 
stages, tearing open the egg-masses and eating 
the eggs, and also tearing and eating the ma- 
ture insects as well as the larva;. 

Parasites. — It is a somewhat remarkable fact 
that no true parasites were ever bred from the 
cottony cushion scale until the past summer, 
and still more remarkable that in the course of 
their careful investigations, extending over a 
space of six month?, neither Mr. Coquillett nor 
Mr. Koebele Bucceeded in finding a single para- 
site upon this insect. From a number of 
scales, however, sent to Washington by Mr. 
Koebele November'lOth, we bred, on December 
8th, two specimens of a small Chalcid, which 
is, without question, a true parasite of Icerya, 
as the female scales from which they escaped 
were found each with a small round hole in its 

This little parasite (Fig. 6) is prettily mark- 
ed with black and yellow. It is new to our 
fauna and may have been imported with its 
host. We turned it over to Mr. Howard for 
study, and aa he fiuds it necessary to erect a 
new genus for it, it is named Isodromus n. g. 

This eenus belongs to the Eneijrtina', and is 
more closely related to Ilonialoty'us than to 
any other described genus. Ita structural 
affinity to this genus is quite marked, but it is 
well separated by the characters italicized 
above. It differs in habit also, as Homalolyl'us 
is parasitic upon coleopterous larva; of the 
families Cocoinellida* and Chrysomelida;. The 
specific name is Isodromus icerya:, n. sp. [The 
report gives full descriptions oi the new genus 
and species. — El'S. Press ] 

Imjiorlation of Parasites. — Considering the 
fearful losses already occasioned to dlifor- 
nia orange-growers by two ppecies (the Icerya 
in question and the California red ecale), 
introduced from Australia, we know of no way 
iu which the Department c uld more advan- 
tageously expend a thousand dollars than by 
sending an expert to Australia to study the 
parasites of the species there and secure the 
safe transport of the same to the Pacific Coast; 
and the fact that the Commissioner of Agri- 
culture is prevented from doing so by restric- 
tions imposed on the Division of P^ntomology 
is a sad commentary on the narrow Congress- 
ional policy which seeks to limit and control 
administrative action in details which can 
neither be properly understood nor anticipated 
by oommitteeB, 


f>AClFie f^URAlo PRESS. 

[JoLY 16, 1887 

breeder;' birectory. 

six lines or leas Id this Directory at 60c per line per mootb. 


J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 

of Re^stered Holstein Cattle. 

GlfiO. BBMKNT & SON. Redwood City. Ayrshire 
Cattle Southdown Sheep, Essex Swine. 

R. J. MBRKBLEY, Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percberon Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

BRADLEY RANCH, San Joge, CaL, breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stook for sale. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, Cal. Eastern Imported 
registered Shorthorn Bulls and IleUers tor sale. 

LiAND and Artis strains; all ages; largest her I to 
select from. Young bulls, low. (All registered.) F. H. 
burke, 401 Montgomery St., S. F. 

B. J. TaaNER, HoUister, Breeder of Percheron-Nor- 
man registered Horses and Roadsters. 

E. W. STEELE, San Luis Obispo, Cal., breeder o' 
Thoroughbred Holstein and Jersey Cattle. 

BETH COOK, Danville, "Cook Farm," Contra Costa 
Co., breeder of Aberdeen Angus, Galloways and De- 
voBs (Registered). Young stock for sale. 

PETER 8AXE St SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 16 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorongb- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write (or ciroular. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

C. registered, is owned by Henry Pierce, San Francisco. 

H. W. COWELL, Stockton, "Morrano Farm," breeder 
and importer (and agent for Leonard Bros., Mo.) of 
Aberdeen and Ualloways. Young stock for sale. 

T. E. MILLER, Beecher, III. Oldest and best herd 
Hereford Cattle in U. S. Cattle delivered in California. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co. , Cal. Wilfred Page, Mana^-er. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Uorseg, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

W. J. MARSH & SON. Dayton, Nevada. Regis- 
tered Shorthorns of choicely bred strains. 

H. van der STRATEN, Hopland P. O., Durham 
Valley Farm. Mendocino Co. , breeder of Shorthorn Cat- 
tle (registered). Young stock for sale. 


MRS. M. B. NEWHALL, San Jose. White and 
Brown Leghorns, lAugshans, Plymouth Rocks, Light 
Brahmas, Pekiu Ducks and Bronze Turkeys. 

JAS. T. BROWN, 18 Georgia St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry of the leading va- 
rieties. Send (or circular and price list. 

W. O. DAMON, Napa, $2 each for choice Wyandottes, 
Iveghorns, Lt. Brahmas, Uoudans. Eggs, $2. 


sale at all times of all the most popular and profitable 
varieties. Please inclose stamp for new circular and 
price list to R G. Head, Napa, Cal. 

Box 116, Oakland, Cal. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Embden 
Geese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all Isadlog 
varieties ©(Thoroughbred Poultry. 

O. J. ALBEEi, Lawrence, Cal., breeder and importer. 

D. H. EVERETT, 1616 Larkin St.,S. F., importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Langshans and Wyandottes. 


400 cs;g9, iM; 160 eggs, iib. Guarantee satulaction. 
For particulars address, 1. P. Clark, Mayfleld, Cal. 

Cal.; send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

E. C. CLAPP, South Pasadena, Cal. Light Brahmas 
(Williams- Foot stock), Plymouth Rocks (Kicffer-Conger 
stock). Fowls and Eggs m season. No circulars; write 
for wants. 


TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Gal., breeder of 
thnreuehbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

JACK, BESS and REDWOOD imported 
strains; pairs and trios, not akin, at farmers' prices. 
Young boars, low. F. H. Burke, 401 Montgomery St, S.F. 

WILLIAM NILES, LosAngeles.Cal. Thorougbbied 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circnian free. 

L L. DICKINSON, Lone Oak Farm, Senora, Tuol- 
umne Co., Cal., breeder of thoroughbred Essex Hogg. 
Pigs now ready (or sale. Prices reasonable. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Tboi- 
ongbbred Berkshire Swine. My stook o( Hogg are all 
recorded In the Amerioan Berkshire Reoord. 


L. U. SHIPPEB, Stockton, Cal., importer and breeder 
o( Spaniwh Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys & Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

B. W. WOOLSEY Si SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Imp'rs & b'ders Thoroughbred Merino, Si Jersey Cattle. 

BASTON MILLS, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., thorough- 
Wed Siiaslsh Merino Sheep. Choioe rams (or sale 

A. G. 8TONBSIPER, Hill's Ferry, SUnislaus Co., 
Cal., breeder ol pure blooded French Merino Sheep. 

J. B, HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds cross-bred 
lleriDO and Shropshire Sheep. Rams (or sale. 

T. H. HARLAN, Williams, Colusa Co., breeder pure 
blooded Angora goats, & Merinos; young stook for sale. 

F. BULLARD, Woodland, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep. Premium band of tlie State. 
Choice bucks and ewes for sale. 

R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down of Long John Wentworth herd for sale. 

Ferry, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams (or sale. 

DickertS Myers Sulphur Co. 


Cove Creek, - Utah Territory. 




4a"Guaranteod Piircr and Finer than any in this 



120 Front SL, San Francisco. 







Is recognized as 


Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts, 
aolld Wrought-iron Crank Shaft with 
oouBLK BiAHmas (or the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run In adjust- 
able babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating. 

with no o<ne springs, or springs of any kind. No IIMIi 
rods, Joints, levers, or anything of the kind to gel oat ol 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years Id 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills (or the Paclfle Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether o( 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
Inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
ete., kept In stook. Address, 



San Prancleco Agancy— JAMBS LINPOBTE 
120 Front St.. San Francisco. 

The Cheapest and Best way to kill Gophors 
and Squirrels 

t>ATENi£o MARCH 23Jaee &juatfci88e. 

- -?g.a 

^ . -■ ; 3. H 
CO- 2.2 -H 


Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

Baden Station. - San Mateo Co.. Cal 


225 Geary Street, San Francisco. Cal. 

Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
£ngland; alao ReKistered at the Ontario 
Veterinary Collef^e, Canada. 


A complete sue 
<'>8m! Fite Proof 
iicsb and cheapest. 
For circulars send 

L. W. 
Al CO., 
San Jose, Oalifomta. 

Are you using WelilnKton'a Improved Egg 
b ood for foultry ? 
»■ IF NOT, WHY NOT2-«» 
Every Grocer and Merchant sella It. 




It Cures All Diseases of Poultry. 
AXakes Eggs Plenty when Prices are High. 
I^rcvents Sickness among Young Chickens. 
XlWals Kvery Production of a Similar Nature, 
^^uly Try it Once and Prove its Merits. 
■X/'ery few Poultry Dealers arc without It. 
Uvery Hen Lays that Eats the Improved. 
^3on't Pass Another Day Without a Trial. 


KOTE.— This TmproT«d Food has \ieen in 

general ute in this and other countries > uriug the last 
ten years, and all the ahove repeatedly prwved in 
thousands of cases. Your neighbor usea it. 



Warehouse and Wharf at Port Oosta. 


Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full Carsoee of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited- 

B. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT Aselatant Manager 


Is offered to the citizens of California as the 
Most Perfect Windmill In Dse. 
The Simplest, Strouj^est, most durable, 
easiest controlled and cheapest ever offered to 
the puhtic by the inventor of the Cyclone, 
Saiitiders, Hercules, Eureka. It is a recent 
invention, combining the best points in wind- 
niillB, after years of experience. AGENTS 
Wanted in every town on the Coast, to whom 
a liberal commission will be allowed. A dis- 
f0\int will be allowed on the first order from 
places where there is no agent. 


l?-ft $85 00 16 ft B $110 00 

14 ft 76 00 18-ft 120 00 

le-ftA 90 00 2U ft IM 00 


06 Montgomery St.. San Jose. Cal. 

Headquarters for all Varieties of FANCY CHICKENS, 


Publi.sher of "Nlles' Pacific Coast Ponltry and Stock Book," 

a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raisinff on .^^ 
the Pacific Coast. Price, 50 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp (or information. ^^^^^^ 

ALSO BaSKDIIR Or f * * I ' 

Jox-sov c*3 Holstoln Ocittlo, AXid lEIoss. 

Aclrlr««s. WILI.TAM NII.K.S, Lou Alie«l«a. Cal. 


At this season is well-earned, and should not he dis- 
turbed, it cannot, ho^^cver, be aoDoylug, in a leiiurely 
way, to think and plan what 


From tbe inexhaustible supply deiwribed in DIT.SON 

& CO Vs CataloKUCs, it will be well to use in the next 

musical campaign. 

£^Any book mailed (or retail price. "SJi 

Sunday School Teachers 
Will soon be able to examine our new and beautiful 
Sunday School Son); Book, the Children's Diadem 
{'ib cIs ), by Abbey & Munpcr, and the ncwlv arranged 
and >alnab'e New Spiritual Songs (35 cts.) by 
7'enney Si Hoffmann. 

School Teachers 
Will l>e pleased to look at our new Royal Slnx^er 
(60 ct" ), for Adult Sin^ini; Classes and High Schools. 
Also the Sonif Oreetlng; (60 ctH.), for Hi^h Schools 
(a f;reat favorite); and the delightful little Primary 
School Song Book, Oeins for Little Singers, 30c. 

Mnslc Teachers 
"On the wini;" are Invited to allprht and examine the 
superb stock o( Instruction B >oks and Collections o( 
Vocal and Instrumental Music for teaching purposes, 
at the stores of 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., 449 and 4S1 Waah- 

tiigtoii .St . ItoHton. 
C. H DIT.SON & CO., 867 Broadway, New 


J. K. niTSON & CO., 12«8 Chestnut Street, 

LTON &. HtiALT, ChlcaKo. 


Pronptly Eradicate* 

, Fn c tl. H, Tan, Sunbiini, , 
) Moth rub'ht'S anil all ' 
dltK'olorutlonn witliout 
injury, ami irapnrtM to 
)iLi' skin I-urity and Ve)-< 
veiy 8oftno.s& 

R'^mnvpfl I'iinplert, l-'lt Mli AVt.ruirf, Bla*:kheads and rmi^a 
Oily Skin. Eit^H T nr tlieal.ciT,' iirtic li-s s. nt iHisf-paiil fi)r,li...r5 i.a<-kiirisl'>r81. llemirr <,,i:l in,i,li,'nthia 
paper. The W. Millard Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
^i«^iS^(«^iS^i«^jS!^i^i«" Hi- -iii- fH- 



Fisest Quality of Fruit at the Least 

Adapted to all kinds of Fruits and Raisins. Rend for 
Catalogue. W. A. MEEKER, 

Fifth and Bryant Sta., S. F. 


Steam Fruit Evaporator. 


Manufacturers and Sole Owners for Oall- 

A very superior, unbleached Dried Fruit 
produced at less than half the ex- 
pense and in lest than half 
the time claimed by 
any other drier. 


Full particulars and samples of fruit on receipt of two- 
cent stamp. 

The^ Driers are now in successful operation, and re- 
sults prove uur claims. 


Napa City, Cal. 



With Silver-Plated Sheath for Ringing Bulls 

Price, Sl.OO, Post-paid. 

401 MontKomery St., S. F. 


"Oreenbank" 98 decrees POWnKRKD CAUS- 
TIC ,SOt)A (tests 99 3-10 per cent) recommended by 
the hii^best authorities in the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

Manufacturers' Agents, 
lOI Market St. and 3 California St., 8. F. 


YER'S OllTanne.l, Water 
proof, hand-sewed Buckskin 
Qloves manufactured nn the 
Pacific Coast are made by the WATERPROOF GLOVE 
CO., West Oakland, Cal. The Hand.sewed Harvest 
Buckskin Glove will be sent by reeistered mail at our 
rlHk on receipt of $1.25. Money will be refunded for 
every pair that does not ^ive satisfac- 
tion. Send 3 our address, and price 
list of other styles, with samplex 
uf the Buokskm used, will be sent 

i>e rerunaea lor 


July 16, 1887] 





Awarded the Gold Medal 
at the State Fair. Sacra- 
mento, and at the Mechan- 
ics' Institute Fair of 1884 
1886 and 1886, overall com- 
petitors as the best machine 
made. It will hatch any kind of 
Egg» better than a Hen. 

Pacific Coast Agency for the 
celebrated Silver Finish Galvan- 
ized Wire Netting, The Wilson 
Bone and Shell Mill, and th« 
American Chopper. Poul- 
try appliances of every kind and 
every variety of Land and Water 
Fowl can bo found at the Oak- 
land Poultry Yards, the oldest 
and largest establishment on the 
PaciBc Ooast. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand Bosk 
and Guide; price, 40 cents. Sead 2-cent stamp for illus- 
trated 60-page catalogue (o the PACIFIC INOU- 
BATOB CO., 1317 Castro St., Oakland, Cal 


Manufactured by the PA- 
Oakland, Cal. Recipe, the 
result of 20 years' succe-s- 
ful experience with poul- 
try. Its use insures plenty 
of Eggs when prices are 
highest and keeps fowls In 
good health. For sale by 
all seedsmen and grocers. 

309 and 311 Front St., San Francisco 
Sole Agents. 

The Halsted 
Incnbator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St., 
Oakland, - - Cal. 

Price from $iiO 
up. Model Brooder 
from $5 up. 

Poultry and Eggs. 
Send for new Cir- 
culars containing 
much valuable in- 

I-Horse Power, $150. 


Shipman Coal Oil Steam 

1,2 3, 4,5 H. P. Highly recommended for 
pumping purooses. 


Requires no Engineer. Perfectly Safe. 

Consumes i gallon of cheapest coal or fuel oil per 
horse power per hour. In operation at our Machinery 
Deijartment, 27 Post St. i^Call and see it. 

628 Market Street, opp. Palace Hotel, S. F. 

Hardware and Mechanics' Tools. 



Dressmaking, Tailoring and Gen- 
eral Mannfactnring. 







108 & 110 POST ST., S. F. 


RALE, is warranted to be the Simplest, Cheapest and 
Host KffecClve Trap in existence. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, 25 cents each; $2 50 per dozen. Address 


Soledad, Oal. 

Fruit Ennravinn^ The finest, best and cheap, 
null tliyi aviliy», est Photographs and En- 
PHOTOGRAPHS, KTC. gravings of Frulcs, Vege- 
tables, Houses, Farms, Landscapes, etc,, made by S. F. 
PuoTOSRAViNa Co., 96» Clay St., 8 F. 



309 and 311 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Agents for Growers and Manufacturers. Charterers of Vessels for all Trades. Agents 
for the Mexican Phosphate and Sulphur Company's Products. 
General Insurance Agents. 
Have correspondents In all the chief cities of the United States, Europe, Australia, India, China and the princi- 
pal islands of the Pacific. Purchase goods and sell California products in those countiies. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of NATIONAL ASSURANCE CO., of Ireland; 


At SACRAMENTO, Cal., Sept. 12 to 24, 1887. 

$2000 in Cash for County Exhibits. 


Is called, as well as the various Immigration Societies, Boards of Trade 
of the several Counties, and all others interested in bringing 
out the resources of their respective Counties, 
to the advantaeres offered by an 
Exhibition at the 

Of the varied products of their counties. The supervisors of each county are Invited to make a liberal appropria- 
tion, sufficient to pay the expense's of getting together an Exhibition of County Products. Premiums received can 
be returned to the treasury of each county making the appropriation, so that their respective counties would be 
written up and advertised at a small expense by an exhibition of this character. The Railroad Company transports 
the same free of charge. 

THE LIVE STOCK EXHIBITION, connected with the State Fair, is sure to attract Eastern visitors 
anxious to view the resources of California. 

APPLY FOR SPACE AT ONCE, as the Society is willing to devote the entire exposition building, if 
necessary, to displays of CALIFORNIA PRODUCTS. A NEW FEATURE has been added to the Premium 
List thl.s year, in the shape of awards for a Sheaf Display of Cereals. Forty Sheavei, not less than 10 
inches in diameter, of 10 varieties of grain are called for. Not necessary to he grown by exhibitor. Notice is now 
given that samples may be gathered during harvest, and laid away for exhibition. Address the Secretary tor 
Premium Lists and other information. 

EDWIN P. SMITH, Secretary. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, President. 

Laiid^ hj ^ale apd Jo Let. ^eed^, I^lapt3, (tc. 


(Established 1860) 

Have the largest list of Farm property in Northern and 
Central California. Cata ogue issued monthly. Send or 
call for it. SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

Branch Office— 640 Market St., San Francisco. 


On the new extension of Southern Pacific Railroads, 
on the lands belonging to R. T. BUELL, Esq., near Los 
Alamos, Santa Barbara county, Cal. Parties ilesiring to 
visit the property now, can go via San Luis Obispo and 
take the cars from thence to Los Alamos, thence by stage 
to the Colony. 20.0U0 acres of the best lands in Call 
fornia, subdivided into 20, 40 and 80-acre farms; $20 to 
UNION. 401 California St., San Francisco 



Home of Wheat, Fruit, Wine and Olive; 15,000 acres 
sold in past 8 months to 220 settler^, representing a pop- 
ulatinn of 1100; 49,000 acres— small subdivisions — aver- 
age, $22.50 an acre; i cash, balance 6 years, 6 per cent. 
Catalogues and maps free. C. H. PHILLIPS, Manager. 


44 Third Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

This Fire-p-oof Brick Building is centrally located, in 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and close to all Steamboat 
and liailroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 


Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 



319 & 321 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

One door from Banlfc of California. 

The above well-known hotel offers superior ac- 
commodatioDS to parties visiting the city. 
The table is kept at top grade and 
the prices are within the 
reach of all. 

RAT£S-$1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 per day 

Free Coach to and from the Hotel. 


ickly ami rornmnent ty 
red Ijy Dio OlobrBteil 


Oriidnttl and Only Of.n0inB 
ElectrlcTruss. Perfect Retainer 
tasy to wear. Inntfinf ly roiiovesevory 
cam. Hiiscured thou><iinila. Ental). 181!). 
iSend for Free lllustr'd PBmpblet No 1. 



This is the last opportunity to secure PURE TAHITI 
ORANGE SEED. Price is reduced to $3.00 per bbl. so as 
to clean up at once. If you need any, please send your 
orders immediately to 

413,415, 417 Waehlngton Street. 

San Francisco, Cal 


S. L. GOLDMAN, Manager. 
120 Sutter St. San Francisco, Cal. 


Trees, Plants, Bulls M Seeds, 




H. E. Amoorr, Pres. G. G. Baker, Sec'y. 


120 Sutter St , San Francisco. 



And all kinds of Japanese Trees, PlantSi £tc. 
Send for Circular. 



If you want a good 
pair of Gloves, ask 
your merchant for 
our brand. 



Are you using Welling; 
ton'iilinprovecl Kgg Food 
for Poultry ? Ip NOT, wuy 
NOT? Every Grocer, Druggist 
and Merchant Sella this Kgg 


Makes Five Oallons of a <S«liOiOU8, Bparkling 
ttiinperanee beverage. 8trenBthen» and imri- 
ties the blood, Its purity and delicacy cnmmend it 
to all. Bold by druggMts and storekeepers every wherub 

Coinini33ioii fl^rcliapt^. 


Commission Merci\aiits 



Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 

308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco. 

[P. 0. Box 1936.] 
i^ConsIgnments Solicited. 




501, 503, 505. 507 and 509 Front Street 
and 300 Washington St , S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 


Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 



—AND — 

General Commission Merchants, 

SIO California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

^^'Personal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vances made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 

Oko. Morrow. IKstablisbed 1854.] Geo. P. Morrow. 




30 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

J. C. PmKRS. 

G. M. CowiE. 


Commission Merchants. 

Members Produce Exchange. 
591 >Slstb Street, San Francleco 

0. L. BENTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 
Poultry and Wild Oaiiie,65, 66,67 California 
Market, S. F. l^All orders attended to at the 
shortest notice. Goods delivered Free of Charge to 
any part of the city. 


And Wholesale Provision Dealers, 
320 & 32a Battery St., near riay, San Francisco. 


And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Kegs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, 223 
22.') and 227 Waahiniiton St., San Francisco. 

J. W. WOLF. srown. 

W. U. WOLF. 


General Commiseion Merchants 

And dealers in California and Oregon Produce, 
321 Davis Street. San Francisco, Cal. 


Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Consignments Solicited. 624 & 526 Sansome St., S. F. 

Fruit and General Commission Merchants 

BRICK storks: 
408 & 410 Davia St.. San Francisco 


Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Oreen and Dried Fruits. 
ooNsiaHMBNTS 80LICITRD. 824 Davis St.. S. F. 


— FOR— 

Hbeumatism, Neural- 
gia, Pneumonia, Pa- 
ralysis, Asthma, Sci- 
atica, Oout, Liumbasa 
and Deaftiees. 

Everybody should have It. 
G. a. BURNETT, Ag t. 

827 Montgomery St, S. P. 
Price, Jl.OO. Sold by all Drug ■ 

gists. iSrCall and see 

Offiok— 426 Kearny St. 
San Francisco. 


Superior Wood and Metal EngraT- 
ing, Elrctrotyplng and StereotnilnK 
door at the office o( tbli paper. 


pAClFie I^URAb f RESS, 

[Jdly 16, 1887 

NoTB,— Our quotatioDS are lor Wednesday, Dot Satur- 
da}', the date the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, July 13, 1887. 

The past week has been unusually favorable to 
harvest work, and farmers have not been slow in 
taking advantage of it. European wheat advices 
have reported throughout the week a firm, steady 
market. To-day's cables are as follows: 

London, July 13, 1887. — Cargoes off coast, firmer; 
cargoes on passage and for shipment, firmer; Mark 
Uane, firm, steady; Cal. wheat, just shipped, 395. 
6d. ; Cal. wheat, nearly due, 39s. 6d. ; Liverpool 
wheat, spot, firm; Liverpool wheat, Cal., 7s. 3d. to 
73. 6d. 

Foreign Review. 

London, July 11. — The Ala ri Lane Express, in 
its review of the British gr^in trade during the past 
week, says: The wheat crop is making the best 
possible progress toward maturity, and falling disas- 
ter will be of phenomenal quality and quantity. The 
barley and oat crops are not much behind wheat. 
Beans are badly infested with aphides. Peas prom- 
ise to be poor in Ireland. The trade values for 
wheat continue in favor of buyers, although deliver- 
ies have been small. The sales of English wheat 
during the week are 16,727 quarters at 34s 2d, 
against 29,822 quarters at 30s gd during the corre- 
sponding period of last year. Foreign wheal is 
weaker and business is restricted. The arrivals of 
wheat cargoes numbered 24; three were withdrawn 
and 21 remained. .*\t to-day's market there was but 
little inquiry for wheat and values were unchanged. 
Be.ins were 6d cheaper. Oiher articles were uD- 

Crops at the Bast. 

Chicago, July 10. — The following summary will 
app ar in this week's Farmers' Review: During the 
last week refreshing rains were experienced quite 
generally throughout the States of the Mississippi 
valley, t'louijh many unvisited localities suffered 
fr.iin drought. The winter wheat harvest is now so 
nearly completed as to furnish a sale basis for an es- 
timate. The estimates of yields per acre, reached 
by summarizing the reports of our correspond! nls 
in this issue, are as follows: For 17 counties in Illi- 
nois, 17 bushels; 9 counties in Indiana average 
15^3 bushels per acre; 12 counties in Kansas give 
13 bushels, which former reports incline us to think 
is too high; 4 counties in Kentucky average iiK 
bushels; 3 counties in Michigan 13 bushels; 7 coun- 
ties in Missouri average 19 4-7 bushels; 12 counties 
in Ohio. 16 bushels; and 4 counties in Wisconsin, 
i6Ji bushels. Reports on the condition of spring 
wheat are uniform from Dakota, Nebraska, Min- 
nesota, Iowa and Wisconsin. The lowest percentage 
of condition as compared with the average crop is 70 
from Nebraska, and the highest 78 from Wisconsin. 
Spring wheat is rapidly approaching maturity and 
now, in spite of drought and insect injury, gives 
promise of about three-quarters of an average crop. 
. The same condition will very nearly apply to the 
condition and prospective yield of oats. Corn gen- 
erally is in a very promising condition and fully two 
weeks ahead of the season. There is already some 
complaint of chinchbug depredations, and there is 
danger that as spring wheat and oats are harvested 
the bugs will move in force to the adjacent corn- 
fields, doing much injury. 

Eastern Wheat Markets. 

New York, July 13— 12 M.— 84^c for cash, 83 
fe83!/2cfor July, 83jic for August, 84 He for Sep- 
tember, and 857/8C lor October. 

CHlCAtK), July 13. — Wheat firmer; cash, 7iHc; 
August, 72}ic; September, 74c. 

California Products at Chicago. 

Chicago, July 9. — In dried fruits there are no 
new developments and no features of interest to 
note. There is little denutnd. but the dullness does 
not affect prices, light stocks holding the market 
steady. Raisins are a little slo*. Apricots to ar- 
rive are in firm request. Pitted Plums, evaporated, 
io@iic; sun-dried, io5i@io5^c; Apricots, evap- 
ated, spot goods, 22@25c; future delivery, 15 K@ 
i6c; Prunes, 9@iic; Raisins, London layers, 20-tb. 
boxes, per box, $1.40®$!. 50; loose Muscatel, per 
box, $i.25@$i.3o; California layers, $i.25@$i.30. 

Chicago, July 12. — Trade is very good in Cali- 
fornia green fruits. Choice sound -fruits are steady 
as follows: Apricots, half crates, $1. 50^1.75; 
peaches, 20- lb. bo.ves. $i.75@2; peaches. Craw- 
fords, 20-lb. boxes, $2 75@3; plums. Purple Duane, 
half crates, $2.25(0(2.50; plums, Roy-il Hative, 
crates. f2 25@2. ^o; pears, Bartletts, $350(0)3.75; 
grapes, Sweetwater, 2o lb. crates, $ Stock 
in soft order sells at less prices. Dried fruit is dull. 
As soon as the berry season is over, increased de- 
mand is looked for. Owing to small stocks prices 
remain about steady, and, taken all round, the 
market presents nothing new. 

New York Hop Market. 

New York, July 10. — There is no business, ex- 
cept moderate sales of 1886 Germans and Pacifies; 
Coast crop 1886 best, 2i@23e; common to choice, 
i6@20c; 1885, good to prime, io@i3c. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, July 10. — The wool trade continues 
light, p.irtly because of warm weather and partly be- 
cause of a feeling of greater caution since Western 
growers becam: a little shaky and express less con- 
fi ience. Tne Boston market was dull, manufact- 
urers tieing unwilling or unable to buy at present 
quotations. Among sale:, were: 117.000 Ihs Ter- 
ritory at I7@25c; 71,000 lbs Eastern Oregon at 17 

California Products In New Yo>;k. 

New York, July 10. — Green Fruit — California 
blue plums and choice apricots, 25c ^$ doz; peaches, 
60, 65 cts and $1 ^ floz. 

Canned— California pears. $3@3.25. 

Raisins remain unchanged. 

New York, July 12 — Culiforoia yellow mustard 
seed, 4 K (2*4 >^ cts. }^ lb. 

Local Markets. 

BAGS — Over 2,000,000 wheat bags were added 
to the stock the past week, by the arrival of an over- 
due vessel from Calcutta. The pool, apparently, 
have hard work to keep values up. The market is 
quoted at 6H@7c lor standard size. 

B.ARLEY — The market ruled weak and lower up 
to to-day, when a large buying interest started up 
on Call, and values recovered at the morning ses- 
sion 3c on buyer '87. Trading on Call has been 
quite active throughout the week. Receipts are 
very heavy, but it appears that the grain is mostly 
held agains: sales on Call. To-day's sales were as 

Morning Session: Buyer season — too tons, $1.19. 
Seller 1887, new — 100 tons, $1.03^; 100, $1.04; 
200, $[.04!^. Buyer 1887—200 tons, $1,125-^; 200, 
$i.i2>i; 100, $i.i2?4; 400, $t.i3V; 200, $i.i35<; 
300, J1.14; 100, $1 14V6; 100, $1 xiiVt; 100, $r.i4H; 
300, $i.i4!4; 100, $i.i4K; 200, $t.i4 5i; 700, $1.15 
V ctl. Afternoon session: Buyer season — 100 
tons. $i.2t}^. Buyer 1887—300 tons, $1.15; 800, 
$r.i55i; 500, $'/<; 5°". Sl'S^b; too. $1.13^; 
200, $i.i5,H; ioo,4i.i5Vi; 300, $1.15. Seller 1887 
— 100 ton.s, $t. Seller 1887, new — 100 tons, 
$1.04*8; too, $i.o4>i; too, $1,04 ctl. 

BU r TER— Gilt-edged butter is wanted, but off 
grades are pressing the market at low prices. 

CHEESE — There appears to be a better de- 
mand at the lower prices, with distant points coming 
in as buyers. The market closed steadier. 

EGGS — Strictly choice fresh-laid are wanted; 
other qualities are slow of sale. 

FLOUR — The tone of the market appears to be 
firmer, owing to the strength exhibited by wheal. 

WHEAT — Transactions on Call the past week 
were quite free, with the syndicate taking all 
offered. The slight decline and sharp upward moves 
add zest to the traffic and bring in more actual 
traders. It is claimed that there is a heavy short 
interest on the market. Contract sales of No. i 
bring more than there is of that grade of wheat in 
the State. To-day's sales on Call were as follows: 

Morning session: Buyer 1887 — 100 tons. $1.94. 
Seller 1887 — 300 tons, $1.89; 200, $1.88^; 200, 
$i.88K; aoo, $i.88H; 300, $i.88M; 2300, $i.88Ji. 
July— 300 tons, $1.89; 100, $1.89}^. August— 100 
tons, $1.89. July, new — 109 tons, $1.89)^ per ctl. 
Afternoon session: Seller 1S87 — 1300 tons, $1.88)4; 
700, $1.89 per ctl. 


Market Information. 


Cable advices received from England report that 
heavy rains fell about July 5, which did considerable 
good to the growing crops. Mail advics are as 
follows: In the United Kingdom there are reports 
of intense heat and very httle rainfall. Rain is much 
needed there lor the spring grain and hay crops, 
and the root crops. There has been a drouth in 
Ireland since the beginning of May. In France the 
reports of the growing crops indicate about an aver- 
age output for wheat. The weather has been 
w.irmer, with fair amount of moisture, and the very 
late harvest at one time expected will not, with a 
continuance of favorable weather, probably be more 
than ten days to two weeks later than usual. The 
same may be said of the wheal crop in Belgium and 
Holland. At the latest postal advices there were 
serious complaints of the crops in the German em- 
pire. Hungary is from recent indications expected 
to have about an average wheat crop. In several 
portions of south Russia the prospects for the wheat 
crop had been impaired by drouth. Wheat exports 
from north Russia from the opening of navigation 
to the middle 01 June had been only a few thousand 
bushels against about 3,000,000 two years ago. 

European dealers are still fighting against high 
prices, and to do this to better advantage have tools 
in this country to bear the market, by keeping prices 
down on the various produce exchanges. In this 
city, if such be the case, they have so far not suc- 
ceeded, although aided by a leading morning paper. 
It can only be a question of a short time when val- 
ues will begin to appreciate abroad, and high fig- 
ures be reached before the close of the year. 
This view is taken by the best informed writers, who 
base the opinion on the cheapness of money and the 
statistical position of wheat throughout the world. 

Eastern advices report the new grain coming in 
considerably shrunken, which deteriorates from its 
value, owing to its producing less gluten. The mar- 
ket at the East has been gradually strengthening, 
with the visible supply showing a marked decrease 
each week. Last year farmers hf-ld considerable 
old on the farm, but this year they have none. 

Our Oregon advices report harvesting progressing 
favorably east of the Cascade range of mountains. 
The yield averages larger to the acre than last year, 
with the quality greaily improved. Harvesting west 
of the Cascades has commenced in the more month 
favored section, but will not become general until 
later on. 

In this State harvesting is becoming more general. 
Returns coming in report the outturn both in qual- 
ity and yield very irregular. There will be more 
shrunken grain than last year, as also more red 
wheat. From the tenor of present advices it is safe 
to claim that the standard this year will be below 
last year. While the s'andard will be lower, the 
yield of No. i white shipping will not be much if 
any over one-half of available surplus for export. 
As there is a large short interest on Call, it may 
bother them to fill except at very high prices. 

The Chronicle and one or two more daily papers 
quote No. i shipping wheat at $i.8o@,i,82 !^ per 
cental, while on Call large buyers stand ready to lake 
all .seller '87 wheat offered at $1.89. so that if No. i 
wheat can be bought in the open market at say 
$1.82 (4 the purchaser can sell it the same day on 
Call seller '87 at a handsome profit. Seller '87 can 
be delivered at any time after five days' notice to the 
purchaser. Such low quotations as $1.82 >2 or even 
$1.85 are misleading when seller '87 is as high as it 
is on Call. 

Very heavy receipts of barley have sent the mar- 
ket to lower figures. Holders, as a rule, are not 
disposed to make much of a concession, still buyers 
in view of heavy receipts hold off. On Call there is 
a pronounced bear feeling notwithstanding the con- 
sumption has largely increased, while the crop this 
year is all of 125.000 tons less than last year's crop. 
The quality of the barley is good. Eastern advices 

report a shortage this year, with the quality not up 
to last year. If this is Correct then the East will 
draw quite freely olrbrewing from this coast. 

Oats have a steadier, strong tone, under moderate 
supplies and a good demand. Crop advices from 
Oregon and Puget Sound are of the most encourag- 
ing character. 

Eastern advices report a steadily decreasing supply 
of corn, but owing to the favorable crop reports val- 
ues do not appreciate. In our market corn is steady. 
According to the Produce Exchange the stocks on 
hand in this State on July i were as follows in 

1887. 1886. 

Wheat 2,790,400 1,252,000 

Barley 798,500 114,820 

Oats 42,400 3M50 

Corn 72,330 27,625 

Rye 1.350 1,050 

Exports of wheat from India for the week ending 
July 2 were 1,700,000 bushels, of which 640.000 
bushels were to the United Kingdom and 1,060,000 
bushels to the Continent. The total shipments Ironi 
January i to July 2 were 19,580,000 bushels, of which 
9.520.000 bushels were to the United Kingdom and 
10,060,000 bushels to the Continent. 

The Chicago Daily Bulletin of July 6 says: There 
was a carload of No. 2 Spring wheat delivered yester- 
day in a bunch of 5000 bushels for July delivery, 
bought at 69)ic, on which the storage was ^oy^z. 
Quantity of wheat on passage to France June 17, 
reported at 2,800,000 bushels, against 760,000 bush- 
els for the corresponding date last year. Quantity 
of wheat on passage to .\ntwerp, June 17, es'imated 
at 640,000 bushels, against 1,160,000 bushels at the 
corresponding date last year. Quantity of b irley on 
passage to U. K., June 16. reported at 1,040,000 
bushels, against 410,000 bushels for corresponding 
time in 1886. 

Chicago telegrams to S. S. Floyd & Co. of this 
city report that crop returns have been received 
from every county in Illinois, and also m Indiana, 
which show an average yield to the acre of 13 bush- 
els, but in Ohio the yield so far reported only aver- 
ages 12 bushels to the acre. 

The New York Produce Exchange Reporter says: 
The United States wheat crop of 1886 was placed at 
457,218.000 bushels measure, by weight. 444 777.- 
702 bushels, 60 lbs. The quantity left over July i, 
1886, was placed at 70,000,000 bu., of which 50,- 
000,000 bu. were considered as reserve and 20,000,- 
000 bu. added to crop of 457,218,000 bu. , making 
477,218,000 bu. The home consumption for 60,- 
000,000 population and seed are 335,000,000 bu. 
The exports, so far, from both coasts, have been 
152,330,702 bu. in wheat and flour to all countries, 
uiaking with home requirements for the year added 
487,330,702 bu,, which shows that the 50,000.000 
bu. reserve has already been drawn upon to the ex- 
tent of 5,222,700 bu. The visible supply is now 
about 39,350,000 bu., and includes the reserve 
stock. If the export movement be not disappoint- 
ing, there will be a further decrease in it on July 5ih, 
of 2,250,000 to 2 500.000 bu. The quaniity in the 
country outside ol the visible wheat is believed to be 
moderate. The wants of Europe are large; if con- 
sumption be normal, the United Kingdom will re- 
quire from Atlantic ports about 1,000,000 bu. of 
wheat (flour included) per week for n weeks to 
come. The indications are that there will be no 
very considerable movement of the new winter 
wheat crop till about the loth to 15th of August. 
The rainfall in the winter wheat belt has for the last 
three weeks been very small. At 70c to 75c for winter 
wheat it is not probable that farmers will be free 

Mail advices received to day from England are as 
follows: The weather in the United Kingdom has 
remained warm and summer-like, and entirely favor- 
able for the growing crops, the progress of which is 
described by most of the agricultural reports as 
real'y wonderful, conjpared with a fortnight ago. 
In France the improvement in the wheat crop has 
been ec|Ually favorable, and now that the blooming 
period is passing under favorable auspices, what 
seemed like a small average crop a month ago will 
probably prove to be a full one. In Germany, al- 
though vegetation is very backward generally, there 
are very few complaints. In Hungary, the wheat 
crop, according to the last estimate of the Minister 
of Agriculture, promised to be a full average on 54.9 
per cent of the total area, above an average on 38.9 
per cent, and below an average on 6.2 per cent. 
The outlook is therefore decidedly better than last 


On last Thursday the mills advanced the price of 
both bran and middlings. The cause of the ad- 
vance is said to be due to the shutting down of sev- 
eral mills for repiirs, and also the increased demand. 
In other ground feed there are no changes to note. 

This paper, early in June last, took the ground 
that hay will be high throughout the season; and all 
P'esent indications point to this view being correct. 
The market is higher for all grades of new, under a 
good demand and strong holding. 


Yellow Crawford peaches make a better showing, 
and as the price recedes the more common p"aches 
lose favor and consequently are hard to sell even at 
low prices. 

The better varieties of plums are coming in quite 
freely, but as vet they are not any too ripe, which 
necessitates concessions except to purchasers filling 
distant orders. 

Pears are in good supply, but as yet they are not 
very choice. 

Cherries are about gone and not quoted. 

entrants are hanging on unusually long, that is, 
the supply is quite large considering the length of 
time they have been in the market. 

Raspberries are shaded to find quick custom. 

Blackberries are in liberal supply, necessitating 
low prices to clean up large consignments. 

Apricots continue to come in heavily, causing low 
prices to rule. The canners continue to buy freely. 

Apples are improving in quality, but as yet the 
more choice varieties have not put in an appearance. 

Strawberries are fairly steady, with canners still 
buying at the lower quotations. 

Canteloupes are gradually settling in price under 
more liberal receipts. 

In dried fruits no new of this season is offering 
excpt apricots, which have a wide range, according 
to quality. Considerable are being shipped to llie 

Grapes are coming in more freely . The demand 

IS improving, owing to the quality being much bet- 
ter. Orders from up north are coming in for the 
better varieties, causing the price to rule fairly strong 
at the close. 
Watermelons continue to come in sparingly. 


The consumption of meats continues light, owing 
to the large number of San Franciscans absent, and 
a'so to the heavy supply of fresh fruits. Beef cattle 
are barely steady at quotations, although prices in 
the interior are reported to be well maintained. 
Mutton sheep are offering at shaded prices. Hogs 
are very scarce and wanted in small quantities. In 
horses there is nothing doing in draft animals, as the 
demand appears, for the moment, to be satisfied. 
Roadsters and matched teams are wanted, as are 
geneial utility horses. For these there seem to be 
ready buyers always at hand. 

The following are the wholesale rates of slaugh- 
terers to butchers: 

BEEF — Extra, 7@7}iC; first grade, grass fed, 
6%@6Kc per lb. ; second grade, 60; third grade, 

MU 1 TON— Ewes, sCdis^ir; wethers, 6®— a 

LAMB— -Spring, 7@8c. 

VEAL — Large, 6(^7c; small, 6@8c. 

PORK — Live hogs, 4K@5C for heavy and me- 
dium; hard dressed, 7@7!4cperlb; light, 4>4@ 
5c; dressed, 7@7Kc; soft hogs, live, 3ii@4C. 
On foot, one-third less for grain or stall fed, and 
oae-balf less for slock running out. 


Potatoes ru'ed easy up to Tuesday, when a stead- 
ier, stronger tone set in under a freer demand for 
the more choice. 

Onions are fairly steady, with an improved call 
reported for the better matured. 

Cucumbers, egg plants, green okra and peppers 
are in freer receipts, with buyers favor. 

Tomatoes continue to hold up welL Receipts 
barely meet the trade call. 

String beans and peas are without essential 
change. The quality is as a rule poor. 

Green corn is coming in more freely, causing 
prices to shade off very materially. 


The tonnage movement compares with last year at 
this date as follows: 1887. 1886. 

On the way 287,902 323,571 

In port, disengaged 106.020 31,961 

In port, engaged 18.416 39.101 

Totals 412.338 394.633 

The above gives a carrying capacity as follows: 
1887, 659,740 short tons; 1886,631,412 short tons; 
increase over last year, 28,328. 

The small supply of fine merino and crossbred 
wools causes light tiading in our market. The 
Eastern market takes the finer grades at from i to 3 
cts per lb hiuher prices than last year, but the coarser 
grades are slow. 

In hops, holders are firm in the belief of better 
prices. English advices report a smaller crop this 
year, as do Belgium advices; but Germany and 
Nuremberg will have a fair average. New York ad- 
vices report that the yield in that Slate will be one- 
half of the crop of 1885, which was 158,000 bales. 
New York advices report the brewers lightly stocked 
with hops. 

Poultry has ruled steady and firm throughout 
the week. 

Beans are dull and heavy, as are seeds. 

Hams and bacon a'e adv.incing. Quotations are 
^c per It) higher, with another advance looked for 

Large speculative movements have been made 
within the past few days in canned corn, canned 
peas, canned peaches and canned tomatoes, which 
have caused prices to advance quite sharply. 

San Francisco, July ij, 1SS7. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Extra choice Id good pacicatrefl fetch an advance on top 
quotatiuua, while very poor grades sell leas than the lower 
qiiutatiuus. Wkdnehda?, July 13, 1887. 

Apples, bx com.. 30 # 50 

do choice 50 3 100 

A)>ricuts, bi . . . . 25 ((^ 45 

do Koyul 35 (te 50 

Banann. boneh. 2 00 # 3 26 3 00 
Oaoteloupes. cr. 
Oherrliis wliit bi 

ilu 1.1. ck bl... 

do Royal Auu.. 
Cherry plums. .. 

Hrs, looM 

do evaporated 


Ao pared, 
do evaporated. 
Pean, atlcad. . . . 

do qrtd 

do evaporated 
Plume, pitted . . 
do uQpiited... 


do Freocb 

Cranberries 10 00 (aV2 50 

Ourrauts ch 250(95 00! Zante Currairti 

Gooseberries lb.. 1i® 7]! BAISLXS. 
Fi black bx... 75 (» 1 00 DebesaClus, fey 3 40 @ 2 90 

do white bx . . . 40 (* 60 ' Imperial Cabin 
Grapes 25 tffl 1 00 I _ et. fan.-y 

- (d 

— m 

do Rose Peru, 
do Muscat.... 
do Tokays.... 

do Mi:.8ion - @ 

Umes. Mex U 00 (g 

do Cal. boi... - @ 

Lemons, Cal., bx 2 00 
do Sicily, box. 6 00 @ 
do Australian. — ^ 

Nectarines box. — % 

Oranges. Com bx 1 25 @ 

dof'ho'ce 2 00 W 

do Navuls 3 00 9 

do Panama... — @ 

Peaches, bx 25 @ 

do bask ^ 

Orawfords, bx SO ^ 
do bskt.. — (Sb 
do choice — 

Pearsbx 30 @ 

do choice - @ 

do Bartlett, bx 1 00 @ 

Persimmons, _ 
Jap, bx. 

1 75 8 - 

Crown London 

Layers, fey.. 1 50 (jS — 
do Loom Mus- 
catels, fancy 1 40 O — 
do Loose Mus- 
catels 1 35 @ — 

Cal. Valencia*. . 1 25 «d — 
do Layers ... 1 25 ^ — 

3 50 do SulUnaa... 1 25 — 

— ] Fractions come 2f., 50 and 75 

— ;cents higher fur halves, quar- 

— tera an d e ighties. 


2 50 Artichokes, dox. — 

4 50 lAsparaitis ^bi. — 

— I do ext'acboice 1 50 i 
40 lOkra, dry, lb... 15 i 

— I do green lb. . . . 5 i 
75 'Parsnips, cU 1 50 

— Peppers, dry lb. 10 i 

— I do nam, box 25 i 
75 iPnmpkins prion 

— Squasli, Harrow 
1 SO fat, loo 

I do Summer bx 
ISMng beans H.. . 

Pineapples, dOE. 4 00 # S OO |Tomatoe>box. 

Pluma box — @ — ' do choice 1 75 lii" 2 26 

Pomegranates, b — — ITnrnips otl .. 25 ns tlO 

Prunes bx — @ — Beets, sk 75 — 

Quinces bx -9 — Cabbage, 100 Iw. 50 — 

Itaspberrles ch. . 4 00 0i 6 00 Carrots, sk 35 « — 

~ ■ . ... . „ J j5 


nAspoemee co. . * uu o uu vjwrroiA. »j »^ 

Strawberries ch. 3 00 1^ 7 00 lEggplant, ¥ bx. 1 00 1 
Watermelons 100 — (» - |OarUo, lb U™ 


Apples, sliced, ti 
do evaporated 
do quartered . . . 


do evaporated 



Figs, pressed.... 

6 a 

Green Com, cr. 
— , do sweet cr. . . 
]3f do large box.. 
14 rireen Peas, lb.. 
Si Sweet Peas tb. . . 
14 Ijetture, dos . . . 
13i Lima Beans lb. . 
81) >*uBhrooir« tt).. 

in Rhubarb bx 

6 . 

50 75 
85 (Oe 1 26 

1 la 

2 @ 
10 d 

-- @ 
8 it 
- ® 

July 16, 1887.] 



Domestle ProdnoQ. 

Bxtra ohoice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
quotations. Widneiday, July 13, 1887. 


1 50 
I 2 00 

I 2 10 

2 25 

Bsyo.otl 1 90 >§ 2 50 

Butter 1 75 @ 2 00 

Pea 1 80 <a 2 UO 

Bed 1 40 ©■ 1 65 

Pink ) 25 ( 

Large White.... 1 90 ( 
Small White.... 1 75 I 

Urn* 1 75 ( 

Fid Peas.blk eye 1 00 (_ 

do green 1 00 1 12i 

do Niles 1 25 @ - 

Sontbemperton SO & 75 
Northern per ton 50 @ 75 

OalUomia. H 

German 7 



Oal. fresh roll, lb. (6 @ 20 

doFanoybr'od* 21 22i 

Pickle roU 20 « 24 

FlrUn. new IB @ 20 

Eastern. — @ — 


Cheese, Oal.. lb.. 8@ H 
Eastern style... 10 @ — 


OaL.rsnoh,dos.. 20 @ 24 

do. (tore 18 @ 2U 

Ducks — @ — 

Oregon — @ — 

Eastern 18 @ — 


Bran, ton 26 00 @27 00 

Oommeal 28 00 @ — 

Gr'd Barley ton. 25 00 (§26 00 

Hay 9 00 @15 00 

Hlddlings 28 0« @30 00 

Oil Cake Meal. 26 SO @28 50 

Straw, bale 40 ® 60 

Extra. City Mills 4 95 @ 5 70 

Paper shell 19 (3 

Brazil lHc« 

Pecans 9 @ 


Filberts 10 (9 

Hickory 7 @ 



Early Rose 

1 C5 iCuffey Cove 

Jersey Blues... 



River reds 


do Kidney.... 


do Oregon... 


Salt Lake 

New Potatoes 

m - 

ao Oo'ntry Mills 


45 a 

i 5 



70 i 

i i 




Barley, feed, ctl. 


05 S 

t I 


do Brewing.. 


15 A 

1 1 



45 ( 

9 1 


do Coast. . . 


OO ( 

f 1 


Com, White.... 


15 « 

t 1 



10 i 

% 1 


Small Bound. 


20 6 

i 1 




1 1 


Oats, milling.... 


75 S 

1 1 



60 a 

* 1 



60 a 

* 1 



45 6 


do black . . 
do Oregon 

Eye 1 25 @ 1 60 

Wheat milling. 

Gilt edged.. 1 87S'a 1 92J 
do Ihoioe 1 l>2m 1 87 j 

do fair to good 1 77i n 
Shipping choice 1 85 @ 

do good 1 80 @ 

do tair 1 75 <g 


Dry 14 @ 

Wet salted 7i@ 


Beeswax, lb 20 @ 

Honey in comb. 103 
Honey in comb. 

fancy 13i@ 

Extracted, light. 5 ig 
do dark. 3^ 

Oregon. 17i@ 

Oalfiomia 15 @ 


Pickling — (» 

Red 40 @ 

Silverskins 60 @ 


Wahiuts, 13i@ 

do Chile. - @ 

Almonds, hdshl. S@ 

Soft shell 18 «t 

1 80 

50 ( 

1 00 

1 60 


Hens, doz 6 00 # 8 00 

Roosters 5 50 (gll 

Broilers 3 00 @ 7 

Ducks, tame 4 60 @ 6 

do Mallard. ... — @ ~ 

do Sprig — @ — 

Geese, pair 1 00 ^ I 60 

do Goslings ... 1 25 
Wild Gray, doz — 

Turkeys, lb 18 

do Dressed.. — 
tail and wing.. 
Snipe, Eng., doz. 
do Common.. — (i 

Doves — 

Quail - a 

Rabbits 1 00 6 

Hare 1 23 « 

Venison — (j 

Cal. Baoon, 

Heavy, lb Sy* 

Medium 9 <J 

Light 10 O 

Extra Light... 11 ( 



Hams, Cal 

do Eastern.. 



10 @ » 

List of U. S. Patents for Paoifio Coast 

Reported by Dewey <St Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

From the official report of U. S. Patents in Drwbt & 
Co.'s Patent Office Library, 220. Market St., S. F. 


365,958. — Bridle Bit — H. Baldridge, Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

365,908. — Mosaic Work — E. Chatain, S. F. 

366.103.— Extracting Silver— O. Holmann, 
Alameda, Cal. 

366,007 — Roller Attachment for Boats' 
Gunwales — P. S. Katsenys, Astoria, Ogn. 

366,011. — Beer Cooler — Liddicoat & Ulzinger, 
Astoria, Ogn. 

366,123. — Pool Table Attachment — X. Mar- 
ghieri, S. F. 

365,930. — Vermin Eradicator — Chas. Meeker, 
Albina, Ogn. 

365,849— Pocket-Frame Clamp for Pool 
Tables— A. G. Nygard, S. F. 

365,851. — Bottle Case— Henry Palmer, S. F. 

365,938. — Button-Hole Gage — Delia Piiillips, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

365,869. — Bevel and Square — Shaw, Cutbirth 
& Piatt, Los Angeles, Cal. 

NoTB.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dbwbt & Co. , in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or teleerapbic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Paciflo Coast 
inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates and is the shortest possible time. 

1 i<a 
14 % 


Canary. , 
Clover red 





Italian RyeOrasa 


Millet, Germau.. 

do Common. 
Mustard, white.. 



Ey. Blue Grass.. 

JO - 
16 I 
20 I 

2 i 

4 I 

7 i 

'< ® 



3d quaUty 11 1 

7B I 


80 1 
10 @ 

Sweet V. GrasSi 

Orchard. 30 

Red Top IB 


Lawn , 

Mesquit. . . , 
Timothy . . 


Crude, lb. 2 

Re&ned 6 

rpbino— 1886 
Humboldt aud 
Mendocino . . . 

Bact'o valley 

Free Mountain. 
N'hern defective 
S Joaquin valley 
do mountain. 
Cava'v & F'tuH. 
Oregon Eastern. 

do valley 20 @ 

Southern Coast. 11 <S 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiring this paper marked are re- 
qnested to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $.3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
cents, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
subscriber, please show the paper to others. 

New Mexico Starting a " Boom." — A dis- 
patch from Las Vegas states that at a meeting 
of the Bureau of Immigration of New Mexico, 
held there on the 11th, it was decided to pub- 
lish a large edition of a pamphlet on New Mex- 
ico, correcting false notions of the Territory and 
setting forth its advantages. The pamphlet 
will be distributed by Secretary H. C. Barnett 
of Santa Fe. Only a very small portion of the 
Territory is covered by land grants, and fully 
nine-tenths of New Mexico is open to settle- 
ment. Crops are in fine condition and there 
has been less irrigation than any other year 
heretofore. Immigration is steadily increabing, 
and there is active dealing in real estate in the 
larger towns. 

Nevada State Fair. — We are glad to note 
that our Nevada friends propose to make an 
unusual eflFort to draw out a display of their 
resources and achievements at the State Fair, 
which will be held in Reno the last week in 
September. Especial attention will be given to 
the Pavilion exhibit. Two piemiums are 
offered for county exhibits; Washoe county be- 
ing ruled out from competition for the first place 
because, we suppose, of its proximity. It 
would be a good idea to have a grand rally of 
Nevada people and prodacts this year. 

Our AKenta. 

OCR Fhirkdb can do much in aid of our paper and the 
Cause of practical knowled)(e and science, by aHsistint; 
Agents in their labors of canvassinK, by lending their in- 
fluence and encourajoni; favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

Jarrd C Uoao— California. 

G. W. iNOAtiLB— Arizona. 

Obo. McDowgbii — San Luis Obispo Co. 
J. L. DOYLB— Amador Co. 
W. J. Frksxan— Nevada. 
William Pool— Fresno Co. 
M. S. PaiMR— Alameda Co. 
R. Q. HuHTON— Bulte, Montana. 
E P Smith— Humboldt Co. 
EoMUiiD Wrioiit— Tehama Co. 

H. M. Hamilton— San Mateo and Santa Cruz Cos. 

A Woman's Age. 

A woman, it is said, is no older than she looks. Many 
women, however, look double their actual age by reason 
ot those functional disorders which wear upon the 
nerves and vitality, and which, 11 unchecked, are liable 
to change the most robust woman to a weak, broken- 
down invalid. Dr. Pierce's "Favorite Prescription" will 
positively cure every irregularity and weakness peculiar 
10 the sex, and requires but a single trial to prove its 
surpassing merit. Price reduced to one dollar. By drug- 

The Nineteenth Century Club is an organization that 
will consist of an equal number of men and women. It 
is hardly to be expected that they will agree on all sub- 
jects ; but it can surprise no one to learn that Dr. 
Pierce's "Golden Medical Discovery" is unanimously pro- 
nounced the most successful remedy extant for pulmo- 
nary consumption, as has been demonstrated in hun- 
dreds of cases; it positively arrestn this disease and re- 
stores health and strength, if administered in its early 
stages. By druggists. 

Young or middle-aged men, suffering from nervous de- 
bility or kindred affections, should address, with 10 cents 
in stamps, for large treatise. World's Dispensary Medical 
Association, 663 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
does not want it, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will aufBce. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish it, but if it is continued, through the failure of the 
subscriber to notify us to discontinue it, or somu Irre- 
sponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand payment lor the time it is sent. Look caripolla 


Berkshire Sales. — The transcript from the 
last entry in the Berkshire Record, which is 
sent us by Phil. M. Springer, of Springtietd, 
III., secretary, has the announcement of the 
sale of Carmelita 17,27'2, Vulcan, 17,273, 
Mollie 17,274, Major 17,275 and Hily 17,276, 
by Andrew Smith, Redwood City, Gal., to John 
G. Wright, San Francisco, Cal. 

Purchasing Agency. — We invite the atteo' 
tion of ladies in the interior to Mrs. F. E. 
Smith's card, which appear* in another column. 

For Printing 

Of Every Description, such as 




Made to Order from First-Class Material, 
Send Orders to 

BACON 8l company, 

ST'Eetimatea Furnished -when Desired. 



Cures all Diaeases oriffinating from 
a disordered state of the BLOOD oi 
LLVER. Rheumatism, lleuralgia, 
Boils, Blotches, Pimples, Scrofula^ 
Tumors, Salt Bheum and Mercurial 
Pains readily jnleld to its purifying 
Dropertiea. Itleavesthe Blood pure, 
the Liver and Kidneys healthy and 
the Complexion bright and clear. 
J. R. GATES & CO. Proprietors, 

417 Sansome St. San Prancisco 


[Fomlahed (or publication In thia paper by Nelson Ookom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps, U. S. A. 

July 7-13. 









Red Bluff. 



Los Angeles 


07 . . . 

iSan Diego. 


Explanation. — Cl. for clear; Cy., cloudy; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; — indicates too small to measure. T*>niT»f>rat-nre 
Wind and weather at 12:00 H. (Pacific Standard time), with amount of la'nfall in the preceding 24 hours. T indicates 
trace of rainfall. 





Single and Double Acting 


Rams, Cylinders, Footvalves, Etc. 


Illustrated Catalogue mailed free on application, post-paid. LOW PRICES and 
ESTIMATES furnished. Correspcndence solicited. 



WM. S. RAY & CO., 

12 and 14 Market Street, 

San Francisco, Cal 


Pumps, Windmills, Stoves, Ranges, Metals, Sheet 
Iron, Stamped Ware, Tinware, Lanterns, 
Hose, Pipe, Fittings, Etc. 

Wilson's Vaporizing Inhaler. 

The Only Successful Home Treatment and a 
Positive Cure for 

^ Catarrh, Asthma, Bronchitis, Deafness, 

And all discoseR of the head, throat and lung's. One teat, ono 
louk will convince ItitelliKent people that this ig a rational and 
adsntiliu treatment. It U the only advertwed remedy indorsed 
by the medical profession. A hundred physicians and thousands 
of are our ro'erences. Estahlished in Children 
enjoy it. A household treasure. Lasts a lifetime. Cost, with 
medicine and presc. iptions for iluplic atinf; same, <iidy Si!. 50; can 
be sent by express. Consultation and test free. Send fur Circu- 
lar. Office, 229 Kearny Street, San Francisco. 

Small Farms on Easy Installments. 


A choice port'on of the Reading Grant, two miles from the town of Reading, hitherto re- 
nerved for farming purposes, now divided into 20-acre lots and thrown open to purchasers. 
River bottom soil, saudf loam and very productive. Prices from $30 to $50 per acre. Other 
agricultural lands, in lots to duit purchasers, at from .$10 to $25 per acre. Kor circulars and 
maps call on 

FRISBIE & WILEY, Redding or Anderson, Shasta Co., Cal. 


f ACIFie F^URAb f RESS, 

[July 16, 1887 


A Select School for Young Ladies. 

tM'VoT catalogue or information, address the rriiici|>al, 
BEV. BDW. B. CHUfiOH, A M., 
1030 Va.eDCla St., San FraQCieco, Cal. 

California Military Academy 


Thorough instruction in all Departments. Business 
CourM complete. Location unsnrpassed. Send for 
Circular. COL. W. H. O HKIKN, Priniipal. 


(Ralston House) 1222 Pine Street, 










A Sunny Primary Room and GyniDasium are to be 
added to the establishment this term. 

Will Re-open July 25, 1887. 

tWPot particularg apply to 



School for Girls and Young Ladies 

1825 Telegraph Ave., Oakland. CaL 
Address MRS. R. G. KNOX. Proprietor, or 

tSTtie 18th year will h«gio Wednc«day, Au^. S, 1»87. 


For Young Men and Boys, 

1534 MISSION ST., S. P. 

Chrulmas Term opens Aag^ 1, 1887. 

For information app'v to 

REV. E. B. SPALDINO, A. M., Rector. 


For Boys and Young Men, 

529 Hobarc Street, Oakland, CaL 

English, Scientific, Commercial and Classical Courses of 
atudy. Gives the best preparation for best colleire and 
universities. Next School Vear will beirin July 19, 1S^)7 

Send, as above, for Catalotrue to 

D. P. SACKETT, A. M., Principal 


University Avenue. • Berkeley, Cal 

Preparatory, Commercial and 
Academic Departments. 


Monday, Aug. 1, 1887. Send (or Circulars to 
T. STEWART BOWENS, B. A., T. C. D., Principal. 


An Englisli, Frencli aid German Home and Day Sclioal 

Oak Street, Oakland, Cal. The next vear will beyin 
July 27, 188'. Address, Hiss L. Tracy. 


Shorthand, T}'pewritin2, 


24 Post St. a F 

Smd tot CSxaihr- 
Peomanship, Bookkeepiag. 



Rbv. H. E. JEWETT, .M.A Princli«l. 

A Boariliiig and Day School for Boys and Young Men 

The seventeenth srhool year begins on Tuesday, July 
20, 18.S7. Send for catalogue- 



Authorized Capital, - - $1,000,000 

In 10,000 SbaroR of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $645,360. 

Keserved Fand aud Paid up Stock, f 2 1,1 78. 

A. D. LOGAN Preeideot 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIEB Cashier and Manager 

FRANK Mcmullen SecreUry 


A. D. LOGAN, President Colusa CounQ 

H. J. LEWELMNO Nai)a County 

J. H. (JARDINEB Rio Viata, Cal 

T. K. TYNAN Stanislaus t^unty 

URIAH WOOD SaiiU Clara County 

J. C. MEKYFIELD Solano County 

H. M. LARUE Volo County 

I. C. STEBLE San Mateo County 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento County 

C. J. CKESSEY Merced County 

SENECA EWER Napa County 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 

usual way, bank books balanced up, and statements of 

aeounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and counfry pro<luoe a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS throuifliout the Country are matle 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
GOLD and SILVER (lc|HwitM received. 
CERTIFlCATi->l of DEPOSIT issued |«vablc od demand 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic SUtes bought 


Caahler and Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 16, 18M2. 








Consistine of Wood and Iron Working 
Machinery. Pnmps of every 




• FOR 

Wrapping and Packing Citrus and 
Deciduous Fruits. 

Cut to any dealred size. Full Stock always 
on hand of Linings: 





Raisins and Dried Frnits. 

We have facilities for executing large or tpectal orders 

at short notice. 

S. P, TAYLOR & CO.. 
Ho. 416 Clay St., San Francisco, 




1332 Market St., opp. Odd Fellows' BuUd'g 
San Francisco, Cal. 
All kinds of Ladies' and Oentn' Garments Cleaned and 
Dyed. WE K.\CEL. Send for Circular of Prices. 

C<JAS. J. HOLMES, Manager. 

Fwrs iJ IciEisls, AMm! 



UxivRRBiTT OF CALIFORNIA, Nov. S, 1886. fertilizer. It Is especially well a<laptcd to use in 

Dr. J. KoRBio-DcarSir: I have analysed vour sample P^l'lrj'"''': <>" ^^o""' predominance in 

of ••Nitrocenous Superphosphate," with the >' o' Phosphoric Aclit, which is generally in small 

following re.ult: »• r supply in our s.nls. Yet it is desirable that ''coiti. 

. . .„ A. Plete fertilizers boused in our orchards and vineyards. 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid. . 12.90 per cent and yours Is of that character in furnishing 

Keterted fho«ii>horlc Acic 9S Potash and Nitrogen as wcIL Very respectfully. 

Insoluble Phosphoric Add 2.83 " g w HlffiAnn 

I'ota h Xa3 •' _ ""-"A""- 

Ammonia 1.87 " »alue of this Fertiliser consists In the large per- 

Nitrlc Acid.'.'.'. !]. 2.95 " centage it contains of Fhosphorlc Acid— the chief 

. _» „« i li.i «„...i t„ n DC element of all plant food— In combination with the 

The above amount of Nitric Acid is equal to 85 „ece,sarv <,uantilies of Potash and Ammonia, aud 

per cent Ammonia, therefore, toUl of Nitrogen calcu- j^e case and cheapness with which it can be applied, 

laicd as Amiiionia, in ordinary M.ils the following ijuaulities will be found 

This Fe.tin».er h a \ aliiable Manure '->' vine- ,„ffl,ie„t, wh^^t. Barley, Corn and Oats. 300 to SSO 

yard,, orchards, gardens, farms, and I rrcommend iU g Beets and Ve^ 

use by the cultivator of the so l senerally m Ubles, 250 to 300 pounds per acre. For Vine-, Fr^lt 

fornla. Yours truly, DR. k. A. SCHNMDEH. Trees, from i pound to 1 poind ea<.h. For Flower Oar- 

. ., t\ It • a • dens. Lawns, House Plant;, etc., a light top dressing, 

University of California, College of Agri- appliedatanytlme, win be found very benencial. 


Brkkklit, Not. 20, 1886. ' 

Dr. J. KoFBio. San Francisco -IHjar Sir: I Uke pleas ^n Ixjard cars at Sobranto, Station of the C. P. H. R., 20 

ure in ad<iing my testimony to that of Dr. Schneider as miles north of San Francisco, at $30 per ton, by the 

to the high quality of the -NltroKeiious Super- MEXICAN PBOSPHATB & SULPHUB 

phosphate" Fertilizer, analyzed by him at your re- _ „^ „ ^ „ „ . 

quest. It isahlKh.grade article, and as such re- CO.. H. DDTABD, President, room 7, Safe 

turns the user a better money value than a low-grade Deposit Building, or 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 309 and 311 Sansome St., San Francisco. 




Real Estate and Insurance Agents, 




ON Appkovkd Seccbity. Ace.nts fob In.subancb Companies 

KEPRE.SESTI.N(i $20,000,000. 




Losses paid to date. 




Deposits in California, value. - SI 30,000. 

BUTLER & HALDAN, Gen'l Agents for Pacific Coast 





Buggies, Spring Wagons, Harness, Saddlery, Robes and Whips. 

132, 134, 136 and 138 Santa Clara St., opp. Post Office, SAN JOSE, CAL. 


Cold Water Bleaching Soap 

Was Awarded the First Premium at the State Fair at 
Sacramento, lor the year 1886, UPON ACTUAL MERIT. 

It can be UKed in Bath, Toilet or Laundry, and dis- 
penses with Fuel, as uo Warm Water or Builiug is 
Necessary. B«wart of Cheap Imitations. 

The Qenulne Is manufactured only by 


No. 12 Bus^ 8tre«t. Ban Francisco 


Stouni EngincM, Hurso PuwrrsA Wlnil .Ylllls. 

Complete Pumping outfits— all glzes-for 
every purpose. The latest, best 
and rhrapest. If you need an; 
tiling in this line, write to 

Byeon Jackson 

-625 6th St. San Francisco. 


Flams, Apricots, Necta- 
rines, etc. 

Also a full stock of Apple 
Parers, Peach Parers, etc, 

fS'Send for Circitlak and 



17 New Montgomery Bt. 
San Francisco. 

Tbls paper la printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson Si Co., 6O0 
South 10th St, Philadelphia. Branch Offl- 
ces-47 Bose St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St, OblOftBO. Asent for the Paclflo Ooaat— 
Joseph H. Dorety. 620 Commercial Rt. H F. 

July 16, 1887.] 











Any young man can earn more on an investment, nf 
8500 in this press than can be earned in expending S2000 
for any other machine. We have a Monarch Press, which 
we sell for 8600, l)ut ha't been uted a very little and is 
just as good aa new, which we will sell for 8450. 


Weight, 2200 
lbs. A crew of 
three men— four 
can be used to ad- 

Five ropes are 
used on the bales. 
Capacity, 10 to 15 
tons per day. The 
best press 'or the 
money in the 

M The Celetoled Petalnm 


Weight, 2600 lbs. Price, 
$350, delivered at ihe factorv. 

Size of hale, 22x22x48 inch- 
es. CapacitVi 26 tonsper day. 
Weight of bale from 225 to 
400 fts This remarkalde ma- 
chir.e still stand's at the head 
of all vertical baling presses, 
and probably bales three- 
quarters of ail the hay west 
of the Kocky Mountains. 





Do not coalouod our Nkw Press with that made two 
years bince. Evsry Prrss Fully Warrantbd. For one 
or two horses. 1 he most powerful in use. 1 he most 
rapid and durable, and the most perfect. Makes the 
moet perfect bale. The most simple to operate. Least 
expense for reijaira. No STOPS FOR TYINO BALE, 

The Greatest Success of the Age. 

victorious in every contest. Doubla-acting, with new 
coDcentiating pow^r. Do not buy a Press uutil you 
have seen the Imi'Rovbd New Whitrcan with concentrat- 
ing power. Puts from 10 to 15 Tons in a tar. 

16x18 Mounted, weight, 360O Ifis 8400 00 

16x22 Mounted, weight, 3M lbs 450 CO 

All make bales of variable size. 

Hay Forks. Hay Carriers. Harpoon Forks, 
and all kinds of Haying Tools in great variety. In balii g 
your hay, use our ^teeI Baliug Ti«8. Cheaper than 
Wire — Better than Rope. 

421—427 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Issned Sept. and Slarcli, 
each year. Jlfg' 31!i page a, 
8^x11% Inches, wUli over 
3 BOO Ulnstratlons — a 
Whole Plctiire Gallery. 
GIVES Wholesale Prlceit 
direct to consumers on all goods for 
perMnal or family use. Tells how to 
order, and gives exact cost of every- 
thing yon use, eat, drink, vrear, or 
have fan with. These IJVVA1.UAB1.E 
BOOKS contain information glcanctl 
from the markets of the world. We 
will mall a copy FREE to any ad- 
dress npon receipt of 10 cts. to defray 
expense of mailing. I«t na hear from 
jron. Respectfully, 


827 dc 229 Wabaah Avenae, ChicagOi 11' 


MAmiNKKV. Our Ar- 
t«-Hlttn Well Knryelopediu con- 
taiua near 700 eiiKruviu({s, ilhifltratiQK 
and describing all the nractical tools 
and appliances used tn the art of well 
Biukiog; diamond prosptiCting ma- 
chinery, windmills, ar- 
tesian engines, piunps, 
etc. Edited by the 
"American Well 
Works, ' the largest 
manufacturers In the 
world of this class of 
machinery. We will 
scad this book to any 
party on receipt of 2S cents for mailing^ Kxpert well drlll- 
eni and agents wanted. Addrefls. The Ameri<*»B 
Well Work*. Aurora. IIU^ U. M. A. 



The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For stump and B ink Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
out of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 

As other makers IKUTATE our Giant Powder, so ao they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a second-grade, inferior to Judson, 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO, General Agents, San Francisco. 




Best M Stronpst Eiplosiyes in tlie WorM. 



Using lie Benoit Comiated Rollers. 


This Mill has been In U8e on this Coast for 6 years, 


Four J ears in succesfion, and has met with general favor, 
there now being 

Over 200 of them in use in California, Nevada & Oregon 

U is the most economical and durable Feed Mill in use. I am sole manu- 
facturer of the Corrugated Kollcr Mill. The Mills are all ready to mount 
on wagons, • 

I thank the public for the kind patronage received thus far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 



A. BLATCHLY, manufacturer of all kinds and sizes of Driers, from the smallest Familv Stove Drier to the 
huge Raisin Drier, holding 100,000 pounds of fruit at a charge. Also, all Machinery required in building Driers, 
as Steam Kngines and Boilers. Steel Fan Wheels — the strongest and lightest running made. Heaters — a great 
variety. Iron and Wooden Cars of all sizes, with wheels running equally well on a track or floor. Trays, large or 
small, with Wood, Metal or Wire Cloth Bottoms. Car Tracks, Thermometers, H.\ grometers, etc. 

Being the first to make in Fresno, in 1884, a machine-dried Raisin that sold for as high or higher price 
than the sun-dried, and having the experience of the last three years, renders it possible to build a Raisin Drier 
guaranteed tn be superior to any now in use in cheapness and efficiency. Estimates and prices furnished 
application to 



S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

rVrM OoBch to and from t,b»» Honno J. W. BBOKBR. Proprietor. 

X887. 1888. 

Mission Rock Grain Dock and Warehouses. 

Regular Warehouse for S. F. Produce Exchange Call Board. 

Storage Capacity for 75,000 Tons of Grain, 



W. C. GIBBS, Sec> 

Freight paid fire Insurance and loans effected, and proceeds forwarded free of comnuRsions. Money advanced 
at lowest rates on grain in warehouse, interest payable at end of loan. Storage season, ending .lune 1, 1887, at 
reduced rates On all wheat shipped to Misiion Kock by barges, freight rat'is guaranteed the same as to Port Costa. 
All applications for storage or other business addressed to CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Superintendent. 

Q35»jg»I03EJ, 318 O^llfox-ax-la. rtooxaa. St. 

We, the PRICE HAY PRESS COMPANV, manufacture, 
at San Leandro, Cal., the following B.iling Presses under 
the immediate supervision of 

wlio is the sole Inventor and Patentee 
thereof, and who has been continuously engaged in 
the manufacture of Baling Presses for 25 years. 

The Hurricane (see cut above), size A $1000 

The Utirricane (see cut above), size B lllOO 

The Monaroli, greatly impro^ed 600 

The Junior Mi>iiarch, improved r»00 

The Genuine Price Petalunia 3/iO 

The Climax 30O 

'Ihe Improved Eagle U50 

If or W oo 1 . 

The Monarch From $500 to $2000 

The Eclipse $.500 

The above Hay Presses range in capacity trgm 10 to 
40 tons per day, and pome of them make (wording to 
size) either the conitnon or the compres'^ed bale. There 
is nothing in the United States apitroaching our Hurri- 
cane a d .Junior Monarch for speed or excellence of work. 

/tSffSend for large Illustrated Catalogue to 



Worth's Patent Combined Screw and Tog- 
gle Lever Wine and Cider Press. 

First Premium awarded on Wine Press at Sonoma and 
Marin Agricultural Fair, Sonoma Agricultural Park As- 
sociation, Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society and 
Mechanics' Institute, S. F. 

I desire to call the at- 
tention of wine and 
cider makers to my Im- 
proved Press. The fol- 
lower has a movement 
of 26J inches, the first 
revolution of the screw 
moves the follower IJ 
ins , the last revolution 
is but 1-16 of an inch, 
thereby the power in- 
creases in the same 
ratio as the resistance. 
The platform is 50 
inches wide and 10 feet 
long; is run back and 
fo th under the press 

on a railroad track. 

Has two baskets, oy which you can (ill the second basket 
while the first one is under the press, thereby doing 
double the amount of work that can be done on any . 
screw or lever press in the market that use only one 
basket, for this reason: While my press is working con- 
tinuously the other kinds are doing nothing during the 
time they are emptyine and filling their basket. 

Printed Testimonials can be had on application of the 
following parties, who have bought my press: J. B. J. 
Portal, San Jose; Wm. PfefTer, Guhserville; Joseph 
Walker, Windsor; Kate F. Warfleld, Glen Ellen; Joseph 
Drummond, Glen Ellen; Isaac De Turk, Santa Uosa; 
John Hinkelman, Fulton; J. & F. Muller, Windsor; B. 
C. Stiller, Guhserville; Lay Clark & Co., Santa Uosa; 
Vache Freres, Old San Bernardino; J. F. Crank, San 
Gabriel; James Finlayson, Healdsburg; P. & J. J. Gobbi, 
Healdsburg; Wm. Allen, San Gabriel; Wm. Metzger, 
Santa Rosa; J. Lawfence Watson, Glen Ellen; Walter 
Phillips, Santa Rosa; Geo. West. Stockton; Eli T. Shep- 
pard. Glen Ellen; Rancheto Wine Co., Kancheto, Los 
Angeles Co.; Downing Fruit & Wine Co., Downey; J. L. 
Beard, Centerville; Wm. Palmtag, Hollister; A. Burn- 
ham & Son, Santa Rosa; Paul O. Burns Wine Co., San 
Jose: E Emil Meyer, Santa Cruz Mountains, Wright P. 
O.: Marshall & Hill, Laguina Station; R. J. Northam, 

Also manufacture Worth's Patent Hand and Power 
Grape Stcmniers. W. H. WORTH, Pecaluma Foundry 
and Machine Works, Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cat. 



Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boiiers. 

PortaWe Straw-Bnrning Boilers k Engines. 


Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Paient Wine-making Machinery, 

including Grape Crushers and Stemmcrs, Elevators, Wine 
Presses and Pumps, and all appliances used in Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Drauiage Pumps. Ueald'a 
Patent Engine Ooveroor, Etc. 

DEWEY & 0O..|\°,«?i?of<VVStt^ } PATENT AGENTS. 

and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
Awarded Diploma for WIndmllU at me- 
chanics' Fair, 1885. Windmills from |66. Horse 
Powers from *fiO. F. W. KROGH Si CO.. 61 
Rnale Street. Ran Francisco. 

TUp ntia In health, habits and disease. All breeds 
I Ilk l/VU and treatment; 60. cuts; 250. This office. 



[July 16, 1887 


Farmers, Dairymen, Stockmen & Macliinists 

Blacksmith's Drill 
Press, iland Feed; 
Weight, 65 tt.9. 

Combination Anvil 
and Vise, hardened 
fa'-'e, finely polished; 
weight, 50 lbs. 

Farmer's Foree, 
No. 5 B. Kill heat 
ll-incb iron. 

Hammer and 
Handle, 2 tt'<., 
solid cas' steel. 

Blacksiuiln 3 Iloi and ^^oid ijhisele: 
H %i. each; both solid cast steel. 

Blacksmith's Tongs, Wrought Iron, 18 in hes. 

Screw Plates, 3 Taps, o .Set Dies, cut J, £ and J inch. 

Farrier's Knife. 

Farrier's Pincers, Ciist Steel; 12-iiich. 
Shoeing Hammer and Handle; weig't, 9 oz. 

And u e offer this complete 


Which is hardly half the regular prices, and none c»n 
afford to he without this set. Orders by mail promptly 
HUed. Address, 

Nob. 8 and 5 Front St , San Francisco. 



Coffee Mills, 

Store Trucks, 
Steel Scoops, 

Brass Scoops, 
Tin Scoops, 

Money Drawers, 
Cheese Safes, 

Wood Measures, 


For Sacking Grain, CoaU Ore, Potatoes. Salt. n^nr^f c^-r "PiUaT-Q 

Beans, Cofifee, Flour, Etc. l^OUULer J? m«I O. 



Get Illustrated Catalogue from 


B17 and 519 Market Street, SAN FRANCISCO, GAL. 






Agricultural Implements and Hardware. 







'on ,v 

*rHE H. H. H. Horse Liniment pnU 
J- new life into tlie Aatiijiialed Horso I 
For the last 14 years the 11. H. H. Horss 
Liniment bag been the leading remetly 
among FarmerB and atockmen for tha 
cnre of Sprains Urnises, Btitf Joints, 
opavins, Windfalls, Bore HhoiilderB, etr., 
and for Family U^e is without an eonsil 
for Uhenmatism, Neuralgia, Aches, Pains, 
Rnii.ces, Cats .and Sprains of all charaeterB. 
The H. H. H. Liniment ha.s many imita- 
^.ons, and we cantioa the Public to eee 
that the Tra<Ie Mark " H. H. H." is oq 
everj- Hottle liefore pnrohasing. For sale 
ererywhere for 50 centu and $1.00 uor 
Bottle. ^ 

For Sale by all druRBlBtR 

„ s5uGlT0 

^220 MARKET. ST.S.F., 


Powell Derrick and Nets. 



Air-Purifier and Preserving-Room 


A DAPTABLE to keep or traniport all perishftble articles in perfect condition. After years of studying th« 
rv various rne&ns \'i preservation for perishable articles, I have the honor to announce to the public that, having- 
fully auccecJeil and completed m> prcHcrvint^ prooeBS, I am now ready to build preticrviij^ rooms, cither on a latge 
or small scale. Kor urther particulars address 


PoetofflcBoxP. West Berkeley, Cal. 

N. B.— Save hundreds of thousands u( dollars this season on this coast on Cherries and Aprlcota b; adopting 
be Alle^retti Air Puriffer and Prcserring^-Koom System. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending .Tune 30, 1887, the Board of 
Uirectors of the German .Savings and Loan Society has 
declared a dividend at Iho rate of four and thiity-two 
one-hundredths (4 32-100) per cent per annum on term 
deiKi.'its and three and sixty one-hundredths (3 60 100) 
per cent fxr annum on ordinary deposits, payable on and 
after the 1st day of July, 1887. By order. 

GEO. LETTE, Secretar}'. 


and Loan Society, San Francisco, July 1, lf(S7. — At 
a regular meeting of the R(«rd ol Director, of this So- 
ciety, held this day, a dividend at the rate of SJ per cent 
per annum was declared on all deposits for the six 
months ending June 30, 1887, payable from and after 
this date. 

ROBERT J. TOBIN, Secretsry. 

XUC nnP In health, habits and disease. All breed. 
• n C liUU and treatment; SO.'oute; tl«s. This office. 

of Cunn, Pistols, Cartridiffs, Powder, Shells, Air Guns, 
Hunting Coats, Lcpgings, Loading Implements, Base Ball 
Coo ls, Lawn Tennis, Boxing, Fencing and Oymuaslum 
Goods, Dumb Bells, Hamnuicks, etc. 
Flue Unn work done hj flr*t-rlua ainlths. 
625 Kearny Street, San Franclaco, Oal. 


To buy In San Francisco and ure your money. 

Purcbaslntr Agent, 
Room 331, Phelan BulldlnsT. S F. 

Best of reference.. Send for circular. Cal! when In 
the city. 

A practical treatlrc by T. A. OAHar. 
giving the results of long experi- 
ence in Southern California. 196 
f^lll Timr pages, cloth bound. Sent port-|iaid 
I III IIIKrat reduced price of 76 eta. per copy 
UULiI Ulll- by DEWEY & CO.. Publtriier., S. f 


Vol. XXXIV —No. 4.1 


J $3 a Year, In Advance 

( Single Copies, 10 Ots. 

A Decision on Levees. 

A case has just been decided by the Sapretne 
Court of this State which afiBrtna the right of 
individuals or corporations to build levees 
along the banks of water-oourses, even though 
there may be indirect injury to certain low- 
lying lands. The action was brought to abate 
and remove as a public nuisance a levee 
erected by defendant along the west bank 
of the Sacramento river and across a 
place on said bank called " Wilkins' 
Slough," and to recover damages for the 
overflowing of plaintjETs land on the 
other aide of the river, about two miles 
below, alleged to have been caused by 
said levee. The action came to the Su- 
preme Court on appeal from a lower 
court, which gave judgment for defend- 
ant, and the Supreme Court affirms this 

The decieion is of considerable length, 
and describes all the conditions existing. 
It is not necessary for us to recite them. 
It may be remarked, however, that the 
court reviewed the legality of levees, and 
held that to grant the prayer of the ap- 
pellant would be to condemn all levees 
which have been built from time imme- 
morial along the banks of streams. 
It holds if the levee on Wilkins' slough 
be declared a nuisance, then the levees 
in front of the cities of Colusa and Sac- 
ramento, which preserve millions worth 
of property, including the Capitol build- 
ings and grounds of the State, can be 
removed at the suit of any owner who 
will not protect himself, and who can 
show that the swell of the river is in- 
creased in times of flood by levees either 
above or below him, and the whole 
system of reclamation can be defeated. 
On the other hand, the building of levees 
has the sanction of law, in fact that the 
State may not only control and levee its 
banks for the purpose of preventing the 
adjoining country from overflow, but may 
compel riparian owners to maintain such 
levees at their own expense. This being 
the case, the defendant whose lands are 
injured by water which is indirectly 
brought upon them, must find hia relief 
in leveeing also. 

The counsel for the appellant argued 
that the doctrine that one land-owner on 
a water-course cannot dam it so as to 
flood the land of his neighbor above. But 
the court holds that appellant ia not a 
riparian owner upon Wilkina' slough. 
His land is two miles away, and divided 
from it by a large navigable river. He 
has no interest in whatever rights land, 
ownera on Wilkina' slough — if there were 
any — might have as between themselves. 
It holds also that Wilkins' slough — 
aa between appellant and respondent at least 
— is not to be treated as a watercourse 
'within the legal meaning of that word. It 
is simply a conduit by which, occasionally, 
some of the flood-water of the river escapes 
into the lower lands adjoining. This same 
office ia performed by every other low place 
along the bank; and every other part of the 
levee could be removed aa a nuisance if that 
part of it which is at Wilkins' slough can be so 


to note how the sentiment in favor of ruliog 
out the immoral element from our fair-grounds, 
and making them thoroughly decent, gains 
headway from year to year. In different parts 
of Sonoma county petitions have already been 
circulated asking the managers of the Petaluma 
and Santa Rosa Fairs not to permit any intoxi- 

California Silk. — A quantity of silk, reeled 
at the filature of State Board, was lately sent 
to R, & H. Simon, silk manufacturers at Union 
Hill, N, J,, to be made into flags, and the firm 
writes Mrs. Rienzi, the secretary, as follows: 
" Of the California silk, the material of which 
your flags are made, we have this to say, that 
nothing better in raw silk exista to our knowl- 

PROF. C. V. EILEY. U. S. ENTOMOLOGIST. -See page 65. 

eating drinka to be aold on the grounds during 
the progress of the fairs; and at a recent meet- 
ing of directors of the Sixth District Associa- 
tion, it was voted, on motion of L, J. Rose, 
that hereafter no gambling games be allowed 
at fairs, and that auction and " Paris mutual " 
pools be sold only at a special stand 100 feet 
from the grand stand. This decision causes 
great consternation among gamblers, who have 
always reaped a rich harvest on auch ocoa- 

edge. In strength, luster and touch, it com- 
pares favorably with the best products of 
Europe and Asia." 

Miss Dorothea L. Dix, famous as a friend of 
prisoners, and for her general philanthropy, 
has just died at Trenton, N. J. She was more 
than 80 years of age. 

The lamb crop in Nevada this year will com- 
pare favorably with that of any other year. 

The Smyrna Fig Problem. 

Will it not be sad if we have to look upon 
the " genuine Smyrna fig " aa an ignis faluus 
which haa shone before the eyes of our horti- 
culturists for years, and impelled to great ex- 
penditure and adventure for naught ? We 
have had figs from Smyrna in numbers difficult 
to count, and yet we have believed, un- 
leaa recent enterprises yield it, that we 
had not yet secured the true Smyrna fig, 
which looks so fine in dried form and 
sells so well. We have given the wily 
Asiatics credit for wonderful insight and 
cunning in foiling every effort put forth 
by California-Yankee ingenuity to seize 
and bear hence the priceless variety 
which makes their town famous the world 
around. We have thought they guarded 
their treasure with individual and Gov- 
ernmental skill and prowess, and we had 
only a few weeks ago an account of how 
the latest California argonaut, seeking 
the golden fig, had to steal aboard ship 
at night to save his bacon and the fig 
cuttings he had obtained by bribing even 
the faithful. All these things seem 
strange when we are told by the horti- 
culturists of the Department of Agri- 
culture that there is really no genuine 
Smyrna tig, but that figs in Smyrna are 
" like oranges in Florida, consisting of 
many varieties, but seldom true to 
name." We half believed as much, and 
we mistrusted that the Smyrnans were 
sharp enough to supply na with such 
nondescript varieties whenever we sought 
to obtain cuttings of them; but now we 
are told further " that from previous 
importationa of Smyrna figs nothing more 
satisfactory could be obtained from there 
than what i; to be found now in Califor- 
nia." We are not sure of that, for there 
is reason to believe that some of our 
more recent acquisitions may prove bet- 
ter than we have had before, in fact some 
growers are sure that we have secured 
the prize. 

The history of our fight for the fig will be 
interesting, and we are not desirous that 
it should end. If we fight for better va- 
rieties and for better ways of treating 
the fruit they bear, we shall yet accom- 
plish with the fig what we have done 
with the raisin, the prune and other 
fruits — that is, produce the very best. 
This being so, we are glad that still 
further introductions are to be made, 
for Col. Colmau, Commissioner of Agri- 
culture, writes to Mr. Lawson that the 
Department will be able to send to Pro- 
fessor Hilgard of the Agricultural De- 
partment at Berkeley, by next Novem- 
ber, several fig cuttings of an excellent 
variety, and will be pleaaed to do ao. 
These cuttings will no doubt be first multi- 
plied aa much aa poasible and then offered 
for trial to any one who atill criea excehior 
with the fig. 

A Fire in the buainess portion of Hanford, 
on the 12th, destroyed property to the value of 

FoRTHER disasters by earthquake are re> 
ported from the Mexican State of Sonora, 



[July 23, 1887 


CorreBpoudcntfl are aloue respooBible for their opinfoiis- 

Let California Try Qniaoa and Coca. 

JI[he (^ARDEJJ. 

Treatment for Potato and Tomato 

number of treatments made, and (6) the purity 
of the lime and sulphate of copper used. 

The following observations are essentially 
the same as those recently published by the 
French Minister of Agriculture, in circular of 
similar import to this: 

The experiments should be conducted in such 
a manner that the vines or plants treated and 
those left untreated (to serve as control experi- 
ments) may be comparable; they ought to be of 
the same variety, cultivated at the same time 
and in all respects alike. The digging of the 
treated and untreated plants ought to be made 
simultaneously, for it has been proven that the 
tubers may be infected at the moment when 
they are taken from the ground, and that the 
chancus of infection are much greater in the 
early morning when the air and ground are 
damp than later in the day when there is less 

At the moment of digging, count the rotten 
tubers found in the soil and also those which 
are spotted only. The weights of the crops 
from the treated plants and from those not 
treated should be determined, and they should 
be preserved separately during the winter but 
under identical conditions, for the purpose of 
learning if there be any difiference between 
them in respect to infection. 

Much may be accomplished in the prevention 
of potato rot by renewal of seed, selection of 
varieties, and especially by planting only in 
light and well-drained soils; also, perhaps, by 
following certain systems of cultivation. Hut 
the evidences we have of the serious losses oc- 
casioned by this disease throughout the potato- 
growing regions of the United States render it 
imperative on the part of the Government to 
exercise all possible efforts for its prevention, 
and I respectfully recommend the immediate 
distribution of this circular, urging those who 
suffer directly from the ravages of the diseases 
named to experiment with the remedies and 
report to yon the results obtained. 


The Apricot in the Upper San Joaquin. 

Editors Tress :— Judge W. C. Blackwood, 
in his essay read before the State Horticultural 
Society at its last meeting, is very much in 
error in some of his statements in regard to the 
culture of the apricot in California. He thinks 
the soil and climate of the coast counties better 
adapted to its growth than are those of the in- 
terior. My experience by practical experi- 
ments and close observation in this State, reach- 
ing over a period of about 30 years, leads me 
to conclusions quite reverae. Having been en- 
gaged in horticulture most of this time, I have 
had ample opportunities for observing and ex- 
perimenting with the npricot, both in the north 
and south coast counties and in the counties of 
the interior of this Stite. I do not hesitate to 
say, without fear of succe!>8ful contradiction, 
that there is no part of this State where the ap- 
ricot grows to so large a size, attains so tinea 
flavor and is so good a producer as in the Upper 
San Joaquin. 

It is an indisputable fact that the damp sea- 
fogs of the coast counties during the ripening 
season materially injure the flavor of the fruit, 
particularly in Los Angeles county, where the 
fogs are often very heavy and continuous. The 
apricot requires a dry atmosphere and but little 
irrigation. Artificial irrigation, if properly 
conducted, does not develop the gum or any 
other disease, as Mr. Blackwood says it does. 
A single case of injury has never been known 
in the Lucern valley, or so far as I know in any 
other part of the Upper San Joaquin. 

The soil of the Lucern valley is of a peculiar 
porous character which permits of a perfect 
system of irrigation without flooding in a single 
instance. Ditches running water 200 yards 
apart will furnish an apricot orchard all the 
moisture it requires, 

I have never known a healthy apricot tree in 
the Lucern valley to become diseased and die 
from any cause; the scale-bug will attack any 
other kind of fruit tree there before it will an 

For the last four yearp three-fourths of the 
apricots handled in the Los Angeles city mar- 
kets are shipped from Visalia. To gain some 
idea of how my orchard was producing this 
year, I weighed the product from five trees 10 
years old and planted 2'2 feet apart. They 
yielded .'tTSO pounds with at least 700 pounds 
wasted in ^different ways, as from getting too 
ripe, etc. It is but fair to say that this is about 
an average yield. Two of the trees were Moor- 
park, two Peach, and one of the Royal va- 

In respect to varieties, Mr. Blackwood speaks 
favorably of the Rjyal and discouragtngly of 
the Peach. In this country the Peach apricot 
grows to twice the ai/.3 of the Royal, is of just 
as good a flavor, is just as good a producer, and 
it thins itself while the Royal does not. The 
Peach apricot is upon the whole the best variety 
cultivated in the State or in the interior; at 
least it does the best. 

It seems to me that our leading horticulturists 
of the Bay counties are not informed as they 
should be regarding the advantages of the Upper 
Sin Joaquin for fruit growing, and I would rec- 
ommend that they give us a call whf n convenient 
and see what we are doing. F. H. Jewett. 

Havford, Tulare Co. 

HIhe jJpiyvRY. 

Experiments with Bee Forage. 

One of the works of the apiarian connected 
with the U. S. Division of Entomology has been 
an investigation of the fitness of various plants 
for bee forage. Though it is not at all likely 
that all the plants found valuable by Kastern 
bee-keepers will succeed here, it will be inter- 
esting to our apiarists to know what their 
Eastern compeers are doing in the line of pro- 
viding pasturage for their bees. From the 
forthcoming report we therefore make the fol- 
lowing extracts : 

If excellence in the bee is the chief factor in 
successful honey-producing, next in logical or- 
der is abundant, persistent and cheap bee 
pasturage. Abundant pasturage is the amount 
necessary to satisfy the requirements of the 
number of colonies kept within a given area. 
Persistent pasturage is that which contemplates 
a variety of perennial honey-bearing flora of 
hardy constitution and rugged habits, whose 
terms of blooming follow each other in succes- 
sion continuously from early spring to late fall, 
thus lengthening out the season in which bees 
may gather surplus honey. Cheap bee pastur- 
age may be such as is furnished from natural 
sources produced in forests or by self-propagat- 
ing plants growing in waste places, or upon 
lands of little valne, and requiring little or no 
labor. Or, cheap bee pasturage may be se- 
cured by cultivating fruit and field crops, the 
blossoms of which are valuable for honey- 

As the forests of the country disappear, and 
the waste lands are being reclaimed, as the 
necessity for other honey-prodncing resources 
is felt, as the industry assumes more impor- 
tance, and as the influence of competition is 
more sharply felt, great interest is shown in 
the subject of bee pasturage. Enforced idleness 
and the consequent waateof time, stores and ener- 
gies sometimes result from a failure of the flow- 
ers to secrete nectar, even though the honey- 
bearing flowers are blooming in abundance; but 
usually the reason why the time is so short in 
which bees are able to store surplus honey is 
the lack of abundant pasturage. I have not 
had the time or the means to devote to bee for- 
age that the importance of the subject de- 
mands, but I have made a beginning in this de- 
partment of experimental work which I hope to 

Among all the trees and shrubs which are 
cultivated generally throughout the United 
States by fruit-growers, the raspberry is com- 
monly conceded to possess more value to bee- 
keepers than any other. A quarter of a mile 
from this station a market gardener has four 
acres of raspberries. These bushes continued 
to bloom for 10 days, and during that time, 
with the exception of two or three rainy days, 
a continuous procecsion of bees could be ob- 
served going and returning to and from the api- 
ary, and a tine showing of honey was made in 
the hives, and the honey was of superior 

On account of the superior quality of its nec- 
tar, the ease with which the plant is propa- 
gated, its adaptation to all kinds of soil, and 
its value as a forage plant for grazing, white 
clover has, until of late years, stood with- 
out a rival in tbe estimation of honey- 
producers. About 20 years ago, Alsike, or 
Swedish clover, was introduced into this coun- 
try, and since then has been thoroughly 
tested both as a honey plant and also for hay 
and pasture for all kinds of stock. 

Mr. J. M. Hicks of Indiana says: " Alsike 
clover has no superior as a honey-producing 
plant, yielding the beat and richest honey 
kuown, and as a hay crop it is not surpassed, 
often producing three tons of good hay per 
acre. The stems and stalks are much finer 
than those of common red clover, and cattle, 
horses and sheep feast on it, eating it clean 
without waste. As a pasture for all kinds of 
stock it has no equal. It will grow on all kinds 
of land, clay or sandy, and does not freest out 
as easily as red clover. It is quite similar to 
red clover in appearance. The first crop each 
season is the seed crop. The seed is about 
one-third the size of red clover, and four 
pounds is sntiicient to sow an acre. The bloom 
is a beautiful pale pink color. I have no hes- 
itancy in saying that Alsike clover will produce 
500 pounds of the richest and best honey per 
acre in a good season. I would recommend 
every bee keeper to sow at least a few acres of 
Alsike clover." 

Mr. W.Z. Hutchinson of Michigan says that it 
will pay to raise Alsike clover for honey alone 
upon land worth $50 per acre. 

Mr. C. M. Goodspeed says: " I have grown 
Alsike clover on my farm, and watched its 
habits closely. It is very hardy, of extra qual- 
ity of hay, and a heavy seeder, reaching in 
rare cases 10 bushels per acre. In this locality 
the second growth seldom yields much honey, 
but the first growth just 'swarms with bees' 
for about three weeks, or from the time the 
rich blossoms open until the seed is ripe. In 
my locality it begins to yield honey shortly 
after white clover, and continnes well into the 
basswood season. It yields twice a« mach 
honey as white or red clover." 

Mr. D. A. Jones of Canada says: "I think 
too much can scarcely be said of Alsike clover 
as a hay and honey crop, and m«ny of our 

Editors Pke-SS : — A plant that should have a 
trial in the agriculture of California is the quinoa 
(Chenopodium quinoa), a cereal indigenous 
in the higher districts of Peru, and extensively 
cultivated there before and since the Spanish 
conquest. The grain prepared for the table in 
various ways similar to the methods of cook- 
ing beans, is regarded by the Peruviana and by 
many travelers as a delicacy. It was tried in 
Germany on a small scale and was cultivated 
with success, but did not give satisfaction on 
the table. Tschudi. from whose book of trav- 
els in Peru I learn these facts, says: "It is 
to be hoped that the cultivation of the quinoa 
will become general in Europe, for the plant 
would be of great utility in districts where the 
potato rot prevails. We all know that pota- 
toes and tea when first introduced in Europe 
were found very offensive to the palate by many 
people who afterward accepted them gratefully. 
Like them, there is reason to believe that 
quinoa will become an article of food consumed 
by many civilized nations." 

To the potatoes and tea may be added the 
tomato and maize. Within my own recollec- 
tion, there was a strong prejudice among many 
people in Ohio against the tomato. It was 
avoided by them as poisonous, and when proved 
to be edible it was denounced as nauseous. 
Hominy, green maize and maize cakes are now 
considered in parts of Europe to be unfit to be 
eaten except in periods of famine. The Ger- 
man verdict against quinoa should not be ac- 
cepted as final. Let California give it a trial. 

Another Peruvian plant that deserves the 
consideration of enterprising farmers in a cli- 
mate which, like ours, is favorable to every 
vegetable of the temperate zone, is the coca 
(Erylhroxyton cora) which has recently be- 
come prominent in medicine, Tschudi says: 

"The Indians assert that coca is the best 
remedy for that ditliculty of breathing felt at 
great elevations; and my own experience agrees 
with their statement. While I was in the high 
mountains, 14,000 feet above the sea, when 
about starting out to hunt, I always drauk a 
strong infusion of coca leaves. Then I could 
climb all day after the game without more 
trouble of respiration than I would have had 
on the lowlands. Neither did I feel any such 
cerebral excitement as is common among Eu- 
ropeans who drink coca. Perhaps this was be- 
cause I drank it only in the cold Para, where 
the nerves are less susceptible than near the 
sea. But after taking the coca, I felt no dei-ire 
to eat at the ordinary mealtime; it seemed to 
postpone my hunger." 

Tschudi elsewhere says that coca is in the 
highest degree nutritious, and that numerous 
Indiana have reached great age, several more 
than KiO years, thongh using ccca regularly 
every day after the age of ten. He admits that 
its excessive use in mastication has an injurious 
effect on the human system; but he does not 
say anything of injurious effect upon the senses 
of smell and taste, which, according to a letter 
recently published in a New York journal, are 
entirely destroyed by the frpquent use of coca. 

John S. Hittkll. 

[The quinoa plant has been growing on the 
Experimental Grounds of the University for 
several years, and seed has been offered in the 
annual distributions of the University, Seed 
can be had this fall by all who would like to 
try the plant. At Berkeley the plant has been 
injured somewhat by the larva of a fly which 
mines between the upper and lower epidermis 
of the leaves. Perhaps in colder parts of the 
State this fly would not flourish. We should 
like to have fuller trial given to a plant which 
is as useful as Mr. Uittell shows in his letter. 
— Ed.s. Press.] 

The Elephant Potatoes. 

Editors Press : — I would like to know if you 
or your readers know anything of the Elephant 
potatoes. They were sent out a few years ago 
by the San Francisco Bulletin, and with us 
have proved to be the most delicious of their 
kind, bat land suitable for them we did not 
have, and the few we could raise were so very 
good most of them had to be eaten. This year's 
crop is now harvested, and consists of two and 
one half sacks. Most of them will be kept for 
seed, unless after inquiry others are found to 
have them in plenty. Inquiry among the po- 
tato sharps at some of the San Francisco com- 
mission houses failed to discover them. They 
seem to be an early kind, but are good keep- 
ers. The seed of this crop was kept from June 
to the following April with no trouble. A 
dodge that is new to the writer was accom- 
plished by taking the sprouts to plant. They 
yielded a good crop of small Elephants. 

St. Helena. R. E. W. 

Capital Punishment dt Electricity. — The 
Senate of Pennsylvania has passed a bill pro- 
viding for the infliction of capital punishment 
by electricity. There are several devices in 
existence designed for such work. 

Hon. N. J. Colman, Commissioner of Agri- 
culture, sends us the following .'copy of a cir- 
cular prepared by F. Lamson Scribner, Chief of 
the Section of Vegetable Pathology, concern- 
ing treatment for potatoes and tomatoes af- 
fected by blight and rot: 

In Circular No. .3 of this Section, addressed 
to the vineyardists of the country, it was sug- 
gested that some of the preparations therein 
described might be found useful in preventing 
potato "blight" and "rot," this suggestion 
being made upon the knowledge of the fact that 
the fungus which causes the mildew of the vine 
is very similar in character to that which pro- 
duces the diseases named above. The pub- 
lished evidence of experiments made in France 
in 1S8G, in tbe treatment of potatoes and to- 
matoes for "blight" and "rot" with the 
Bordeaux mixture, gives additional weight to 
this subject and renders it highly probable that 
by the application of preparations containing 
sulphate of copper we will be able to prevent, 
or at least to greatly diminish, the ravages of 
one of the worst enemies of the American 

Directions for the preparation and applica- 
tion of the remedies thought most likely to 
prove successful are here presented, and it is 
earnestly recommended that they be given a 
thorough trial in order to demonstraie their 
supposed value. 


(1.) Eau Cd'ste, blue water (the " Audoy- 
naud process " ) — Dissolve one pound of sul- 
phate of copper in 3 or 4 gallons of warm water. 
When completely dissolved and the water has 
cooled, add 1^ pints of commercial liquid am- 
monia, then dilute to 22 gallons. The con- 
centrated liquid should be kept in a keg or 
some wooden vessel and diluted when required 
for use. Apply in clear weather with a suit- 
able force pump having a fine spraying nozzle, 
which will sprav the plants thoroughly but not 
drench them. Make the first application when 
the plants are in bloom, the second a week or 
ten days later, and, if the weather be such as 
will favor the development of "rot," a third 
and perhaps a fourth application should follow 
within about the same intervals. 

(2. ) Copper Mixture of Oironde, Boi deaux 
Mixture — Dissolve 4 pounds of sulphate of 
copper in 16 gallons of water; in another vessel 
slake 4 pounds of lime in G gallons of water. 
When the latter mixture has cooled, it ia glowly 
poured into the copper solution, care being taken 
to mix the fluids thoroughly by constant stir- 
ring. It is well to have this compound pre- 
pared some days before it is required for use. 
( The sulphate of copper oufjht to be purchased 
in a powdered state, as it dissolves with diffi- 
culty in the ordinary crystalline form.) 

This licjuid, slightly thickened because of 
the lime, may be applied with small brooms or 
whisks made of slender twigs, which arc dipped 
into the compound and then switched over the 
plants so as to thoroughly spray the leaves. 
This method is wasteful and tedious, however, 
and where one has a considerable area to cover, 
it would be economy to procure a spraying 
pump. The essential features of a good ma- 
chine are ease and rapidity of application with 
economy of material. 

Follow the same general directions in mak- 
ing the applications as are given under No. 1. 


(3.) Sulphaline (the Eiteve process) — Mix 2 
pounds of anhydrous sulphate of copper with 
20 pounds of flowers of sulphur and 10 pounds 
of air-slaked lime. 

(4.) Blight Powder — Mix 3 pounds of an- 
hydrous sulphate of copper with 97 pounds of 
flowers of sulphur. This amount will be suffi- 
cient for one application to five acres of potato 

Powders possess the advantage over the 
liquid remedies of requiring less labor in trans- 
portation and of being more easy of application; 
consequently they will be preferred to the 
liquids should they prove equally elfidacious. 

For applying the powders, which ought to 
be done when there is no wind and when the 
leaves are wet with dew or rain, the primitive 
arrangement, made of tin and constructed like 
a large pepper-box, or rather like an inverted 
funnel with fine wire gauze fastened over the 
lower end, and which, when filled with the 
powder, is held over the plants and shaken, is 
efficient and at the same time simple and inex- 
pensive. Only enough of the powders, espe- 
cially of the sulphatine, should be applied to 
be simply visible upon the leaves, as heavy 
doses may burn them. 

Owing to the continual motion of the leaves 
of potato and tomato plants, by which both 
surfaces are liable to receive the spores of the 
fungus, the applications onght to cover both 
sides. This can best be accomplished by the 
use of a bellows with an extension nozzle, en- 
abling the operator to direct the blast. 

The degree of success attending the use of 
these compounds will depend, more or less, (1) 
upon their careful preparation, (2) the time of 
application, (3) the more or less intelligent 
manner in which they are applied, (4) the at- 
mospheric condition existing at the time or 
which may follow tbe applications, (5) tbe 

July 23, 1887] 

f AciFie f^uraid press. 


farmers are waking up to the fact that it is to 
their interest to cultivate it largely in prefer- 
ence to almost any other crop. Red clover will 
Boon be a thing of the past, as Alsike clover- 
seed is now in great demand, not only for seed- 
ing purposes, but also for use in dyeing. I am 
informed that large quantities are being shipped 
to Europe for that usp." 

Mr. A. I. Root of Ohio, and Mr. L. C. Root 
of New York, both speak of Alsike clover as 
the most valuable variety of clover for hay and 
pasturage, and recommend its cultivation as 
being of the first importance to bee-keepers. 
Statements testifying to the unequaled value of 
Alsike clover, both for hay and grazing pur- 
poses, and as a most valuable honey plant, 
might be indefinitely multiplied. I cannot too 
strongly urge the bee-keepers of the United 
States to provide abundance of this forage for 
their bees, both by sowing the seed on their 
own premises and also by inducing their neigh- 
bors to cultivate this variety of clover as the 
best for all purposes. 

Sweet clover {Melilotus alba) abounds in this 
locality. This is a hardy plant of wondrous 
persistence, continuing in bloom from about 
July 1st until killed by frost. It is adapted to 
almost any kind of soil. In this part of Illinois 
it grows in rich soil by the wayside or in de- 
serted stone quarries with equal luxuriance. 
As the plant will grow without any cultivation 
in byways and waste places, wherever the seed 
can obtain a foothold, and is a perennial, it is 
rightly reckoned among the number of excel- 
lent and cheap bee- forage plants. 

Sweet clover will endure drouth well. Dur- 
ing the long drouth of last season, bees in this 
neighborhood would have been entirely without 
resources for many weeks together had it not 
been for sweet clover The quality of the 
honey is excellent, and under ordinary condi- 
tions the yield is altogetlier satisfactory . Much 
apprehension has been felt among farmers lest 
it become a noxious weed. Observing how 
readily the seed is carried in the mud on wagon- 
wheels and horses' feet in the spring, when the 
roads are bad, and the entire space in the high- 
ways is used for travel, belief has ob*ained 
that the fields will soon be invaded. Careful 
and continuous observation of the facts for five 
years past has convinced me that fears of 
trouble from this source are groundless. In 
but one instance have I seen sweet clover in- 
vade a plowed field, and that was for a distance 
of three rods on both sides of an old road lead- 
ing into the field, and the seed had been carried 
in on wagon-wheels. This plant, being a bi- 
ennial, is easily exterminated when desirable. 
I would recommend bee-keepers to provide an 
abundance of this forage by scattering the seed 
in waste places and by the roadside. Sweet 
clover is much more sightly and useful, and less 
objectionable in every way, than the weeds 
which ordinarily cover the roadsides. 

Pleurisy-root (Asclepias tuherona) is a honey- 
bearing plant indigenous to nearly all parts of 
the United States, but its growth has not been 
encouraged for the reason that its value to the 
honey-producer has not been generally known. 
The plant is a perennial; the top dies and rots, 
a new growth springing up each year. It is 
commonly regarded as a harmless prairie-weed. 
The deep, red blossoms hang in clusters. The 
plant is very hardy, and of a rugged growth, 
growing luxuriantly in all kinds ol soil. The 
honey is of the finpst quality both as to color 
and flavor. Mr. James Heddon of Michigan, 
speaking of pleurisy-root, saj^s: 

"If there is any plant to the growing of 
which good land may be exclusively developed 
for the sole purpose of honey production, I 
think it is this; I M'ould rather have one acre of 
it than three of sweet clover. It blooms through 
July and the first half of August, and bees never 
desert pleurisy for basswood or anything else. 
The blossoms always look bright and fresh, and 
yield honey continuously in wet and dry 
weather. Bees work on it in the rain, and dur- 
ing the excessive drouth of the past season it 
did not cease to secrete nectar in abundance." 
I have had some observation and experience 
with the plant, and, having secured seed, I ex- 
pect to test it in different kinds of soil next 

For two years past I have cultivated a plot 
of motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) and I prize 
it highly as a honey plant. Bees work on it 
continually all day, and every day, unless it is 
raining quite hard. The summer of 1885 it 
continued in bloom six weeks. Last sum- 
mer it bloomed, but was soon ruined by 

At the annual meeting of the North American 
Bee Keepers' Society, held at Detroit in Decem- 
ber, 1885, a committee, of which I was a mem- 
ber, was appointed by the association to inves 
tigate the merits of a new plant being cultivated 
by Mr. Chapman of New York, who was pres- 
ent and represented that the plant was of un- 
usual value to honey-producers. Being in- 
structed by you so to do, I met with other 
members of that committee on July 28th, and 
our report was published. 

Bee-Farming in Soutli Africa. 

The Cape Times of May 20th has the follow- 
ing interesting paragraph : The success which 
attends bee-farming in South Africa is affirmed 
by Mr. H. Liwience, one of the largest bee- 
farmers in Natal, who is now on a visit to Cape 
Town for the sake of his health. In Natal this 
industry is being carried Oii on a somewhat 
large scale, and that, too, Mr. Lawrence assures 
us, with very remunerative results. This gen- 

tleman has had very large experience in bee- 
farming in California, Australia and Na- 
tal, and upon that experience he states distinct- 
ly that no better climate than that of South 
Africa could be desired for the successful prose- 
cution of this industry. Owning over 2C0 hives 
of bees in Natal, Mr. Lawrence states that all 
the year through the yield of honey per swarm 
is eight bottles per mouth. This yield he con- 
siders would be maintained in the Cape Colony 
during the summer months, but that in the 
winter it would be about half that amount. All 
the honey produced by him is sold to a Natal 
firm at the rate of 9d. per bottle, and it is then 
shipped to Europe, where it is resold at the 
rate of some two shillings. The industry can 
be instituted at a very trifling cost, and can be 
kept up without much expense, for, as Mr. 
Lawrence points out, there is in this climate no 
expenditure required for the feeding of the 
bees. The hives used by him are the American 
patent reversible, and the honey is subsequent- 
ly extracted by a process which leaves the 
comb intact, and thus admits of its being re- 
placed in the hives for repletion of the cells. 
Mr. Lawrence expresses his surprise that, with 
conditions so favorable, this industry has not 
been undertaken on a large scale in the Cape 
Colony, where he is assured that it could be 
carried on at a considerable remuneration. He 
is quite prepared to afford gratuitously any in- 
formation and advice in his power to those who 
might desire to give the matter a trial, and to 
explain everything requisite for Btarting a bee- 
farm. What Mr. Lawrence states he would 
like to see ultimately brought to pass would be 
a very general extension of the bee culture 
throughout South Africa, so that finally the 
producers might effect a combination in order to 
export their honey direct, and thus reap the 
full benefits derivable from this industry. 

How Good Butter is Spoiled. 

The Dairy and Food Commissioners of Ohio 
in a recently issued circular say: " Our Com- 
mission firmly believe that a large majority of 
the butter made by farmers is good butter, but 
is ruined when transferred to the dealers' hands 
and is done in this manner: It is received 
mostly in country stores and placed in filthy, 
frowy, rancid boxes or places and stored in 
cellars thoroughly impregnated with vicious 
odors of rotten potatoes, coal oil, fish brine, 
pork brine, and every other foul odor that 
comes from decayed vegetables kept for sale at 
such stores. Genuine butter will lose all its 
good flavor in a very few hours if put in any 
such place. 

"But the next fatal step of the dealer is to 
take all varieties of colored butter and rework 
them together, mixing and crushing until he 
secures an even color. 

" He then packs his miss of salve into tubs 
or firkins. It is no longer butter, the granula- 
tion of butter being all spoiled by this second 
and unnecessary working, which leaves simply 
grease as the result. In this ruintd condition 
it reaches the consumer through the city com- 
mission-houses, and, of course, is pronounced 
unfit for table use, and possibly for cooking pur- 
poses. How can this be remedied ? In two 
ways. The consumer must purchase direct 
from the farmer in suitable sized packages, so 
that no second working need be made, or the 
dealer musl reform. No dealer should buy 
butter of the farmer unless it is put in convenient 
sized shipping packages when made, and in 
amounts of 10 to 50 pounds each, according to 
size of dairy, and unless it is at all times good, 
fresh, sweet butter; and no more roll butter 
should be received than the retail market de- 
mands. This is practical, and the entire make 
of butter can be brought to these terms. 

"Next, no dealer should handle a pound of 
butter until he first secures a room to keep it 
separate from all other goods having any un- 
pleasant odor. A cheap up-grouud, artificial 
cellar is best, where the air is pure and well 
ventilated but can be kept cool. 

"Roll butter should be kept on earthen 
plates, and these should be scalded and kept 
sweet and clean all the time. Any merchant 
who will handle butter in this manner need 
never lose one cent, nor will any consignment 
sent to reliable city dealers as packed by the 
farmers, fail to bring the full fair market price. 
Nor will consumers ever complain. The shade 
or color is not so material as to have good, fresh, 
sweet butter." 

Clothilde Since Her Victory, 

Editors Press : — Your readers will doubt- 
less be interested to know how the Holstein- 
Friesian cow Clothilde has deported herself 
since she won the sweepstakes butter prize at 
the New York Cattle and Dairy Show. 

On May 6th, eight days after calving, she 
was shipped to the show and was on the cars 
two days and nights. After being in the show- 
ring on Tuesday, her butter test was com- 
menced the same evening, May lOth. H<!r 
milk record for the 24 hours was 63 pounds IJ 
ounces, and her butter record 2 pounds 7i 
ounces, thus giving her the prize. 

Returning home, we shipped our cattle at 
New York on May 16th, and in 24 hours on 
cars she gave 82 pounds 4 ounces of milk. Eer 

yield continued increasing until May Slst, 
wh^n she gave in one day in three milkings 
101 pounds 2 ounces. Since then she has 
given in one day 100 pounds 6 ounces. 
Two days ago she completed a week's test for 
butter. During the seven days of the test she 
gave 665 pounds 14 ounces of milk, or an average 
of 95 pounds 2 ounces per day. From this 
milk was churned 28 pounds 2.1 ounces of but- 
ter, 2.3.66 pounds of milk making a pound of 
butter. During the week she was in heat and 
was bred to Netherland Prince. She ate about 
12 pounds of grain per day, consisting of two 
parts of cornmeal, two parts wheat-bran, one 
part ground oats, with a little oilmeal. She 
had good pasture, a little green rye when she 
would eat it, and plenty of pure water — noth- 
ing more. Smiths, Powell & Lamu. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

Apples for Dairy Stock. 

We have a good many poor apples in this 
State at present, owing to the inroads of the 
codlin moth, and possibly some of our readers 
may be thinking of their food value for farm 
stock. The Boston Ploughman recently gave a 
review of the subject, from which we take the 
following: The feeding value of apples is not 
large, in Prof. Arnold's opinion. He classes 
them with mangels, turnips, cabbage, and the 
like. Their food properties are mostly carbhy- 
drates, or heat producing, their protein being 
only about one-half of one per cent, and their 
nutritive ratio about 1 to .30; and hence they 
are most effective when fed wiih more nitro- 
genous food, like clover, though they may be 
fed sparingly with grass. They have a higher 
value than is indicated by the weight of their 
food constituents, on account of condimental 
qualities and from having a large per cent of 
those constituents in a condition to be at once 
absorbed and appropriated without waiting for 
any special action of the stomach. 

If hay be used as the unit of measure, apples 
compare with it and other common feeding 
stuffs as follows, per hundred pounds of each; 
Hay, 50 centi;; cornmeal, fl.l2; oatmeal, bran, 
and middlings, $1; potatoes, 29 cents; sugar- 
beets, 19 cpnts; parsnips and carrots, 18 cents; 
cabbage, 17 cents; apples, ripe, 16 cents; tur- 
nips, 16 cents; rutabagas, 15 cents; mangels, 
14 cents; pears, 13 cents. Prof. Arnold's esti- 
mate is that good ripe apples have a feeding 
value of no'u less than eight cents per bushel of 
50 pounds, and are as good for other stock as 
for milch cows. He thinks it is as much of a 
loss for any one who has stock to consume them 
to waste good apples as to waste good roots. 
When fed with reason and appropriate food, 
they are health-inspiring as well as nutritious, 
and are only injurious when fed immoderately. 

He states that an experiment in feeding three 
cows with moderately sour apples, ripe and mel- 
low, for several weeks, at the rate of 12 to 20 
pounds to each cow daily, gave him a finer 
flavored butter than he ever saw from 
grain or grass. He says he has known 
others to feed them in larger quantity and for 
a longer time with satisfactory result, and their 
butter to be not only fine flavored, but to possess 
remarkable keeping quality, and the stock to 
remain perfectly healthy. He has likewise 
proved them to make excellent milk for cheese. 
The managers of cheese factories have noticed 
an improvement and increase of milk when 
their patrons' cows have been fed moderately 
with -apples. This testimony in regard to the 
feeding of this fruit to stock is timely and val- 
uable, and merits careful consideration from 
farmers everywhere. 

Batter on tlie Farm. 

There are many ways, says an Eastern ex- 
change, by which the butter produced on the farm 
might be improved in quality and quantity, and 
the proceeds increased from 20 to 50 per cent. 
Thus a farmer who takes to town only $5 worth 
of butter a week gets .$260 a year; if he can add 
25 per cent to that he gets $.325, and witka 
gain of 50 per cent he gets $390, and the extra 
$130 would buy a good many things wanted in 
the household and on the farm; and yet by a 
little further effort he can make the amount 
fully double the original $200 and have $520 
without additional cost of money or labor. 

A part of what would conduce to this end is 
stated by a correspondent to another paper 

" Since 1870 I have weighed all my milk 
night and morning. My best cow gives 8000 
to 9000 lbs. of milk per year. I have three or 
four that do that. I have 10 that give 7000 
lbs. Cows that give less than 5000 lbs. I sell. 
A cow yielding 5000 Ids. of milk a year will, at 

221 Ibi. of milk to one pound of butter, yield 

222 2 9 lb?, of butter; but at 16 tt)9. milk to a 
pound of butter it will be 312^ lbs. butter, a 
difference of about 90i Itii. of butter in favor of 
proper feeding, which OOJ Ibj. multiplied by 
the price per pound the farmer receives, say 
30 cents, equals $27.10, which the farmer loses 
each year. Farmers lose by low feeding. High 
feeding gives greater results." 

This weighing of the milk, testing the cows, 
and knowing to a dollar what one is doing is a 
great help to the dairy farmer, and for that 
matter to every farmer. It enables him to get 
rid of the poor milkers and t^o replace them with 
good ones; and the latter cost no more to keep 
or to handle than the former. Then he can 

improve his produce by breeding to a bull of 
a good milking strain, and thus add additional 
quarts to each head daily. Again, he can study 
what feed is best calculated to increase the 
flow of milk. He can save ice, and thus keep 
his butter in better condition and take it to the 
ice itself. 

He can get with this extra gain the best im- 
plements instead of using the poorest and mean- 
est; and with improved pans, churn, creamer 
and worker, make his butter worth 10 to 15 
cents a pound more, and the people to run after 
him for it. 

It is no mean thing for the people to say, 
" Such a farmer makes the best butter brought 
to this town, and we indeed cannot get all we 
want, for everybody wants it." Such a man takes 
a pride In having the best cows, breeding to the 
best bull, making the most butter, having the 
name for the very best, and getting the highest 
price. But how many neglect all of these points 
and make the poorest and meanest stuff that 
goes to a market 1 


A Curious Tree. 

In the Elk River valley, a few miles out of 
Eureka, there is a natural curiosity, which the 
Standard describes as follows: It is a fir tree 
whose roots straddle a prostrate redwood 100 
feet from its upturned roots, at which point the 
body of the redwood measures 6 feet in diame- 
ter. The redwood was evidently blown down 
bj- the wind. The roots of the fir tree come 
from the ground on both sides of the redwood 
— two main roots on either side — and the four 
coming together on top of the tree as it lay on 
the ground, form the body of the fir tree, the 
trunk of which is 4J feet in diameter 4 feet 
from the top of the log, upon which it is secure- 
ly held by lateral roots running into the 
ground. This redwood tree, when standing, 
could not have been less than 350 feet high, 
judging by the proportions of the part now re- 
maining, which by actual measurement is 150 
feet, the end of the redwood trunk extending 
50 feet beyond where the roots of the fir strad* 
die it. 

We took pains to measure the main roots of 
the fir where they come up and form the body 
of the tree, and found them to be from 16 to 
20 inches across the top and over 2 feet through. 

In building a logging road some 12 years since, 
a section of the redwood was cut out to allow 
the passage of teams, and the wood was found 
to be in a perfect state of preservation, and it 
remains solid and sound to this date. Can 
some student of natural history tell us how 
many years it took for the fir tree to acquire 
the size of 4^ feet in diameter 4 feet above the 
roots, and then let us know how long this giant 
redwood has been lying on the ground ? 

Wants Arborous Hedoes. — The view of the 
surrounding country from the highlands around 
Reno is grand. Beautiful green fields and 
pleasant looking homes dot the valley and form 
a natural panorama pleasing to the sight of any 
one who can see beauty in the unfoldings of 
Dame Nature. But one thing is lacking to em- 
bellish the otherwise fascinating picture, and 
that is the notable scarcity of trees. • * • 
The farmers in this locality will find it ma- 
terially to their advantage to inclose their 
fields, and in fact their entire farms, by a sys- 
tematic hedge of trees. These trees could be 
set such a distance apart as to answer the pur- 
pose of fence-posts, to which wire fencing could 
be attached, thereby insuring an inclosure per- 
manent in its character, and to which no ex- 
pense, in the shape of resetting posts, would 
henceforth be incurred. Hardy trees, such as 
the locust or cork elm, would be admirably 
adapted for such work and would combine the 
ornamental with the useful. If this plan was 
adopted, in a few years' time this valley would 
not only be beautiful, but would be perma- 
nently inclosed. A few trees set out every 
spring by each farmer will soon do the work. 
Such a move would also bo profitable, inasmuch 
as the trimmings from the trees when they be- 
come large would furnish an abundance of the 
finest kind of firewood. iThis is a suggestion that 
our farmers will do well to consider. — Jieno 

Forest-Plantino for Arizona. — The Phoe- 
nix Herald thus pleads for arboriculture: The 
cultivation of forest trees scarcely occupies 
enough attention among land-owners in our val- 
ley. There should be at least 20 acres of forest 
set out on every quarter section, and the result 
would be both beneficial to our climate and 
provide for an emergency that will be upon 
us before we are prepared for it, viz.: the ex- 
haustion of the natural growth of firewood. 
It will be but a short four or five years more 
till mesquit firewood, about this valley, will be 
a thing that has passed into the original ele- 
ments, and the necessity for something to take 
its place will be pressing and firewood will soon 
double or triple in price. The present supply 
of Cottonwood is limited, and moreover it will 
require two or three cords of cottonwood to go 
as far as a single cord of hardwood. There is 
no time to be spared in this matter. The 
sooner we begin the raising of timber the 
sooner will we be able to protect ourselves 
against an inevitable scarcity of wood. 




Correspondence on Oranee principles aud work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Qranf^s are respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 

Next state Grange Meeting. 

Many farmers and their wives, sons and 
daughters are looking forward with glad 
anticipations to Tuesday, October 4th, when 
the State Grange opens at Santa Rosa. There 
are hundreds more who ought to be in the ranks 
of the P. of H. looking happily forward to that 

Sorely there is much more to attract Patrons 
to these meetings than to ordinary gatherings 
of classes or clans. Plans are to be discussed 
not only for the material advancement of mem- 
bers but for the richer benefits that elevate the 
mind and sonl, and help the world along. No 
body of men and women is knowu to meet who 
greet each other with more kindly feelings and 
heartfelt good will. 

The social exercises are also very attractive 
and seem to be enjoyed more and more every 
year by those privileged to attend. 

The literary program is almost invariably in- 
structive and entertaining, and increases in im- 
portance from year to year. 

It is already time that brothers and sisters 
all over the State should be preparing to do 
their best to make the coming meeting a success 
beyond all that have gone before it. 
Let those who have business to pre- 
sent for consideration have it carefully pre- 
pared in such a way that it cm be considered 
intelligently and fully in as brief a space as 
possible. Those who will speak and occupy 
the valuable time of the session should enrich 
their minds by due study and reflection on the 
themes must likely to be discussed. 

Proper thought and research should be had be- 
forehand to bring forward for candid and thor- 
ough consideration such questions as will tend 
to advance the special needs of farmers and 
Grangers and to prepare them the better to act 
unitedly, and in conKdence to guard their 
rights against the aggressions of the individ- 
uals and corporations who unjustly op- 
press them in their industrial pursuits. 

Many spirited and valuable essays, as well 
as highly entertaining original and selected con- 
tribntions, have been presented through the 
literary committee of the past few sessions, and 
there seems to be no reason why members 
of the State Grange of 1 887 should not expect 
as rare, if not a better, treat than ever before 
from its mao^ talented and dutiful writers. 

Let all do their best, even at considerable 
sacrifice, to make the coming session in this 
and all respects a gratifying success. Those 
who cannot come can, with loyal and gener- 
ous effort, send at least some thoughts and 
kindly expressions to benefit and encourage not 
only those who do go, but the thousands who 
will read the inspiring sentiments contributed 
in the widespread reports of the occasion. 

The Committee on Literary Exercises for 
1SS6 individually requested to be excused. But 
no new committee was appointed at the last 
session, and recently, upon being reminded of 
the fact. Worthy Master Johnston reappointed 
the old committee, adding Sister M tria B. Lan- 
der, with the strongly-expressed wish that all 
shall serve, at least for the present term. We 
hope his wishes will be unreservedly complied 
with and their united efforts rewarded with 
excellent success, to the gratification of all. 

Literary contributions and suggestions for 
aiding the literary entertainment can be ad- 
dressed for the committee to any of the follow- 
ing members, or to the care of Secretary J. 
Chester: A. T. Dawpy, S. F.; J. I) Huffman, 
Lodi; A. P. or E. Z. Roache, Watsonville; 
Mrs. James Marsh, Stockton; Maria B. Lander, 

Titles and Taxes. 

[Written for the Rural Press by J. W. M.] 

It's hardly in a body's power 
To keep at times frae being sour, 

To see how things are shared; 
How best o' chiels are whyles in want 
While cuifs on countless thousands rant, 

And ken na how to wairt. — Burns. 

There have appeared occasionally in the 
RcKAL Prkss articles written in opposition to 
the theories of Uenry George, socialism and 
anarchy so called, and, as far as I can recollect, 
there has not appeared one defensive or apolo- 

It cannot be that among the numerous read- 
"ers of the Press there is not one who shares 
Henry George's views on land titles and taxes, 
and is able also to give a reason therefor. It 
cannot be that the Pkkks will accord space to 
one side only, or that its readers care only for 
one side. We are told that the Czar of all the 
Russias has a paper printed for his own perusal, 
in which nothing of fact appears which would 
be displeasing to his Imperial Highness, or sug- 
gestive of anything but universal contentment 
in his dominions, despite his ever present body- 
guard and the staring letters " Siberia " on the 
map of Russi^i. We expect this from a Russian 
autocrat, but from the sovereigns of America 
we expect better things, and if I offer my ideas 
on these vexed questions, though varying from 
generally received opinions, I hope to find a 
place and a patient hearing, and that not even 

one timid soul will mail those terrible words, 
" stop my paper," in consequence — like a" true 
autocrat of America. 

Against the oft-repeated statement that land 
is the only real and secure property, we have 
now the slogan of a new political party. Man 
has no property in land. So used have we been 
to the idea of land as property, that when we 
hear it first controverted we treat the attempt 
as idiotic, hardly believing it possible for a sane 
mind to seriously entertain the idea. 

Yet the most serious, deepest and ablest 
thinkers of the age had thought earnestly on 
the subject, and arrived at the same conclu- 
sion as Henry George, almost before he was 

In 1841 we have Ralph Waldo Emerson plac- 
ing the following language in the mouth of a 
radical: "I find this vast network which you 
call property, extended over the whole planet. 
I cannot occupy the bleakest crag of the White 
hills or the Alleghany range but some man or 
corporation steps up to me to show me that it 
is his. Now, thougli I am very peaceable, and 
on my private account could well enough die, 
since it appears there was some mistake in my 
creation, and that I have been mi^sent to this 
earth where all the seats were already taken, 
yet I feel called npon in behalf of rational 
nature, which I represent, to declare to you 
my opinion, that if the earth is yours, so, also, 
is it mine. All your aggregate existences are 
less to me a fact than is my own. As I am 
born to the earth, so the earth is given to me, 
what I want of it, to till and to plant, nor 
could I without pusillanimity omit to claim so 
much. • • « Besides, I know your ways, 
I know the symptoms of your disease. To the 
end of your power you will serve this lie which 
cheats you. Your want is a gulf which the 
possession of the broad earth would not fill. 
Yonder sun in heaven, you would pluck down 
from shining on the universe, and make him a 
property and a privacy if you could, and the 
moon and the North Star you would quickly 
have occasion for in your closet and bed- 

In like manner we can call on Herbert Spen- 
cer, who in his Social Statics, published in 1850, 
but actually written in 1 842, says: "Equity, 
therefore, does not permit property in land. 
For if one. portion of the earth's surface may 
justly become the possession of an individual, 
and may be held by him for his sole use and 
benefit, as a thing to which he has exclusive 
right, then oHier portions of the earth's surface 
may be so held, and our planet may thus lapse 
altogether into private hands. Observe now 
the dilemma to which this leads. Supposing 
the entire inhabitable globe to be so inclosed, 
it follows that if the land owners have a valid 
right to its snrface, all who are not land-owners 
have no right at all to its surface. Hence such 
exist on earth by sufferance only. They are 
trespassers. Save by the permission of the 
lords of the soil they can have no room for the 
soles of their feet. Nay, should the others 
think fit to deny them a resting-place, these 
landless men might equitably be expelled from 
the earth altogether. If then the assumption 
that land can be held as property involves that 
the whole globe may become the private domain 
of a part of its inhabitants; and if, by conse- 
quence, the rest of its inhabitants can then 
exercise their faculties — can then exist, even — 
only by consent of land-owners; it is manifest 
that an exclusive possession of the soil necessi 
tates an infringement of the law of equal free- 
dom. For, men who cannot ' live, move, and 
have their being ' without the leave of others, 
cannot be equally free with others." And 
much more to the same import. 

From John Stuart Mill I will add a 
few short extracts : " When the ' sacredness 
of property ' is talked of, it should always be 
remembered that any such sacredness does not 
belong in the same degree to landed property. 
No man made the land. It is the original in- 
heritance of the whole species. Its appropria- 
tion is wholly a question of general expediency. 
When private property in land is not expedi- 
ent, it is unjust. • • * Xhe claim of the 
land-owners to the land is altogether subordi- 
nate to the general policy of the State. The 
principle of property gives them no right to the 
land, but only a right to compensation for 
whatever portion of their interest in the land it 
may be the policy of the State to - deprive 
them of." 

These quotations are made to show that the 
notion that land is not property is not simply a 
whim of Henry George nor the idle vaporings 
of scheming demagogues, but an idea which has 
engaged the attention of the best and wisest. 
But a sound argument is in itself as good from 
the pen of Henry George or the humblest 
scribbler as it is from John Stuart Mill or any 
other writer of repute, and the only reason for 
quoting their language is to get a respectful 

I maintain with these writers and with Henry 
George that no man possesses a valid, 'exclu- 
sive claim to one foot of land anywhere. What- 
ever improvements may be made on land, they 
are made on the people's land, the people's 
property, and not on individual property, and 
for the holding and using of such improvements 
the holder must contract with the people; for 
if I use that which belongs to others, I must 
make terms with those parties if I wish to be 
honorable and just. The land is the entailed 
inheritance of every one bom on the earth, and 
this birthright can neither be sold, bartered, 
taken nor given away. 

I have already occupied space enough, and if 
this much is granted me I will ask for more in 

which to show the consequences of this princi- 
ple when it shall obtain among the people as a 
basis of action and law, that instead of anarchy 
and ruin it will be productive of universal 
justice, prosperity and peace. 
Tulare, July 4, 1SS7. 

Grange Work and Progress. 

(Prepared Weekly by M. WiurBBSAD, National Lecturer.) 

Since the publication of the census report of 
1880, we have heard much said about the won- 
derful increase of wealth in our favored land, 
and at no period in our history as a nation has 
this wealth been piled up so rapidly. By far 
the greatest proportion of this wealth is grown 
out of the ground. We might almost say it is 
created by the labor of our farmers, but it does 
not stay with us. Who gets it ? Those who 
for years past have been controlling legislation 
and by unjust laws and unequal taxes are tak- 
ing from us what of right is ours. Here are a 
few figures to study and to think about, while 
gathering our harvests for this year. 

By the census of 1850, the estimated valne 
of farms in the United States was !53,271 ,575,- 
000. In 1860 they were valued at §f),535,000,- 
000, showing an increase of more than 100 per 
cent. In 1870 the value of the farms was esti- 
mated at §!l,262, 000,000. showing an increase 
during the decade of 82,627,000,000, or less 
than 40 per cent. In 1880 the value of the 
farms was estimated at $10,197,000,000, being 
an increase during the decade of S!J.'55,000,000, 
or only a fraction over nine per cent. When 
it is remembered how many millions of acres of 
new land were taken up and developed into 
farms in these later periods, the natnaX decrease 
in value can be plainly appreciated. In the 
one State of Pennsylvania the census of 1880 
shows that the farms of the State lo»t, in the 
ten years between 1870 and 1880, over tixly 
three millionB of dollars of their value. 

Of many more figures that might be given in 
this same direction, let us look at those of our 
live-stock. The valne of the live-stock in the 
United States in 1850 was estimated at $544,- 
000,000, and in 1S60 at §1,089,000,000, being 
an increase during the decade of $.545,000,000, 
or mure than 100 per cent. In 1870 it was es- 
timated at $1,525,000,000, being an increase 
during the decade of $435,000,000, or less than 
40 per cent. In 1880 it was estimated at 81,- 
500,000,000, being a ducretise during the decade 
of $25,000,000. Truly, thoughts for thinkers ! 
How else can we stop this steady baekwaid 
tending of agriculture, except by a thorough 
organization and education of farmers every- 
where, such as the Grange offers? 

The growth and prosperity of the Grange at th'.- 
present lime is in no way the result of excitement or 
of any wave of popular feeling which is passing over 
the country It is the legitimate result of calm, de- 
liberate thought among intelligent farmers who have 
looked the -situation over, examined the Grange 
platform, and decided that they will not only assist 
m the work which the Grange is doing, but that 
ihcy will become recipients of the educational, social 
and material advantai^es which are enjoyed by the 
members of the Order. — A'urai yfrmonter. 

Progress. — Three more new Granges; one each 
in Ala., Cal. and N. Y. 

Gov. RoBiE, as Mister of the Maine State 
Gringe, has printeil a brief history of the Order in 
Maine. The number of Granges, and their aggre- 
gate membership, since the State Grange was formed 
in 1874, have been as follows: 1874. 70 Granges, 
2000 members; 1875, 136 Granges, 5000 members; 
1876, 225 Granges, 12,000 members; 1878, 140 
tirange'i, 8215 members; 1880. 119 Grangi-s, 7039 
member*; 1881, 8549 members; 1886, 199 Granges, 
14,531 members. 

The first co-operative store in Texas was estab- 
lished by the Grange m Hell county in 1875. There 
are now in the Stale 150 retail sto'es in successful 
operation, besides a large wholesale house in Gil- 
veston. Every one of tin se co-operative stores that 
has started on a cash basis and stuck to it has suc- 
ceeded; while in nearly every instance where thev 
have attempted to do a credit business, they have 
been failures. 

Disking the past six months the Order has been 
steadily increasing in Vermont, and is growing in 
popularity day by day. The printed discu^^sions of 
educational, economic and other questions are draw- 
ing the attention of not only thinking farmers, but 
of progressive men of other classes, to the Grange. 
It has a wider scope and a deeper meaning than a 
superficial glance at the Order would show. — A. M., 

GiLEAD Grange, Mich., has received 32 new 
members since May ist, and expects to reach 200 
before the year closes. 

Oak Hill Gra.nge, Maine, has received 60 new 
members since March ist. 

I^t every heart and hand unite 

In the benignant plan, 
The noble purpose, just and right. 

To aid our fellow-man. 

Eden Grange. 

At a meeting of Eden Grange on the 9th inst. , 
" Committee " writes the Hay wards Journal, 
the question of receiving Grange reports upon 
the condition of the crops and the prospects of 
harvest was brought up. In the earlier times 
of the Grange these reports were a prominent 
feature; and afterward they afforded a more di- 
rect information of the localities of the State. 
They were more instructive to the members than 
the general reports of the country. The ag- 
gregate of the reports was then sought for by 
the Department of Agriculture in preference to 
all others, and that department, through the 
present Commissioner of Agriculture, now 
Master of a subordinate Grange at Wash- 

[July 23, 1887 

ington, D. C., is now soliciting the renewal of 
these reports. 

It was suggested that a committee be ap- 
pointed to prepare such reports at each meet- 
ing, each member of the Grange being required 
to obtain data in his or her locality to be given 
the committee. This is intended to compre- 
hend individual facts as to area planted, kind 
of crop, yield per acre, market value on the 
ground and the comparison of these with former 
years. Under this system, as formerly con- 
ducted, each member obt<>ined a better and 
more thorough acquaintance with his or her 
neighborhood, so educating themselves in af- 
fairs that more immediately concerned them. 

Comments were made upon the present con- 
dition of crops in Alameda county. The con- 
dition was generally favorable compared with 
other localities, yet much short of the usual 
abundance. One member stated that recently, 
looking from his farm, he counted ](>0 stacks of 
hay, but that morning there were but 10, show- 
ing the comparative shortness of the crop and 
the extraordinary demand. 

It was agreed by the fruit-growing members 
that the auction system of selling frnit gave 
promisn of a better market in the future. The 
acting Overseer expressed the belief that if the 
farmers of Alameda county appreciated the 
worth of Eden Grange to its membership they 
would certainly apply for admission. 

The Worthy Master Away From Home. 

[.NUMBER 2.1 

[Written fur the Rukal Press by Mrs. \Vm. Jounston.] 

The plank was lowered and we were per- 
mitted to step ashore. Carriages had been pro- 
vided, and we were soon driving through the 
streets of Honolulu to the Royal Hawaiian hotel, 
where comfortable rooms were assigned us. 
Soon our trunks were delivered in good shape 
and a nice luncheon served, to which most, if 
not all of us, were ready to do justice. 

After a good bath and change of clothing most 
of the party took a stroll through the hotel 
grounds, which cover a block. The building 
itself is large, including, with the cottages at- 
tached, about 100 rooms. It is three stories 
high. The first floor contains sleeping apart- 
ments. The second is reached by two broad 
flights of stairs on the outside, meeting in the 
middle of building and joining the balcony — the 
rear corresponding with the front. Here you 
enter a wide hall, extending the full length of 
the hotel, from veranda to veranda, crossed in 
the center by another hall leading to the parlor, 
dining-room, office and some sleeping-rooms. 
The third floor has sleeping-rooms exclusively. 
All of these apartments are furnished with 
stationary washstands, abundantly supplied 
with the best of soft artesian water, which is 
very warm, necessitating the free use of ice. 
The rooms are well kept and the service gener- 
ally is good. 

In the evening the King's band gave a con- 
cert to the guests. The band occupied a large 
permanent stand erected for it near the front 
of the hotel, while the guests were provided 
with chairs upon the verandas and benches 
placed across the driveways, which, for the 
occasion, are closed to teams by means of 
ropes stretched across the street entrance and 
strung with lanterns. The hotel was illumi- 
nated from the first floor to the observatory, 
the front being hung with about '250 Chinese 
lanterns fantastically arranged. The brilliant 
electric lights toned down by the milder gleam 
of torches dotted over the lawn, the gaslight 
from the inside, the soft, dry, balmy air, the 
great variety of tropical treec, plants and 
flowers, all so beautifully blending with the 
charming music, made it seem truly a fairy- 
land or a foretaste of the heaven we all hope 
some day to enter. The musicians, untiring 
in their efforts to add to the pleasure of the 
evening, coutinued their entertainment until 
the approach of the " wee sma' hours," and be- 
fore retiring made the Americans happy by 
rendering in charming style the good old tune 
of " Yankee Doodle." I could but compare it 
to some of the concerts given by Sacramento 
people to Eastern tourists who honor us with a 
visit. But all pleasures of this world have an 
end, and so did our first entertainment upon 
the Hawaiian islands. 

The next morning found us, after a good 
night's rest, ready at 10:45 a. m to start to 
the King's Palace, which was but a block away. 
The distance being so short, we walked, arriving 
p-omptly at 11, and were received by the 
King's Chamberlain at the door, after safely 
passing the guard at the gnte. The ladies of 
the party remained standing in the hall, while 
the gentlemen were taken to a side hall to lay 
aside their hats and canes. When they re- 
turned all were conducted to the King's room. 
The W. G. M., Atkinson, upon being presented, 
introduced each one to his Royal Highness, who 
in return bowed gracefully as we passed. We 
formed a circle around the elegantly furnished 
room and gazed at his Highness about five 
minutes, he returning the compliment, after 
which he retired from the room, without our 
hearing the sound of his voice. 

The Chamberlain informed us that we were 
at liberty to look around and enjoy ourselves 
in any way we desired. From this room we 
strol'ed out into a wide hall, upon the walls of 
which were hung portraits of all the past kings 
and queens of the kingdom. Crossing this, we 
entered a room immediately in front of and di- 
vided by sliding-doors from the dining-room, in 

July 23, 1887] 



which were hung the portraits of the present 
King and Queen. 

Here also we found the great feather robe. It 
was about the size and shape of a buggy robe, 
but is indeed a marvel. At first glance you 
would think it was made by some ingenious 
housewife by pulling bits of cloth through can- 
vas. There were but two colors in it, red and 
yellow — the shades found upon the wings of 
California blackbirds — the former color predom- 
inating, being the cheaper feather. The yellow 
feathers cost $1 apiece, as there are only two 
of that shade in one bird. The natives kill 
these birds and use them to pay their taxes 
with. So great has been ^the effort to obtain 
these feathers that the birds have become 
almost extinct. 

For a description of the dining-room I will 
refer my readers to the account of the King's 
table given in the Bible, for 1 could think of 
nothing else while passing through it and ex- 
amining the silver upon the tables. The work- 
men were engaged upstairs putting in the elec- 
tric light, 80 we were not invited up, but were 
informed that the King wished ua one and all to 
leave our autographs in his great register, 
which we did. We were granted the privilege 
of strolling through the grounds and gathering 
flowers, and then passed out from the palace 
grounds through another gate. The evening 
was spent by the gentlemen of the party in 
Masonic work in their Lodge, while the ladies 
were again entertained by the band. 

(To be Continued.) 


Orchard Without Irrigation. — Oroville 
Register: Mr. Joseph Farnan, who owns a 
ranch south of Oroville, has been experimenting 
for the past three years with fruit, and is con- 
vinced that fruit trees on his land need no irri- 
gation. He has some of the finest four-year-old 
apricot trees in the State, and they have not 
received a drop of water except rain-water. 
His peach trees are doing fiuely and his grape- 
vines cannot be excelled. If any one wants to 
see fine trees growing without irrigation we 
hope he will drive down to Mr. Farnan's and 
take a look at his splendid young orchard. 

Hat. — While grain-hay is not nearly so 
abundant as last year, yet there has been cut 
in Butte and Yuba an immense amount of alfalfa, 
which to a certain extent will take the place of 

A Veteran. — The first mowing machine ever 
introduced into Butte county, as far as we have 
been able to ascertain, was by P. R. Hutchins 
in 1859; it is owned and run at the present 
time by Wm. Flowers of this county, and doea 
good work. 

Remarkable Vines and Trees. — Lodi Sen- 
tinel: On the ranch of F. Hubert, near Bur- 
son, is an apricot tree measuring 7 feet 5 inches 
in circumference. It is a seedling, planted 
March 10, 1857. Mr. Hubert says the fruit is 
of superior quality, and that this year he will 
gather 1500 pounds from this one tree. John 
Wildermuth, whose ranch is two miles north- 
east of Campo Seco, is quite proud of six fig 
trees planted in 1857, the trunks of which 
range from 6 to 7^ feet in circumference. From 
them he dries three crops of figs, aggregating 
20,000 pounds, each year. He has a special 
process of drying the fruit, which on that ac- 
count brings top prices. From these six trees 
the proprietor realizes over SIOOO per year. Geo. 
W. Cutter of Campo Seco has a number of or- 
ange trees which average over 3000 oranges to 
the tree. This fruit took the first premium at 
the State Fair for excellence of flavor. Matte- 
son & Williamson of Stockton own a piece of 
land near Burson on which grows a delicate 
grapevine 4 feet 5 inches around the trunk on 
the surface of the ground, and 4 feet 4 inches 5 
feet above the ground. It then divides into 
two branches, each 2\ feet in circumference, 
both of which have entwined themselves around 
a huge oak, which now appears literally load- 
ed with grapes. If trailed upon an arbor it 
would reach over 300 feet. 

Contra Costa. 
Brush-Breaking. — Antioch Ledger: James 
O'Hara is clearing ofif the chaparral on the tract 
recently sold by him to Erdman, Sussman & 
iMartin. He has had a roller made with which 
he breaks the growth down, pushing it with the 
horses as a header is worked. He is able to 
clear off a large tract daily in this way. When 
the chaparral is brofcen down he fires it, and the 
demolition is complete. 


Good Barlet. — Republican, July 15: Elmer 
Humphrey is the fortunate owner of one of the 
best yields of bald barley in the county. From 
38 acres of land near town in the Fresno colony, 
he thrashed last week 800 sacks of barley, each 
sack containing 2i bushels. The heavy yield 
ia traceable to good plowing and sub-irrigation. 

Profitable 'Cots.— W. A. Cowan has in his 
orchard 200 threeyear-old apricot trees 
which came into bearing this year. From 
these trees he gathered about eight tons of 
fruit, 8600 pounds of which were dried, making 
1710 pounds of dried fruit. This was sold at 
trom 11 to 15 cts. per lb., amounting to $210 
for the dried fruit. The green fruit was sold 
for $83, bringing the total up to $293. The cost 

of gathering and drying amounted to about $40. 
Mr. Cowan's experience is that it takes 4^ pounds 
of very ripe fruit to make a pound when dried, 
and the less ripe required 5^ pounds for a pound 
when dried. 


A Stalwart Shorthorn. — The Eureka 
Standard notices the arrival in that city of a 
band of magnificent working cattle — 15 steers 
and two bulls — from the ranch of L. C. Tuttle 
near Garberville. They had been purchased 
by the Occidental Mill Co., and were on the 
way to Ryan's slough. One of the bulls, a 
full-blooded Durham, tipped the beam at 2010 
pounds, and was reckoned " the largest ever 
seen in Humboldt oounty." 


Another Piece of " Desert." — Independent: 
This year Gustave Sanger, on his place at Al- 
vord, planted 300 acres in wheat, oats and bar- 
ley, alfalfa seed being put in with the grain. 
Tne grain will average one ton per acre. The 
alfalfa has come up very thick among the 
grain. Mr. Sanger also planted a large number 
of shade and fruit trees, and all are making 
rapid growth. The land is neither better nor 
worse than thousands of acres along Owens 

Los AuKeles. 
Editors Press: — We are having exception- 
ally cool, pleasant weather. A little fog morn- 
ings, enough to toughen hay, makes it bale 
splendidly. Good barley hay is selling for $12 
to $14 per ton. Hay is nearly all stacked and 
baling is being rushed with all possible speed. 
Heading is nearly all done, but as yet I have 
not seen a thrasher in this part. Apricots sell 
here for one cent per pound, delivered to the 
canners, while near San Francisco they fetch 
1^ cents. Why is it so? — D. J. 0., Spadra, 
July 16th. 

San Benito. 
Good Crops. — Hollister, July 17 : The 
thrashers are now all busy and grain is turning 
out much better than was expected. In many 
places the crop is larger than that of last year. 
Many ranchers who had expected only half a 
crop are getting frem 20 to 30 bags an acre. 
Fruit is doing well. Four new driers were 
started near Hollister last week. The apricots 
and peaches are unusually tine. The vines are 
heavily laden. 

Ban Bernardino. 
Fruit Crop. — Ontario Record, July 13: The 
general tenor of all our fruit reports is the 
same — a most flatteriug showing for citrus 
fruits; good prospects on both the Muscat and 
Sultana grapes; on deciduous fruits, especially 
the apricot, a great unevenness that in some de- 
gree can be accounted for as a result of the 
youth of the trees. 

Buckwheat, — Riverside Press, July 16: D. 
H. Burnham on Magnolia avenue a few weeks 
ago sowed his entire orchard to buckwheat for 
the purpose of fertilizing and enriching the 
ground. It came up, flourished, and to day has 
passed the season of bloom and is loaded with a 
fair crop of buckwheat. It has been generally 
supposed that buckwheat would not do well m 
California. We shall watch this experiment 
with interest. The crop does not appear to 
drain the moisture unnecessarily from the trees. 

San Diego. 
Horticulturists in Council. — Union : The 
regular quarterly meeting of the San Diego 
County Horticultural Society was held at Lodge 
hall, Poway valley, July 6th. There was a full 
attendance of members and visitors. The 
meeting was very interesting. Fruit-growing 
and fruit pests were discussed at length. The 
hall was handsomely decorated with flowers, 
evergreens and branches laden with fruit. A 
table reaching across one side of the hall was 
filled with choice fruit for all, for which the 
ladies of Piermont are entitled to the credit. 
After the meeting, the fruit was placed at the 
disposal of those m attendance. Five new mem- 
bers were added to the list. The next regular 
meetine will be held at the schoolhouse in El 
Cajon valley in October. 

San Joaquin. 
Lodi Watermelons. — Sentinel, July 16: 
The first ripe watermelons we have seen this 
year were left at our office by Messrs. John 
Acker and J, D. HufiFman. Their patches are 
reported to be in fine condition. 8. Ferdun 
shipped four crates of watermelons from here 
last Thursday. This is the first shipment of 
the season. Mr. Ferdun will be ready to send 
away a carload in about 10 days. 

The Mokelumne Canal. — Record- Union, 
July 18: C. E. Grunsky, Deputy State Engi- 
neer, has gone to take charge of the engineer- 
ing work for the Southern Oalifornia capitalists 
who recently bought the Mokelumne Irrigation 
Co.'s property. The survey will be com- 
menced to-day and pushed without delay. Mr. 
Grunsky will remain at the works for three 
weeks and be assisted by E. E. Tucker. On 
the completion of the survey, contracts will be 
let for building a canal to take a large body of 
water from Mokelumne river and run over rich 
lands in the northern part of San Joaquin 

San Luis Obispo. 

Grain and Legumes. — Morro Cor. Tribune, 
July 6: Heading is about half done in this sec- 
tion and a two-thirds crop anticipated. Beans 
are looking well, several hundred acres being 
planted with them this season. 

Las Tablas Items.— Oor. Tribune: C. Bea- 
ver's vineyard is two years old. I am well 
acquainted with the vineyards of Napa and 

Sonoma counties, and this vineyard in growth 
and thriftiness is equal to any I ever saw there. 
His corn, squashes, peas, beans and melons look 
finely. J. Beaver has a fine garden and young 
orchard — apples, pears, peaches and Bulgarian 
prunes, the latter excelling all others in growth; 
they appear to have found a congenial soil and 
climate here. He has very fine melons, vines 
and the largest blackeyed peas I have ever seen. 
Mr. White tells me that the ground has never 
been tilted since the seed was planted. If we 
can raise such vegetables and orchards without 
cultivation, what would they be if well tilled ? 

Santa Clara. 
Fatal Boiler Explosion. — On Tuesday of 
last week, Alex. Gordon's thrashing machine 

was at work on the Randol ranch, Mountain 
View, when the boiler attached to the engine 
blew up, killing A. T. Carr, the engineer, and 
Louis Salicito, the fireman. Carr was at his 
post and had just started the engine for the 
day's work when the explosion took place. The 
engine and boiler were lifted and thrown 400 
feet, passing over the separator and lodging 
against a tree. At the inquest it was in evi- 
dence that the engine was 20 years old, and an 
examination of the firebox showed that there 
was not a bolt in the crown-sheet head, and 
there were scales on the inside and outside. 
The coroner's jury returned a verdict to the ef- 
fect that Carr and Salicito came to their deaths 
by an explosion of a defective engine boiler. 

The Cheese Factory. — San Jose Mercury: 
The stockholders met at the factory Saturday, 
July 8th, to hear the report of the directors in 
regard to the business of the factory for the 
past year and to elect directors. R. McCubbin, 
James Southerland, W. H. French, J. R. Bil- 
lings and L. P. Alexander were chosen direct- 
ors for next year, and organized by electing 
J. Southerland president, W. H. French treas- 
urer, and L. P. Alexander secretary and sales- 
man. A dividend of $4 per share was de- 
clared on each share, the value of the shares 
being $50. From the annual statement the 
following figures are taken : Pounds of 
milk received, 1,465,957; pounds of cheese 
made, 147,250; V7hich as compared with former 
years, under the management of former cheese- 
makers, shows a gain of about 10 per cent in 
the amount of cheese from the same amount of 
milk. The cheese commands the highest mar- 
ket price, and the weekly sales at present in 
Santa Clara and San Jose are larger than at 
any time in the past history of the factory. 
Within the past year the factory has been put 
in complete repair, including new vats and 
also by the introduction of steam pipes into 
the curing-room, which is a new departure in 
the manner of heating, and much superior to 
the old method, as it gives an even tempera- 
ture in every part of the room. It is believed 
to be the only factory in the United States so 
heated, the idea being original with Mr. J. M. 
Bigger, the present superintendent. 

Grain Excellent. — Gilroy Advocate, July 
16: The barley crop of the valley runs far 
beyond the expectation of the farmers. Phelps 
Bros, ordered 1000 sacks for theirs, but found 
on thrashing that they needed 600 more. In- 
deed, all grain ia plump and heavy and gives 
more to the acre than was anticipated a few 
weeks ago. Ordinary sacks filled with barley 
stored in the mill this week average 112 
pounds to the sack — a good indication of the 
quality of the grain. 


Pickers and Cutters. — Cor. Vacaville Re- 
porter, July 14: The crew on J. W. Gates' 
ranch are entitled to the cake for big work in 
drying apricots. Tuesday was the last day of 
the season; consequently the 'cots were small 
and decidedly mixed, which fact should be 
borne in mind. William Jones cut and spread 
on trays 780 pounds; Wm. Cummings 832^ 
pounds; Mrs. Wooderson 801 pounds. Messrs. 
Barr and Wooderson carried in from the drying 
ground, sorted and sacked 460 trays of dried 
fruit, which were immediately tilled by the cut- 
ters with fresh fruit. The cutting for the day 
amounted to 55054 pounds, which was all sul- 
phured and spread on the drying ground by 
Messrs. Allmen and Hester. Among the pick- 
ers Wm. Robinett took the lead, ha having 117 
baskets to his credit — his average for the sea- 
son was 95 baskets per day. 


Crop Notes. — Petaluma Courier, July 13 : 
The thrashers are now at work. While to all 
appearances the grain crop was never better, it 
is found upon thrashing that the berry, by the 
few days of recent hot weather, has shriveled, 
and in consequence the yield in pounds will not 
be so great as was anticipated a short time 
since. The corn, potato and vegetable crops 
are promising. So likewise is the fruit. The 
prospective yield of the latter is unusually 
large, but between the Petaluma cannery, the 
Petaluma fruit-drier and outside demands, all 
of it can be disposed of profitably. 


The Army Worm has made its appearance 
in several alfalfa fields in the vicinity of Wood- 
ville. J. H. Grimsley informs the Times that 
about two weeks since he was congratulating 
himself over the prospect of raising about $3000 
worth of seed from his 120-acre field, but the 
little worm came along and cleaned him out en- 
tirely. Tule river flows through his place, and 
a few days since he had occasion to cross the 
dry bed of It, which was literally covered with 
the worms. They appear to be increasing, and 
are moving northward. Two generations of 
this pest appear each summer. Their ravages 

may be checked, in a measure, by surrounding 
the field where they are found with a double 
furrow, or a ditch, and crushing those that 
fall in. 


Walter Fruit-Driers. — Free Press, July 
15: The Walter fruit-drier owned by A. N. 
Barnes has a capacity of two tons daily, while 
S. R. Thorpe's has a capacity of eight tons. 
The construction of these driers ia simple, the 
under part being of iron and brick, and the re- 
mainder of wood. A shaft extends through 
the drier, to which is fastened a driving-wheel, 
and is moved by turning a crank. Also two 
spider-wheels keyed on the same shaft on the 
inside to support the cases which hold the fruit. 
These cases pivot as the wheels revolve and are 
kept on a level. This brings the trays on 
which the fruit is dried to a wide door at one 
end of the drier, where they are easily re- 
moved and are replaced by others. The drier 
is so constructed that it separates the hot air 
from the va])or, and the air is superheated over 
and over, thereby creating a continual circula- 
tion throughout. This drier is the result of 
years of experimenting, until its inventor be- 
ieves he has reached perfection in its construc- 
tion and usefulness. It is rapid in its work; 
it will dry anything without scalding or burn- 
ing; the fruit is taken out at the same place 
where it goes into the drier; it is either per- 
manent or portable, and is particularly valuable 
to owners of small orchards. It dries whole 
pears and prunes, preserving their shape ; 
nothing better can be found for drying raisins, 
and instead of evaporating, it preserves the 
jelly of fruit. 

Sespe Items. — Free Press, July 15: The 
honey crop in this neighborhood has proved a 
total failure. The bee-keepers prepared to ex- 
tract the 1st of June, but were unable to do 
anything at it on account of the unfavorable 

weather The fruit is getting ripe and 

those little busybodies, the linnets, are begin- 
ning their ravages. They .are a terrible pest 
that every one must fight if they ezpect to 

have any marketable fruit The Sespe ditch 

is coming on apace, but will be no benefit to 
crops this season. 


Furnishing Horses to California. — Semi- 
Tropic, July 10: One hundred and fifty horses 
were taken through Colton on a special freight 
train this morning. They were from the ranges 
of Arizona and were being taken to Los Angeles 
for sale. They were nearly all young and some 
of them were extraordinarily handsome and 
would have made fine carriage horses but for 
the disfiguring brands on their hips. It is said 
that Arizona will at no distant day be able to 
furnish horses for all Southern California. 


Editors Press: — At H. Springmeyer's ranch, 
near Genoa, 1 found them all busy haying. 
Mr. S. has 200 acres in alfalfa, which will pro- 
duce seven tons to the acre — worth $13 per 
ton delivered in Carsjn. Fred Danberg has 
several hundred acres in alfalfa which yields 
three crops a season. Haying is two weeks 
later than usual in Nevada this year. — F., 
Mason Valley, July IGth. 


Wealth of Grain. — A telegram from Port- 
land, 19ch, says that F. S. Rowe, manager of 
the 0. R. & N. Co. has just returned from an 
extended trip over all the lines of the company 
and reports the grain crop in the inland empire 
the largest and best in the history of the coun- 
try. Every field of fall and spring wheat, 
barley and oats will yield a full crop, something 
never known before, and this section will fur- 
nish 450,000 tons of grain for export. 

Short Fruit Crop. — Wilkimette Farmer: 
There is no remembrance of any year when the 
fruit yield in Oregon has been so small as the 
present. We hear of some districts where the 
cold rains and frosts of May did not cause de- 
"struction; but such sheltered spots are few and 
the general report says there is little or no 
fruit growing. The loss of the apple crop will 
be most severely felt of all, for there is almost 
a total failure of that most valuable of all fruits, 
and old orchards that have never failed before 
are now barren. 


Grain Samples.— Walla Walla Union, July 
16 : Judge J. D. Laman has received several 
fine samples of grasses and grain grown in the 
valley, to be placed on exhibition in the North- 
ern Pacific exhibit car, which that company in- 
tends to send all over the East for advertising 
purposes. Particularly fine are those furnish- 
ed by John Scott, Club and Blue-stem wheat, 
which will average between 45 and 50 bushels 
to the acre. He has also a sheaf of oats which 
will harvest over 75 bushels to the acre. The 
Agricultural Society has a sample of oats going 
70 bushels to the acre. Hon. P. J. Kelly of the 
Umatilla county portion of the valley has sent 
in samples of Club and White Landreth Club 
wheats which go 50 and 60 bushels to the 
acre. John R. Hood sends in a sample of fall- 
sown Club wheat which goes 50 bushels. Fred 
Stine sends in a sample of Club and Chili wheat, 
mixed, which will go over 50 bushels to the 
acre, and W. R. Hammond a sample of barley 
which averages 60 bushels for a field of 160 
acres — a first class yield in any country. 


pACIFie [^URAb f RESS, 

[July 23, 1887 

Is it Worth While ? 

Is it worlh while that we jostle a brother, 
Etearing his load on the rough road of life? 

Is it worth while that we jeer at each oiher 

In blacl<ness of heart — that we war to the knife? 
God pity us all in our pitiful strife. 

God pity us all as we jostle each other; 

God pardon us all for the triumphs we feel 
A'hen a fellow goes down 'nealh his load on the 

Pierced to the heart; words are keener than steel, 
And mightier far for woe or for weal. 

vV'ere it not well in this brief lillle journey 
On over the isthmus, down into the tide. 

We give him a fish instead of a serpent. 
Ere holding the hands to be and abide 
Forever and aye in dust at his side ? 

Look at the roses saluting each other; 

Ixxtk at the herds al! at peace on the plain — 
M.<n and man only nukes war on his brother, 

And laughs in his heart at his peril and pain; 

Shamed by the beasts that go down on the plain. 

Is it worth while that we battle to humble 
Some poor fellow-soldier down in the dust ? 

God pity us all ! Time oft soon will tumble 
All of us together, like leaves in a gust. 
Humbled, indeed, down into the dust. 

— Joaquin Miller. 

Her Poor Cousin. 

" Really, Corinne, you are too harsh with 
your consio; remember ahe ia the child of your 
dead father's sister. " 

" I can't help it, mamma; the girl is a burden 
to us and you know it." 

" I should think she was rather — a help," 
said Mrs. Stanley, toying idly with her fork 
and knife. " She certainly dresses your hair 
for you and performs other little duties that 
you could not do yourself." 

" Oh, I know she tries to earn her board and 
clothes, which is only right and proper, but I 
think she ought to keep more with the servants, 
where she belongs. I was going to tell you 
that I have accepted an invitation to see 
' Fauat ' with Mr. Bronsou this evening." 

" His attentions are becoming very marked, 
Corinne. They say he is worth about a hun- 
dred thousand a year. Would you marry him 
if he asked you ? " said Mrs. Stanley, putting 
emphaais on the " if," for she knew her daughter 
hati been angling for the millionaire. 

"How do you know that he has not asked 
me already ? " said Corinne with a I tugh, and 
then the conversation ended. 

Meanwhile pretty Louise Lynn sat in her 
small hall bedroom in the great Fifth-avenue 
house, and wondered why her lot was so hard. 
Silently she recalled a face she had loved long 
ago. It was the old, old story. They had ex- 
changed passionate vows to each other. At 
her father's former country-seat their names 
were carved on the same tree; there they had 
sworn, with clasped hands, to be true to each 
other forever. But the course of true love had 
not run smoothly. Her father, unwilling that 
Louise should become the wife of a poor man, 
had forbidden their meetings. A knock at the 
door interrupted her musings. Corinne had 
sent for her to dress her hair. 

" You really would make a capital maid," 
Miss Stanley remarked, as she surveyed her 
costume in an opposite mirror when thoroughly 
dressed for the opera. "Marie," glancing 
toward her French fcmme de chambre, " will 
have to look out for her laurels. Here, Louise, 
just carry my white merino cloak downstairs, 
won't yoQ. while I follow ?" 

Mies Stanley and her cousin had been in the 
dining-room about five minutes, when the 
former glanced impatiently toward a clock on 
the mantel, exclaiming, " It ia certainly very 
odd that Mr. Bronson doesn't make his ap- 

Just then a ring was heard at the door. As 
it was not answered immediately, Corinne 
turned to her cousin and said, " Louise, go to 
the door." 

" Is my position in this house that of a mere 
servant? '' 

Louise spoke the words in tones with a faint, 
almost imperceptible quiver; otherwise her de- 
meanor was perfectly calm. 

" Yes," was the unhesitating answer. " You 
are merely a domestic servant — nothing more." 

" Very well; in that case I will obey." 

She left the room with a stately step, though 
her wounded heart was beating passionately. 

With a steady hand, too, she unfastened the 
hall door. 

A gentleman was standing outside. 

" Are Mrs. and Miss Stanley at home ?" he 
asked politely. 

His voice made poor Louise's heart beat 
quicker than ever. 

" Ashton 1 " she exclaimed. " Can it be 
yon ?" 

" Louise I" 

The gentleman had caught her hands in both 
of his and stood gazing eagerly into her face. 
"Oh, Louise," he went on in tremulous 

tones, " what miracle is this? I have sought 
for yon ever since my return, but to no purpose. 
And now to find you here ! I can scarcely be- 
lieve my senses 1" 

Yon could not have cared much for me," 
poor Louise said, through her tears, " because 
— because you have never written me a line 
since — since — " 

" Written you, Louise ! I wrote a dozen 

"Then the letters miscarried, for I never re- 
ceived them. Ah ! I know my father's death 
— my change of address — " 

But at this moment they were interrupted by 
the appearance of Corinne on the scene. 

" For heaven's sake, Louise, what is the 
meaning of all this?" she cried. "I was not 
aware," she added scornfully, "that you as- 
pired to know Mr. Bronson." 

The angry speaker's face was livid with con- 
sternation and rage. 

" Mr. Bronson !" ejaculated Louise, astonish- 
ment overcoming every other feeling. 

" Yes ! Mr. Bronson," said Corinne, mimick- 
ing her. 

"What does this mean, Ashton?" asked 
Louise, turning to her lover. 

" 1 am now known, dearest, as Mr. Bronson, 
after a distant uncle, whose fortune I inherited, 
and who wished me to take his name. The 
accession to this estate brought me back from 
California to search for you — but in vain." 

There was a moment's silence, and then 
Louise, as she looked at her cousin, said: 

" And so your grand Mr. Bronson, cousin 
Corinne, was all the while my dear old A'h- 
ton," and she proudly clung to bis arm. She 
could not restrain a slight exultation in her 

" Yes, darling I " said Mr. Bronson, pressing 
her arm, "and I am sure your cousin will con- 
gratulate us. I certainly owe her much for 
having given a home to my treasure." 

Did Corinne congratulate her cousin ? She 
was obliged to do so outwardly, at least, for 
Louise and Mr. Bronson were married a month 
later. But there are some smiles that mean 
frowns, and we fear Corinne's were such. 

A Novel View Point. 

It has often been remarked that the wealthi- 
est man gets no more than his board and clothes, 
after all. All the rest are outside accessories 
to his life which he can enjoy only as he is 
educated up to them. 

A pleasing anecdote, in which this fact was 
prominently brought out, is related by the 
New York Trifmne, concerning the well-known 
surgeon, Dr. George F. Shrady. 

The doctor has a pleasant country-house on 
the Hudson, some seven or eight miles north of 
Kingston, known as " Pine Ridge." He for 
merly spent his summers there, and, being fond 
(if driving, owned a team of fleet-footed sorrels 
With these he would spin over the hard 
country roads at a lively gait almost daily, 
usually driving himself. 

While driving on Albany avenue in Kings- 
ton, on his way home one afternoon, being 
alone in the buggy at the time, he was hailed 
by a newsboy who, mistaking him for a coach- 
man, shouted: 

" Say, John, can't yon give a fellow a lift ? '' 

" How far are you going ? " asked the doctor. 

"Only out to General Smith's," replied the 

The urchin sprang to the seat beside the 
driver, and the copve'-Bation ran as follows: 
" Whose rig is this ? ' 
" Dr. Shrady'a." 

"Oh, yes, he's the feller from New York. 
He lives in Fiatbush, by the river. I heered 
of him. Do you work for him ?" asked the 

" Yes," said the surgeon. 

"What does he give you?" 

"My board and clothes." 

" Gosh, ia that all ? Well, he gives you pret- 
ty good clothes, though," said the boy, hastily 
inspecting the driver's make-np. " liut you 
could get more'n that. Major Cornell's coach- 
man gets $30 a month and found. Think of 
that ! ' 

" But the major is a rich man, and can afford 
it," said the driver. 

" How long have you been with the doctor ?" 

" Ever since I was a boy." 

" Never worked for anybody else ?" 


" What do yon do for him ?" continued the 

" Oh, everything he asks me to do. I wash 
and dress him, black his shoes, (ometimes clean 
his horses, harness them — in fact, I am bis man 
of all work." 

" Is he so old, then ? " 

" No, he's about my age." 

"Then he must be a lazy chap, anyhow." 

After a brief pause came this poser from the 

"Do yon like the doctor? " 

"Sometimes I do and sometimes- I don't. 
Occasionally I get so disgusted with him that I 
feel like running away." 

" Why don't you ? " 

" Oh, it's no use, I cannot. I have to be 

"Well," indignantly ejaculated the boy, "I 
thiuk you're a big fool." 

" But here is General Smith's," said the 

"All right. By, by, John," sung out the 
boy, as he alighted upon the road. 


[Written for the Ri ral Truss by " Nrtti,b."J 
Love for one being cannot be confined to that 

particular soul; it will overflow on our friends. 

This oveiflow is a test of love. 

The more we love a person the less, as a rule, 

we feel like talking when in his presence. 

The very consciousness of being near him is 

all -sufficient. 

What more may man aak than to be a child 

of God ? 

If he who criticises cannot by his criticism 
benefit either others or himself, he is doing no 
good, but is ''creation's blank." 

Wouldst thou have thy burdens lightened? 
Help thy brother in his need and tenfold shall 
it be returned thee. 

Wise people realize how little they know, but 
the mo3t ignorant persons think wisdom ia con- 
centrated in them. 

God has planted two seeds in each soul. One 
of these seeds is love of earth, the other love of 
truth. He allows man to choose which shall 
grow at the expense of the other, for both can- 
not be masters. Foolish man too often gathers 
to himself straws from the muck-heap of world- 
ly and beastly pleasures, never looking up to 
see the handle of truth he might grasp and 
thereby attain divine bights which would ever 
lead him to still higher, broader visions. 
Pleasures, cares of dress, and subsistence absorb 
the attention of man's priceless soul, engross his 
thoughts, till his stunted spirit knows no purer 
aim than to eat, drink, and pamper the body. 
The gems of purity, love, truth, flash their gor- 
geous rays before some people's eyes in vain, for 
what care they for the body's demands and de- 
lights? A new hat, the dance-Soor, gossip, all 
yield gross, absorbing pleasures to them, and 
would one tell the»e blind followers of foolish- 
ness of greater triumphs, think you belief 
would find place in their dull souls ? We can- 
not do without the " cumbrous clay " 
habitation of the soul, but we can de 
vote less time to pleasuring it, and should 
find our real joys in the higher realms of 
truth. Believe me, I do not underestimate 
bodily duties. I am particular in the care of 
my person, and feel it a duty to try, as far as 
reasonable, to make myself agreeable; but just 
as the condition of the plate we eat from — 
though there may be little excuse for unclean- 
liuesa — ia not as important as what we eat, so 
we should, at the same time that we take good 
care of our bodies, remember also that the life 
is more than meat. Our narrow souls should 
reach eagerly for the true wisdom, for the cult- 
ure that broadens the sympathies, for the tol- 
eration induced by contact with different 
minded men, while at the same time we are 
necessarily but mechanically serving the body. 
Yet each person must iuvestigate for him- 
self before he will fully accept these words. 
Would that our body-weighted, earth-burdened 
souls could cist off all low impressions, could 
free themselves from thoughts of all but truth, 
the truth that includes God ! Kich individual 
soul outvalues space, outweighs matter; and 
shall we spend more time on the transient case 
that envelops it than we shall to expand, 
strengthen, purify our one lasting gem ? The wise 
spirit values soul greatness more than the total 
of earth's treasure. 

J/tiyipards, Col. 

Roughing It in California. 

J. S. Tibbits of Santa Rita, an occasional 
contributor to the Rural, writes to an Eastern 
exchange as follows: 

People living at the Ktst, surrounded by all 
the comforts and conveniences of civilized life, 
can have but a faint idea of the inconveniences 
and discomforts to which many are subject, or 
subjtct themselves, here at the West. To see 
people living in dug-outs and caves, or in tents, 
as I have seen them in Colorado, and in rude 
board cabins or in booths of cypress boughs, as 
I have seen here in California, would seem to 
Kistern dwellers in luxury aa a little rough. 
But this is more apparent than real, for thou- 
sands of well-to-do persons are living at the 
West in just such habitations and enjoying 
themselves hugely, too. I have by no means 
seen nor experienced the rough habits of the 
'49er8, but such as I have experienced may not 
be altogether uninteresting to your readers. 

Last winter, while engaged in working for a 
wealthy ranchman, I boarded with the men 
who were at work on the place. We occupied 
a rude cabin, formerly used for a barn. Bunks 
were constructed on one side, filled with straw, 
in which we slept. I had a scant supply of 
straw under me, plenty of blankets over me, 
and a " right smart " supply of bedbugs and 
fleas all about me. Under such circumstances 
I did not oversleep myself. Our cook was a 
gentleman who had been reduced from atllu- 
ence to penury. He was by no means a model 
cook, and if " cleanliness be akin to godliness," 
he was sadly lacking in the latter virtue. He 
would come in from his hunting expeditions 
and without washing his hands commence pre- 
paring our meals. He always had a pipe in 
his mouth, the ashes from which would fall in 
plentiful showers into the food, forming a con- 
glomeration not found in any cook-book. Under 
these circumstances you may be sure I did not 
gorge myself with food. 

For upward of a year I have been living all 
alone, doing all my work, indoors and out, my- 
self, having neither wife, cat, dog, rat nor 

moiise to disturb me. Part of the time I oc- 
cupied a small room, 7x14 feet, partitioned off 
from a barn, doing my cooking by a fireplace 
outside, I pride myself on becoming quite an 
expert cook, though I now and then make 
slight mistakes, such as putting a lot of common 
starch into my flour instead of baking powder; 
putting half a pound of ground coffee into my 
pancake batter instead of flour; letting a black 
sooty pot fall into a pan of stew, throwing the 
gravy all over me; and pouring some cold water 
into my stew when I was cooking some dump- 
lings, causing them to fall so that it was about 
impossible to stick a fork in them. But these 
are mere incidentals, liable to occur in any 
well-regulated family. 

^Vhile thus living by myself I have demon- 
strated the following important matters: First, 
that a person can live, and live well, on less 
than one dollar a week for food; second, this 
voluntary exile from the busy scenes of the 
world, with its freedom from care, anxiety and 
grinding toil, ia conducive to one's peace of 
mind and devotional feelings; is a powerful ex- 
erciser of the demon of despondency and 
melancholia, and is promotive of both health 
and happiness. 

In conclusion, I can say with Bums: 

" Let others love the city, 

And gaudy show at sunny noon; 
Give iiie the lonely valley, 
The dewy eve and rising moon." 

Cabbage-Qarden Epics. 

Editors Pres.<»: — Joaquin Miller has made a 
discovery ! He finds that with books of poetry 
the world is amply provided, while the stock of 
good, solid cabbageheads is somewhat slim. He 
deems the cabbage-garden poet equally needful 
to mankind with the ink-slinger of honeyed 
words and measured rhymes. He even gracious' 
ly concedes priority to him of the cabbage 
garden. I aay "cabbage-garden poet" advis- 
edly. We are too apt to forget that the real 
meaning of " poet " is simply "maker." And 
only last Sunday I heard Bishop Wingfield re- 
mark that " the poetry of action is nobler than 
the poetry of language." 

Now 1 feel proud of the " poetry of action " 
displayed by thousands of our California farm- 
ers ! I feel proud of their cabbage-garden epics 1 
1 feel proud of the poetry of Felix Gillet, who 
has converted a barren bill into a fertile para- 
dise, propagating and producing all things 
pleasant to the eye and good for food ! I feel 
proud of the poetry of Messrs. Hatch and 
Briggs, and Coates and Shinn, and their 
myriad compeers. Through faith they have 
wrestled with doubts, and difficulties, and dis- 
couragements, and have triumphed gloriously. 
They have issued their poetry by the carload; 
cherries and peaches, and prunes and pears, 
bound in boards and lettered in black, to the 
entertainment and delight of millions of our 
good friends East ! 

It is high time our farmer poets were better 
known and appreciated. There's about as 
much genius recjuired by a farmer poet as by an 
ink-slinger. Your book poet may sing of the 
sweetness of the young lamb's voice or thrill the 
h€-art with the toucliiug tragedy of little Bopeep, 
but the heroine is the farmer poet's darling and 
the young lamb's voice is the voice of the first- 
ling of her father's fold. Your book poet may 
stalk in solitary state through the "forest 
primeval " by day, but at night "forest prime- 
val " is a gruesome subject and cold comfort 
unless the farmer poet's clearing be at hand, 
and the welcome and welcoming light of his 
hospitable cabin radiate through the dark. 
Your book poet rhymes about flowers and 
bowers and showers, and brooks and nooks and 
crooks; your fanner poet lives in them and by 
them and with them. 

Now, though, as the apostle of cabbage- 
garden poets, I thus maguify my office, God 
forbid that I should depreciate or undervalue 
book poets. Few live more in their company 
than I. By their favor I have the best society 
always at command and revel in its wit and 
wisdom. That complaint so fearfully prevalent, 
" the blues," otherwise classed as lonesomeness, 
dullness or mopeaomeness, fioda in me no con- 
genial void in which to develop root or branch, 
and I gratefully acknowledge my obligation to 
that invaluable specific, printers' ink. 

But I want the farmer poet to get his due 
meed of the world's appreciation and applause. 
[ want to have his volume considered. He 
spreads it wide open by the highway-side, in 
the lovely valley, on the lonely hilltop, by the 
rippling stream. He that runs may read it. 
The lines are fair, writ in rows of greenery and 
blossom, in purple cluster, in rosy, golden 
fruit, in seas of waving grain. They speak of 
enterprise and energy, of science and skill, of 
law and order, of loving labor and tender care, 
of nature's harmonies and heaven's bounty. 
Aye, more ! They speak of patient continu- 
ance in well doing, of conquest by ol>edi(nce, 
of victory through self-denial. What more do 
the ink-slingers tell ua ? 

Boys ! and book poets all ! Take off your 
hats, and "Three cheers for the cabbage-gar- 
den poets of California 1 " 

Edward Berwick. 
Carmel Garden, July U, lUSr. 

Definitiov written by a small girl of Ssn 
Mateo: "Tunnels are hollow holes running 
onder the ground," 

July 23, 1887.] 

pAClFie [^URAb PRESS. 


To Prepare Rose-Scent Jars. 

'Tis a pity that so few housekeepers, compara- 
tively, know the neTer-ending satisfaction to be 
derived from the possesuion of a rose-scent jar, 
yet, at the cost of a little painstaking, they are 
within the reach of the majority. 

Nothing gives more subtile, delightful per- 
fumes to an apartment than one of these jars, 
which should be opened every morning after the 
necessary cleaning and dusting is finished, for 
an hour, and then carefully closed. 

All your friends will ask: " What gives your 
rooms so delightful a fragrance ?" It is such a 
pure yet delicious odor that it charms every 

The preparation of the rose-stock should be 
detailed to the care-taking member of the fam- 
ily who never forgets anything. 

Gather the rose petals in the morning, let 
them stand in a cool place, tossed up lightly for 
an hour to dry off; then put them in layers, with 
salt sprinkled over each layer, into a large cov- 
ered dish — a elass berry-dish is a convenient 
receptacle. You can add to this for several 
mornings till you have enough stock, from 
one pint to a quart, according to size of 
jar; stir every morning, and let the whole 
stand for 10 days. Then transfer it to a 
glass fruit-jar, in the bottom of which you 
have placed two ounces of allspice, coarsely 
ground, and as much stick cinnamon, broken 
coarsely. This may stand now for six 
weeks, closely covered, when it is ready for 
a permanent jar, which may be as pretty 
as your ingenuity can devise or your means 
purchase. Those with double covers are the 
beet, and very pretty ones in the blue and 
white Japanese ware (I believe the dealers 
call it kaaga), holding over a quart, can be 
bought for 75 cents. 

Have ready one ounce each of cloves, 
allspice, cinnamon and mace, all ground, not 
fine, one ounce of orris root bruised and 
shredded, two ounces of lavender flowers 
and a small quantity of any other sweet- 
scented dried flowers or herbs; mix together 
and put into the jar in alternate layers with 
the rose-stock, add a few drops of oil of rose 
geranium or violet, and pour over the whole 
one-quarter of a pint of good cologne. 

This will last for years, though from 
time to time you may add a little lavender 
or orange-flower water, or any nice per- 
fume, and some seasons a few fresh rose 
petals. You will derive a satisfaction from 
the labor only to be estimated by the 
happy owners of similar jars. 


A Bit of Green. 

[Written for the Rural Pkess by Acnt Susis.] 
" Johnny ! look 1 look ! See this bit of green. 
I must have it to take to mother," calls out a 
dirty, ragged little newsboy named Tom, and 
both boys get down on the pavement and try 
to pull up a few blades of grass that have strug- 
gled through the cracks in the paving-stones of 
a busy street in a large city. 

You boys and girls who live in the country and 
see great fields of grain waving in the wind and 
ripening in the sun have no idea what it is to 
the poor little children in the cities to see a few 
blades of grass; but I have seen them clap their 
little dirty hands and jump up and down for 


" Well," says Johnny, " there are four pieces, 
just two for each of us, but I'll give you mine 
because your mother is sick, and you know the 
grand folks uptown always have flowers and 

lost your pennies?" "No, sir," answers Tom. 
" I'm getting a bit of green for mother, so she 
can look at it while she is sick in bed; it will 
make her almost thiuk she can see grand- 
pa's fields again." Just then Tom looked up 
and says, " See, I have three pieces, and I 
found four this morning," Something in his 
eyes and the tone of his voice makes the old 
man's heart beat faster than usual, and he 
quickly asks, " What is your name, little boy, 
and where do you live ?" 

" My name is Tom Jones, and I live way 
downtown in a tenement-house, and mother 
is awful sick. Buy a paper, sir?" 

" Yes; I'll take all you have left, so you can 
go home and show me where you live." 

So on they go, and at last reach Tom's home. 
He goes in the room, and says, "Mother, here 
is some more green, and a gentleman to see 

The sick woman si^arts up in bed as the 
gentleman stands beside her. One look is 
enough; she calls "Father ! " and he exclaims, 
" Emma, is it possible ? " and folds her in his 
arms. Tom stands by dumb with astonishment, 
then all at once a happy thought comes to him, 
and he exclaims, " Are you grandpa ? " " Yes, 

Minor Morals for Married People. — 
The last word is the most dangerous of in- 
fernal machines. Husband and wife should 
no more strive to get it than they would 
struggle for the possession of a bombshell. 
Married people should study each other's 
weak points, as skaters look out for the 
weak parts of the ice in order to keep off 
them. Ladies who marry for love should 
remember that the union of angels with 
women has been forbidden since the flood. 
The wife is the sun of the social system. 
Unless she attracts there is nothing to keep 
heavy bodies, like husbands, from flying off 
into space. The wife who would properly 
discharge her duties must never have a 
soul "above buttons." Don't trust too 
much to good temper when you get into an 
argument. Sugar is the substance most 
universally used through all natural prod- 
ucts ! Let married people take a hint from 
this provision of nature. 

The Seed of the Seedless. — The old 
joke comes around once more. Last week, 
says the Valley Echo, we received a letter 
from Sonoma county, the writer of which 
stated they were going to try growing 
orange trees-, and having heard of the famed 
Riverside Navel, and wishing to plant the 
choicest kind, desired to know the name of 
some party who kept Riverside Navel orange 
seed for sale, and the price per ounce. Who 
can furnish a supply ? Don't all speak at once. 

A Genuine Surprise-Party, says the Ana- 
heim Oazette, was given Mr. and Mrs. Ed 
Newhan of Placentia last week. Mr. N. has 
been sick for several months. He had his fine 
crop of barley cut with a reaper, but had not 
been able to haul it together. Last Friday sev- 
eral of his neighbors, with wagons, teams and 
hands, drove into his field and commenced 
loading and hauling his grain into stacks, and 
continued the good work until the sun went 
down. Such surprise parties have the true 
ring, and commend the neighborhood. 

To THE Point.— In the White mountains one 
summer Henry Ward Beecher drove a pas- 
senger-wagon from the Twin to the Orawford, 
just for fun. In turning around his team be- 
came tangled and his wagon bid fair to tip over, 
when a Portland and Ogdensburg conductor, 
looking out of a chamber window of the hotel, 

shouted: "Let go your leaders, you 

old fool." " That's good advice, young man," 
was Mr. Beecher's calm reply, as he fol- 
lowed it. 

Canon Wilberforce says that down in 
Maine the whisky is locked up before it can get 
into men. In this State it gets into men before 
it is locked up — and the men are locked up 
with it 

green things when their folks are sick and dead; 
so you take these." 

Tom is so delighted to have the grass he does 
not notice that it is not very cheerful to have 
.Johnny compare his sick mother with "folks 
that are dead, " so he runs home, and we will 
follow him. He goes on and on till he comes 
to a tenement-house, climbs up the dirty, 
rickety stairs and stops a moment to get his 
breath, he has run up so fast; then carefully 
opens a door and walks in on his toes so as not 
to make a noise, and leans over a bed in which 
lies his sick mother. He finds her awake, and 
says : " mother I you will be well now. 
You said yesterday if you could see grand- 
pa's green fields again it would make 
you well. This isn't a whole field, mother, 
but it is four pieces of green; just look !" and 
he proudly holds up the tiny blades of grass. 
The sick woman raises her head, and takes the 
bit of green, saying, " My dear boy, where did 
yon get these ?" Then Tom tells her, and 
says: "Now, mother, I must go and sell my 
papers, and if I can, I'll get you some more 
grass." So he puts his treasures in her feeble 
hand, and goes out. He is a bright-eyed little 
fellow, and in spite of his rags and dirt, seems 
different from the ragged urchins about him. 
He has sold nearly all his papers, when, as he 
stands calling out, " List 'd'shun evenin' 
Post," he spies some more grass, and down he 
goes on his knees for it. 

Just then a kindly, good-natured old gen- 
tleman comes along and says, "Look here, 
little chap, how do you expect to sell your 
papers if von stay down there, poking among 
the stones ? What is the matter ? Have you 

him upstairs to bed, and looks in once more to 
see if his daughter is comfortable in the neat, 
pretty little room she used to sleep in long ago. 
The rest and good care she has soon restores her 
to health and strength, and the happy days go 
quickly by. Tom, of course, goes to school, 
but on Saturdays has fine fun on the farm; he 
has some chickens — all his own — and takes 
much good care of them; has a pony to ride that 
follows him all about, partly for love and partly 
for the sugar he gets now and then. 

One day Tom rau in the house and said: " Do 
you know, mother, I believe grandpa found us 
and brought us here and made you well, just 
because I stopped that day to find you a bit of 
green. I'm awful glad I did. Do you suppose 
if some other little bay should find some grass 
he would find a new grandma and grandpa and 
a nice place like this ?" 

"I hope so, dear," answered bis mother; 
" anyway, it is always best to take a 'bit of 
green' or a ray of sunshine as they come." 


my child, I am," he replied; and after giving 
Tom a good hug, in spite of his ragged jacket, 
he says, " Now, Tom, do you know where to buy 
some bread, meat, tea and other good things?" 
"Oh, yes, I know where to get them, if I 
only had some money. I have to pay for 
my papers, and shall only have 15 cents left; 
that won't buy much." 

"Here is some money, Tom. Now go." 
So off he goes, as happy a little boy as the city 
contains, rich or poor. As soon as he is out of 
the room, father and daughter ask and 
answer many questions. It is the old, sad 
story — a farmer's daughter, tired of the 
country, going to a city for employment, 
marrying and being left alone and destitute. 
Her father calls in a doctor, and he finds she is 
not really ill, only weak and exhausted from 
lack of proper food and shelter. Her father 
says she and Tom must go back to the farm 
with him, as he is only in the city on business 
for a few days. 

When they start, Tom is such a proud, 
happy boy, dressed all in new clothes. His 
mother leans back in her seat on the cars, 
pale and weak, still much better for the medi- 
cine and food she has had and the comforting 
thought of once more being at homo, though 
she was too proud to let her parents know how 
much she needed help.' It is quite a journey; 
but at last they get out at a quiet little station 
and find a comfortable country wagon waiting 
for them, as her father has telegraphed 
home the good news. They ride through 
shady lanes and cross merry little streams 
that seem to dance along happier than 
ever, and Tom is nearly- wild with delight. 
At last they reach such a comfortable looking 
farmhouse, and in the doorway stands an old 
lady with open arms to receive the long-lost 
daughter. In a few hours Tom has been all 
over the place, and, tired out, falls asleep in his 
chair at the supper-table. Grandpa carries 

Molasses Cake. — One copful of sugar, one 
cupful of butter and lard, mixed, two cupfuls 
of molasses, one teaspoonful of ginger, one tea- 
spoonful of nutmeg, one teaspooutui of cinna- 
mon, one-half teaspoonful ot cloves, a little 
salt, three-quarters of a cupful of strong coffee 
and two eggs. Beat all together, add four cup- 
fuls of flour, after m xing well, add one-half 
cupful of boiling water, in which one teaspoon- 
ful of soda has been dissolved. Adding a few 
currants, raisins and a little citron makes it 
almost as good as fruit cake. 

Flour Pudding. — One quart of sweet milk; 
wet and stir smoothly into a little of this cold 
milk six tablespoonfuls of flour. When the re- 
mainder of the milk boils, stir in this wet flour, 
boil ten minutes more and set away to cool. 
When cold, add the well-beaten yolks of six 
eggs, then the whites, which have been beaten 
to a foam that will pile up; now beat this into 
the cold pudding until it all looks even and 
light. Bake another half-hour and serve hot. 

Cheese Omelet. — Butter and cut in quarters 
a sufficient number of slices of htale bread to 
line a medium-sized pudding-dish. Over this 
grate a little dry cheese or cut it in small 
pieces; add another layer of bread, then cheese, 
and so on until the dish is nearly full. Make 
a custard of one pint of milk, two eggs, and a 
little salt. Pour this over the bread and cheese 
and bake a half-hour in a quick oven. 

Saoo Pudding. — Take half a cupful of sago, 
put in a stewpan with a pint of milk and the 
yolks of two beaten eggs; keep stirring until 
the grains are transparent, then they are done; 
take from the stove and flavor with a teaspoon- 
ful of vanilla or lemon. For frosting, beat the 
two whites of the eggs with a cupful of pow- 
dered sugar; flavor with vanilla or lemon. 

iSTRAwr.EKRY IcE. — Take two quarts of 
stiawberriea, put them into a muslin bag, dip 
in hot water, and squeize out the juice until 
nothing but the pulp remains. To every cup- 
ful of juice add three tablespoonfuls of sugar 
and the same amount of cold water; put in a 
freezer, pack in ice well salted and covered 
with bian, and freeze. Serve in tiny glasees 
or deep saucers. 

Scrambled Ecos. — Break six eggs into a 
bowl, and season with salt and pepper. Pour 
into a heated skillet, coutiiniug one table- 
spoouful melted butter, and as the eggs cook, 
turn them up constantly from the bottom. 
Serve when slightly dried. The eggs should 
never be stirred, only the yolks broken, as they 
will present a better appearance than when 

Cream Cake. — Half-cup butter, two cups 
sugar, three eg?s beaten in one cup sweet 
milk, three cups flour, three teaepoonfuls bak- 
ing powder. Cream for filling: One pint milk, 
let come to a boil; add half-cup Hour, one cup 
sugar, two eggs; boil a few minutes; flavor 
with lemon or vanilla and a lump of butter. 
This makes six layers. 

French Rolls. — Of light bread dough, take 
as much as will make one loaf. Work into 
this oue egg, one heaping tablespoonful of lard, 
two of white sugar. Set in a warm place to 
rise. When light, work down, knead again; 
when very light and puffy, roll out. Cut with 
biscuit cutter. When raised, bake 20 minutes 
in a quick oven. 

Buttermilk Mukkins. — Beat hard two eggs 
into a quart of buttermilk, stir in flour to make 
a thick batter, about a quart, and lastly a tea- 
spoonful of salt and the same of soda. Bake in 
a hot oven in well-greased tins. Muffins of all 
kinds should only be cut just round_the edge, 
then pulled open with the fingers. 

Ginoer Cookies. — One cup of molasses, one 
cup of sugar, one cup of butter, one teaspoonful 
salt, two dessertspoonfuls ginger, one teaspoon- 
ful soda, one-half cup warm water poured on 
soda, then put in molasses and stir well before 
putting in the other ingredients. 

Oyster Fritters. — Make a batter of one cup 
flour, half teaspoonful baking powder, pinch 
salt, two eggs, one cup milk; dip each oyster 
in this batter and fry in hot lard, as for 

Drawn Butter. — Half a teacupful of butter; 
two tablespoonfuls of flour; rub all together and 
pour into a pint of boiling water; add salt. 
Serve with boiled meats. 



[July 23, 1887 


PubUshed by DEWEY & CO. 

Offlee, 220 Market St., N. E. eor. Front St., 8.F. 
tr Take the Elevator. A'o. It Front St.-^ 

Our Subscription Rates. 
OCTR SoBscRimOH Katkb ARB TiiRRE DoLLiRg a year, In 
advance. While this notice appears, all subscribers pav- 
ing $3 in advance will receive 13^ months' (one year and 
six weeks) credit. For $1.50 in advance, six months and 
three weeks. All aj^ents and clerks are required to 
adhere to these terms. No new names entered on tlie 
list without payment in advance. Our premium oSer- 
ioKS are subject to these terms. 

Advertising Rates. 

1 Week. 1 Month. 3 Motxtht. 1 Tear. 

Per Line (agate) i lb I .80 $2.20 > 6.00 

Half inch (1 square). . . I.OO 3.00 8.00 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 U.OO 46.00 

Larre advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type, or in particular parte of the paper, 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

DEWET & CO., Patiint Solicitors. 


Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 
Registered at S. F. Post Office ai second-class mai 1 matter. 


Saturday, July 23, 1887. 


EDITORIALS.— A Decision on Levees; The Smyrna 
Fig Problem, 57. The Week; Bud Environment; 
Valuable Eucalyptus; The B»rley Outlook, 64. A 
Fine Guernsey; Consumption and Production of Fruits; 
Fruit tor the East; Prol. C. V. Riley, U. S. Entomolo- 
gist, 65. 

ILLiUai'RATIONS.-Prof. C. V. Riley, U. 8. Ento- 
mologist, 57. Grandpa's Story, 63. Imported Guero- 
sev Cow, Rosebud 10:i7, and Her Calf, 65. 

OORRESFOnDBNCB.— Let California Try Quinoa 
and Coca; The Klephaiit Potato. 58. 

THE GARDEN.— Treatment for Potato and Tomato 
liiseascs, 58. 

HORTIOUbTUBB.— The Apricot in the Upper San 

J(>a(|Uin. 58. 

THE APIARY.— Experiments with Bee Forage, 58. 
Bee-Farming in South Africa, 59. 

THE DAIRY.— How Good Butter is Spoiled; Clo- 
thilde Since Her Victory; Apples for Dairy Stock; But- 
ter on the Farm, 59. 

FORESTRY.— A Curious Tree; Wants Arboroua 
Hedges; Forest-Planting for Arizona, 59. 

Taxes; Eden Grange; Grange Picnic in Oregon; The 
Worthy Master Away truni Home: Grange Work and 
Progress, 60. 

AQRlCULiTORAIi NOTES-From the various 

counties of California, 60. 
THE HOME CIRCLE.- Is it Worth While; Her 

Poor Cousin; A Novel View Point; Thoughts; Roughing 

It in California; Cabbage-Garden Epi-S, 62. To Pre 

pare Ro8e-.Scent Jars 63. 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN — A Bit of Green, 


DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Molasiws Cake; Flour 
Pudding; Cheese Omeiet; Sago Pudding; Strawberry 
Ice; Scrambled Eggs; Cream Cake; French Rolls; But- 
termilk MutfiuB; Ginger Cookies; Oyster fritters; 
Drawn Butter, 63. 

Business Announoements. 

Windmills— Paelfic Manufacturing Compiny. 
Windmills and Pumps — Woodin & Little. 
Percheroo Horses — Sackrider & Cni.<holm, Oakland. 
Allegretti Storage Co.— West Berkeley, Cal. 
Orange Seed — C. W. Reed & Co., Sacramento. 
Agents Wanted- H. 

Ostriches— E Ciwston. Los Angeles, Cal. 

Pacific Bank— R H. McDonald. 

Dress Reform- Mrs. M. H. Obcr. 

Swine — T. Hl gan, Martinez, Cal. 

Christian Science Institute— S. E. Bradshaw. 

MM" See Advertising Oolnmns. 

The Week. 

During the 'week the usual heat wave has 
atrnck all the region east of the Missouri and 
Mississippi rivers. From north to south in this 
area heat like that from a furnace has raged. 
At Washington the mercury went higher than 
it has since the Signal Service was established, 
except in one instance. From all large centers 
of population have come reports of fatal pros- 
trations by the score, and the event has proved 
nothing less than a general calamity. Records 
of heat have been 102 at Washington, 100 at 
Cincinnati, 100 at Pittsburg, 95 at Philadelphia, 
10-2 at St. Louis, 104 at Kaleigh, 103 at Charles- 
ton, and so on. Any one who knows the East- 
ern climate will understand that such degrees 
of heat are frightful in their effects. 

From oar southeast, in Arizona and New 
Mexico and adjoining Mexican States, there 
have been unusual phenomena of a different 
and more acceptable form, though injury has 
been wroaght. There have been rainstorms, 
unprecedented in amount and untimely, which 
have washed ont railways, flooded and destroyed 
crops on lowlands, made city streets water- 
courses, and in short have interfered seriously 
with business, travel, and industry. 

With these nnwelcome visitations in mind , 

the Oalifornian becomes more joyful in his heri- 
tage in this goodly land. His harvest proceeds 
without injury to product or laborer; his 
personal comfort is withont alloy. He fears 
not heat nor untimely storm, but secure, with 
the broad ocean to furnish breezes to fan him, 
and the high mountains to shield him from 
sweep of winds, he beckons the heat and storm- 
oppressed to share with him an area which 
fortunately is large enough to make millions 

The Barley Oatlook. 

It is reported that barley is being eagerly 
gathered in by those who believe all the avail- 
able supply for 1887-8 will be more than cov- 
ered by requirements, and that barley will be 
good stuff to own before the season is over. 
Purchases in the country are said to be a good 
deal above city equivalents, which certainly 
indicates that the purchasers have faith in the 
situation. This agrees well with our own un- 
derstanding of the outturn of the present har- 
vest, and of the requirements of the next 12 
months, which will certainly be far in advance 
of any similar period in our history. The 
Herald of Trade of this city seems to have a 
correct view of the situation, and supports it by 
computations which will be of interest to our 
barley-growing readers. The figures are about 
the same that have already appeared in our col- 
umns and the grouping of them to show the pres- 
ent complexion of the barley prospect is striking. 
The following is the barley supply for each year 
named, in centals : 

Crops. Stocks. Total. 

1878- 79 7,475,000 147.598 7.632.596 

1879- 80 8,250,000 806,500 9,056,000 

1880- 81 7,360,000 908,000 8,268,000 

1881- 82 5,070,000 505,000 5.665,000 

1882- 83 4,500.000 162,000 4,662000 

1883- 84 7.063,000 820,000 7.880,000 

1884- 85 8,100,000 640,000 8,740,000 

1885- 86 5,900,000 6u8,ooo 6.508,000 

1886- 87 10,060,000 114,850 10,174,850 

The totals of the above give the available 
supply at the beginning of each crop season, 
and to get the quantity consumed it is only 
necessary to deduct that shipped each season. 
For four seasons past the following is given, 
which will convey a fair idea of the consump- 
tion in the State : 

Season. Surply. Shipped. Leaving. 

1883- 84 7,880,000 399,271 7,480,000 

1884- 85 8,740,000 480,654 8,259,366 

1885- 86 6,508,000 219,886 6,288,114 

1886- 87 io,»74.85o 925.664 9,249,180 

Now, to get the consumption, we give the 
above balance, less the quantity carried over 
into the following seasons : 

Season. Supply. Stock. C'ns'mp'n. Av prices. 

1883- 84 .. .7,480,729 640,000 6,840,729 -94^ 

1884- 85 ... 8,259.366 608,000 7,651.366 .97 

1885- 86 .. .6,288,114 "4.850 6,173,264 $1.28 

1886- 87 .. .9,249,186 798,000 8,450,686 I.OO 

The above totals of consumption show a wide 
variance, but the important fact of prices must 
not be overlooked. Each year of free consump- 
tion the average price by season shows that feed 
in our market was low. 

The consumption of feed barley in California 
is rapidly increasing, as the table above shows. 
In this city the increased use of last year over 
the preceding one is shown as follows : 

Receipts. Shipped. Balance. 

1885- 86 1,115,075 219,886 895,189 

1886- 87 2,200.870 925,664 1,275,206 

Taking the difference in the quantity on hand 
in this city on July 1, 1886, from that on hand 
■Tuly 1, 1887, and deducting it from the in- 
creased balance as given above, and still the 
consumption in this city last season was 21 per 
cent more than the season of 1885-86. 

The great increase in feed barley consump- 
tion in the country must be obvious to all. 
The vast addition to our horee-power through 
the extended planting and cultivation of orchards 
and vineyards, the growth of interior towns 
with their manufacturing interests, etc., all 
have required a large increase in the numbers 
of work animals — in fact some estimate that 
the numbers have quite doubled within a short 

This year's barley crop must be short; the 
hay crop is also short. These facts coupled with 
the increased consumption would indicate a 
year of good prices for barley and other feed 

"Instinct and Intelligence," the article 
on manifestations of mind in animals, compiled 
by Dr. Dawson for our Veterinary department 
last week, is too interesting to be overlooked 
by the general reader. 

Valaable Eaoalypts. 

As we announced in the last Rural, the 
Board of Forestry Commissioners has been in 
session this week in this city. Various mat- 
ters have been brought forward of which we 
shall give reports hereafter. President Abbot 
Kinney gave at one of the sessions an account 
of the several species of eucalyptus which the 
Board has now growing in seed-beds at Santa 
Monioa, and as several of them are new to the 
State we propose to enumerate them and add 
notes of the characteristics and values of each, 
which we draw from the writings of Baron Von 
Mueller and other authorities on the Australian 
flora. We have often remarked that there are 
other and better eucalypta than those most 
widely distributed in this State, and we desire 
by this notice to call general attention to this 
fact, in the hope that propagators may take 
steps for the introduction and trial of other 

One of the species which is now growing at 
Santa Monica is Eucalyptus calophylla, or 
" Southwest Australian red gum." It has the 
advantage of a greater proportion of foliage to 
trnnk than other eucalypts. It occasionally 
has a trunk 10 feet in diameter. Baron Von 
Mueller says when grown on alluvial land it is 
free from resin, but on stony ranges it yields 
copiously the gum "kino." Its wood is es- 
teemed for rafters, spokes and fence rails, but 
soon decays underground, and is, therefore, of 
little account for posts, etc. The bark is nsed 
for tanning as a mixture with wattle bark 
from the acacias. The seed-cups are also said 
to possess the tanning principle. 

Another species is Eucalyptus resin\fera, 
which is the " red mahogany " eucalypt of 
South Queensland and New South Wales. It 
is a superior timber tree, the wood being 
prized for strength and durability. Von Muel- 
.ler says it has proved itself the best adapted 
eucalypt for a tropical clime, but it is not so 
rapid a grower as some other species. 

The Eucalyptus rostrata is a species which 
we have heard much about in this State, and 
is what we supposed we were generally growing 
under the name of "red gum;" but it has 
proved that perhaps most trees which we sup- 
posed were rostrata were really viminalis, which 
is a more tender species, and this may account 
for the disappointment which some have ex- 
perienced in planting the " red gnm. " The 
true rostrata is a very hardy species, said to 
stand quite prolonged inundation of its roots 
and to thrive even on slightly saline ground. 
It was found to thrive in India where our com- 
mon " blue gum " (globulus) and other species 
failed. We desired in this State a variety more 
hardy than the globulus, and hence the disap- 
pointment we have had by getting viminalis 
instead of rostrata. The latter is a tall tree 
sometimes reaching 200 feet in its native land, 
but it has a more spreading habit than most of 
the tall eucalypts. The timber is very hard, 
heavy and durable; excellent for posts, railway- 
sleepers and the like — in fact this timber is the 
one solely chosen by the Government of Victoria 
for railway and bridge purposes. It is also 
employed by shipbuilders for a host of uses. 
Next to the jarrah from West Australia it is 
said to bo the best for resisting the attacks of 
sea-worms, teredo, etc. 

The last of the four species which Mr. Kin- 
ney says are doing best in the Santa Monioa 
plantation is the Eucalyptus corynoealyx. This 
is the " sugar gum tree " of South Australia, a 
timber tree sometimes reaching 120 feet in 
hight and 5} feet in diameter of trunk. The 
wood is said to be of good quality, but the tree 
is not of very rapid growth. It has the pecu- 
liarity of being something of a forage plant, for 
Baron Von Mueller says it is the only eucalypt 
except E. Oannii, which has a foliage that at- 
tracts cattle and sheep, which browse on the 
lower branches, saplings and seedlings. 

Such are some of the trees which the State 
Board of Forestry has growing. We trust they 
may thrive. In another column may be seen 
a resolution adopted by the Board looking to 
the acceptance of tracts of lands in different 
parts of the State where forestry stations may 
be established. This is of the highest im- 
portance. To have well-set groves of trees, 
each one with its name and nativity inscribed 
near it, will be to furnish all the people of the 
section an opportunity to study for themselves 
what trees promise to do best, and therefore 
which they had better choose for their own 

planting. It will be an opportunity for object 
lessons in arboriculture which will be of ines- 
timable value to the State. 

Bad Environment. 

That poor old alleged poker-player and con- 
victed boodle-briber, Jacob Sharp, now medi- 
tates over his past life under the shadow of the 
State prison. That he has been justly con- 
victed and sentenced there cannot be a shadow 
of doubt. And yet it may be a serious question 
whether he is not as much a victim as a crimi- 
nal. " A victim," in the language of the New 
York Standard, " of that greed of gain born of 
the fear of want, which sanctities the getting of 
wealth by any means, provided the successful 
man can keep ont of the penitentiary." He 
was a sharp, shrewd, business man who had set 
his heart on procuring a franchise for a Broad- 
way street-railway. It could only be had by 
bribing the Board of Aldermen. They were a lot 
of scoundrels for sale ftid Sharp bonght them. 
He acted nnder the advice of a highly respect- 
able law firm that would have kicked a Bowery 
street tramp down the elevator who had come 
to them to learn how he could safely crack a 
safe or burglarize a house. He acted on a prin- 
ciple that largely obtains in the BDard of Trade 
rooms, in railroad offices, the privacy of bank 
parlors, political rings, and even among many 
leaders of fashionable churches, that there can 
be little or no harm to buy a roan who adver- 
tises himself for sale. Daring an election a few 
years ago a saloon keeper on the flanks of a 
mountain boasted be could control 40 votes. 

"Go and buy him," said a leading politician 
of this State, " or the other side will get him; 
only be careful the log you sit on while con- 
ducting the negotiation is not hollow." There 
is no hiding the fact that the feeling prevails 
that the crime attaches to the bribe-taker and 
not the bribe giver. This is the sort of atmos- 
phere in which Jacob Sharp, down there in 
New York, lived, moved and had his being. 
It was the regular tradewind that blew up Wall 
street, down B.-oadway, and had carried many 
a man into the desirable haven of a marble 
front on Fifth avenue and a front pew in a 
stylish church. Is it strange that this old 
man, whose conscience perhaps was naturally a 
little elastic, should come to the conclusion that 
if these aldermaniu scoundrels were willing to 
flu their pockets with boodle it was no concern 
of his ? 

Now it is well that Jacob Sharp should go to 
prison. It is well for Chicago to prosecute the 
boodlers who have disgraced the lake city till 
the last one of them is arrayed in striped pants. 
A suit has been started in this city that is 
likely to uncover the guilt of bribery in fixing 
three or four jurors in a recentcase. This jary- 
fixing business has long been the curse and 
scandal of the courts, and we hope there will 
be no mawkish hesitancy in probing it to the 
bottom, no matter who it hurts. 

But let not society roll up the white of its 
eyes in holy horror whenever a respectable 
citizen or good deacon kicks in the dash-board 
and runs away with his stolen plunder to Mon- 
treal or some other city of refuge. Society is 
largely responsible for this state of things. 
Judges may read homilies from the bench, 
grand juries indict, preachers declaim, and pol- 
iticians vociferate, but this evil will go on, for 
where the carcass is, the vultures will gather. 
And it is not strange. We worship success, 
giving no heed as to the means. Poverty is the 
only devil that is feared in America, and the 
millionaire's palace our ideal of heaven. A 
man may have no more brains or conscience 
than a hyena, be a moral leper in broadcloth, 
but if he has a good bank account, society in- 
vites him to dinner, the pew doors fly open, 
and all the pretty girls regard him as a splen- 
did "catch." And what is the consequence? 

" Eich for himself, and the devil take the 
hindmost " hai become the law of trade. No 
matter whose life-preserver you seize so yon 
get ashore. Our boys and girls grow up in 
this atmosphere. They are taught by example, 
if not precept, to revere the successful man and 
avoid the men who have failed. And what can 
we expect to come of such a school but Tweeds, 
Jacob Sharps, Chicago boodlers. Sin Francisco 
jury-fixers, and the whole swarm of saloon 
politicians, election bribers and legislative cor- 
ruptionistsT We must make the tree good if 
we expect to gather good fruit. Do men 
gather grape* of thorni and figs of thiatlea! 

July 23, 1887.] 



A Fine Guernsey. 

We do not hear as macb of the Guernseys as 
we would like, although there are some fine 
animals in this State, notably the Yerba Buena 
herd of Henry Pierce. As a matter of fact, our 
atock breeding readers generally do not con- 
tribute, as freely as we desire, the results of 
their experience and thought on matters con- 
nected with their business. Our live-stock in- 
terests are growing creditably, our dairies are 
putting in new and improved machinery, and 
aur herds are being constantly improved by se- 
lection in breeding and by the introduction of 
well-bred animals. All these enterprises should 
prompt those engaged in them to compare 
notes and experiences for their own benefit, 
and to let the public generally know how much 
of life and achievement there is in their in- 

The engraving on this page wMl please all 
who have an eye for a good dairy cow, for 
whatever may be the individual preference for 
breeds, there is a harmony of points and out- 
lines which pertain to all the best dairy 
animals. This is the " dairy shape," which 
has been considerably enlarged upon by some 
writers. Whatever may be the distinctive 
characteristics of the 
different breeds, there 
is something which 
makes all our best 
dairy breeds akin. 
There is, in the 
minds of most ad- 
vanced breeders, an 
ideal of perfection, 
and they endeavor to 
develop their animals 
toward it. One of the 
first educational ef- 
forts of the young 
stockman is to fill his 
mind's eye with a 
correct ideal. He can 
do this best by actual 
study of the best ani- 
mals. Animal por- 
traiture is a help to- 
ward this end for 
those who have not 
the opportunity for 
comparative study of 
many animals, and it 
is to help form cor- 
rect ideals as much as 
to celebrate the fame 
of individual animals 
or breeds that we aim 
to present upon our 
pages really good 
portraits of the best 

This week we have 
an excellent portrait 
of a Guernsey cow — 
an imported animal 

purchased on the Island of Guernsey for $1000 
by I. J. Clapp of Kenosha, Wisconsin, Her 
name is Rosebud 1037, and the artist shows her 
young calf beside her. The butter yield of 
Rosebud when four years old, was in seven days 
17 lbs. 10 oz. on grass and a daily feed of six 
quarts oats, bran and cornmeal. This cow has 
taken four prizes in England and several in this 
country, Mr. Clapp is well known throughout 
the country as a Guernsey breeder. There are 
in his herd about 40 pure-bred animals. 

A Steam Wagon. — In a machine shop at 
Auburn, Me., can be seen a novelty in the 
shape of a steam wagon, now in process of con- 
struction. The machine will have all the ap- 
pearance of a common Concord wagon, with the 
exception that a part of the boiler and its cov- 
ering will show above the body of the wagon. 
All the motive power will be concealed under 
the flooring. The power will be furnished by 
two small engines of about three-horse power. 
The boiler is made from iron pipe in spiral 
form. The wagon body contains two seats, 
easily holding three each. 

A Cervine Trotter. — A youug elk that has 
been trained to trot, and can go a mile in three 
minutes, caught the notice of a Oazetle report- 
er at Rsno last week. It was on its way to 
this city for a red -rubber stamp man, who 
bought it at Ogden for $70, and will use it to 
draw bis delivery wagon and the attention of 
the public. 

Consumption and Production of Fruits. 

The consumption of fruits of all kinds in the 
United States is enormous and constantly in- 
creasing. It is much greater than most people 
have any idea of. The fear that there will be 
an overproduction, except temporarily and in 
some specialties, is groundless. There seems 
to be a great rush just now into growing apri- 
cots, which, if continued for several years, 
might possibly result in overproduction; but it 
would only be temporary, if at all. The de- 
mand would soon come up to any reasonable 
degree of production. In the matter of prunes 
there is also a great increase in the area of 
trees; but the fact that there were no less than 
.30,000 tons of this fruit imported last year 
gives such a margin to draw from that our pro- 
ducers need have very little fear of overpro- 
duction. In the matter of citrus fruits, al- 
though the area of their cultivation is rapidly 
increasing, those sections of the country where 
the climate and soil are peculiarly well adapted 
to their growth need have no fear from over- 
production, 80 long as proper attention is paid 
to the quality. The area best adapted to this 
culture, even in Southern California, is some- 
what limited. No doubt large quantities of 

Fruit for the East. 

Since our last writing the California Fruit 
Union has sent two special ten-car fruit trains 
eastward. The first left Sacramento July 13th. 
The fruit consisted of Bartlett pears, peaches, 
plums and grapes. Strong & Co. sent four car- 
loads; Gregory, Barnes & Co., two; Porter 
Brothers Co., two; and the other two car- 
loads were made up by growers in the vicinity 
of Vacaville. The fruit is assigned to points 
east of Omaha, and the railroad company 
promised to put the train through on passenger 
time. The pears, peaches, etc., are from the 
down-river fruit section, in Sacramento county, 
and the grapes are from Vacaville. The first 
fruit train last year was forwarded on June 
24th. This was found to be too early, how- 
ever, and shippers have waited this year until 
the fruit has attained perfection. That shipped 
on the 13th was in prime condition. 

On July 18th the second special fruit train 
left Sacramento. The shippers are Gregory, 
Barnes & Co., W. R. Strong & Co., and Porter 
Brothers. The train consists of ten cars and 
goes through on passenger ,time. Crawford 
peaches, Bartlett pears, plums and grapes com- 
prise the shipment. Upon another page we 

authorities concerning rates. 


citrus fruits will be produced in Central and I give the latest announcement of the railway 
Northern California; but such cultivation there 
also will be confined to comparatively small 
areas, if none but first-class fruit is accepted. 

It should be the endeavor of fruit growers 
everywhere, and of all varieties, to produce 
nothing but the best, and to meet the question 
of supply by driving all that is inferior out of 
the market. Fruit-growing will ultimately 
come to that point. No producer of superior 
fruit need have any fear from overproduc- 

Shorthorns FOR Nevada. — Mr. H. F. Brown 
of Minneapolis writes that he shipped on July 
7th the famous Shorthorns bought by W. J. 
Marsh & Son of Fort Churchill, Nev., of which 
mention was made a few weeks ago in the 
Rural Press. The animals are Duke of Water- 
loo, Wild Kyes of Browndale 6th, Wild Eyes 
Duchess I2th, Wild Eyes Duke 11th. This 
is a very choice lot of Bates bred Short- 
horns, which must prove of great benefit to the 
stock interests of the coast. 

Prized Bevond the Mississippi.— A reader 
of the Rural Press in Illinois writes for two 
back numbers, to complete Vol. XXXIII, and 
adds: " I have your paper bound each year, 
from nearly the first. It offers inore and better 
information pertaining to California than any- 
thing else extant — I refer to current events and 
such things as are of interest to those who love 
California for herself alone." 

A New Apricot. — A. D. Pryal of N. Tem- 
escal, Alameda county, brings us specimens of 
a new apricot he has originated by crossing 
the Royal and Blenheim. The cross thus ob- 
tained was grafted into a Moorpark tree and 
fruited for the first time this year. It is of 
good size, rather oblong, nearly equally molded 
on each side, its most obvious external charac- 
teristic being its exceptionally high color. Its 
ruddy hue is strongly deep for the coast cli- 
mate, and bids fair to make the new variety 
famous. The flesh is firm and rich colored and 
the fruit seems to ripen evenly. Mr. Pryai 
has given much attention to crossing fruit va- 
rieties, and he believes this apricot his most 
notable success. 

American Machinery in Italy. — The Unit- 
ed States consul at Milan, Italy, reports to the 
State Department that American machinery has 
a high reputation with the Italians, especially 
hydraulic wheels, turbines and windmills. If 
such is the case, it might be a profitable move- 
ment on the part of our machinists to look into 
the matter, and if it has a substantial existence 
try and make some arrangement for a represen- 
tation at the International Exhibition of ma- 
chinery to be held in Milan next May and June. 
If the time is too short for an exhibit of this 
kind, any Italian partiality tor American ma- 
chinery should not be lost sight of. 

Prof. C. V. Riley, U. S. Entomologist. 

We are glad to present to our readers upon 
the first page of this issue of the Rural a strik- 
ing likeness of Prof. C. V. Riley, U. S. Ento- 
mologist. It is not pleasant to make compar- 
isons between things which are all good and be- 
tween men who are rendering eminent public 
service, but it can be strongly argued that ap- 
plied science has attained no higher industrial 
importance than in the field of economic ento- 
mology, and if this be conceded, the position 
of Prof. Riley, who is the acknowledged leader 
of the world in this field, becomes apparent 
without argument. This position is an award 
of merit. Fitness for it has been secured by a 
quarter of a century of unremitting labor — 
labor guided by genius and vitalized by the 
glow of enthusiasm. Industry, genius, enthu- 
siasm — these three have conquered worlds, in 
war and in philanthropy, in philosophy and 
in science, and in industrial arts. We like 
an opportunity to present their achievements as 
a rebuke to listless, aimless living and as an in- 
centive to the youth to choose life courses 
which gain the reward of an approving con- 
science and make the world the better for their 
tenancy of it. Therefore we give a sketch of 
the life and public 
services of Prof. Ri- 
ley, intending to con- 
vey thereby some 
slight token of our ap- 
preciation of his worth 
and in the hope of 
spreading abroad 
among onr youth a 
desire to emulate his 
eminence and useful- 
ness. In the sketch 
which follows we 
make no claim to 
originality. We draw 
the facts, and in some 
cases the expression, 
from a number of pub- 
lished sketches to 
which we have access. 
Nativity and Youtn. 

Charles V. Riley 
was born in London, 
England, September 
18, 1843. His boy- 
hood was spent in 
Walton, a charming 
village on the banks 
of the Thames, be- 
tween Hampton Court 
and Windsor. He 
subsequently attend- 
ed private schools at 
Chelsea and Bays- 
water till the age of 
11, when he entered 
the College of St. PanI 
at Dieppe, France. 
Here he remained 
three years, and then spent nearly three years 
more in a private school at Bonn, Prussia. These 
six years of study on the continent of Europe 
are the secret of his familiarity with the French 
and German languages, and of bis power of 
speaking them with exceptional accuracy. Two 
passions characterized bis boyhood, one for col- 
lecting insects, the other for drawing and 
painting. The first brought him, as a mere 
boy, in contact with the late H. W. Hewitson, 
a celebrated naturalist, who had an unrivaled 
collection of butterflies and birds at Oatlands, 
Weybridge, near Walton, and later with many 
eminent naturalists at Bonn and the neighbor- 
ing village of Poppelsdorf. The artistic talent 
is recorded in many a framed sketch yet cher- 
ished at Walton, and enabled him easily to 
carry off the best prizes in drawing at Dieppe 
and Bonn. 

The early loss of his father, and the care at 
school of a younger brother, developed in young 
Riley a self-reliance and sense of responsibility 
which gave a practical turn to his views and 
convinced him that the classical education he 
was getting lacked many elements of utility, 
and was not the best preparation for active life- 
work. So at the age of 17, with that love of 
adventure, of free institutions and of rural life 
which often accompanies the artistic tempera- 
ment, he sailed for New York, where, after k 
seven weeks' voyage, he arrived with little 
means and "a stranger in a strange land." He 
went West and settled upon a farm in Illinois; 



[July 23, 1887 

here, daring fnar years, he acquired that ex- 
perience of Western agriculture that can be 
gained only by actual farmwork. Fond of ani- 
mals, of flowers and fruit, of bee-keeping and 
nf all life as manifested on the farm, young 
Riley devoted himself enthusiastically to the 
calling he had chosen. Of an inquiring and ex- 
perimental turn of mind, he aimed to improve 
on the methods in vogue, and soon won the 
esteem of all who knew him; and though so 
young, was sought for in counsel and honored 
at public gatherings, at which he became inti- 
mate with prominent farmers of Illinois. 

Early Public Work. 

Just about the time of his majority Mr. Riley 
entered journalistic work in Chicago and tiually 
became connected with the Prairie Farmer, the 
leading agricultural jonrnal of the West. Be- 
sides a close application to the duties of his 
position as reporter, delineator and editor of 
the entomological department of this paper, he 
devoted his time and energies to the study of 
botany and entomology. Hieindastry and versa- 
tility soon made him not only popular with bis 
associates upon the paper, but gave him a wide- 
spread and favored reputation as a writer upon 
natural history, especially on his specialty of 
economic entomology, the importance of which 
he soon made apparent. 

During his travels in connection with the 
Prairie Farmer, he became personally acquaint- 
ed with the leading naturalists and agricnltnral- 
ists of the West. His connection with the 
Prairie Farmer was interrupted in May, 1S64, 
by his enlisting in the 1.34th Illinois volunteers, 
with which he served until i'^s disbanding in 
November of the same year, when he resumed 
his connection with the same paper. In the 
spring of 186S be terminated his connection 
with the Prairie Farmer to accept the office of 
" State Eatomologist of Missouri," which was 
tendered to him upon its creation. 

The Foundation of hia Oreatness- 
In his new position in Missouri, Prof. 
Riley fonnd full scope for his peculiar abilities, 
and soon earned a world-wide reputation as an 
original investigator and a keen writer, not only 
on his favorite specialty, but on various practi- 
cal subjects counected with education and agri- 
culture. Patting heart and soul into his work, 
he labored for nine years to the credit of his 
adopted State. With no assistance save what 
he engaged from his own means; paying all his 
own expenses, even to the illustration of his re- 
ports; contending with much ignorant opposi- 
tion and ridicule from the Legislature, he yet 
knew no failure. It was his enthusiasm, born 
of conviction, and his power of communicating 
it to others, that enabled him to fight successful- 
ly for the cause of economic entomology in a 
State which had never been noted for advanced 

Of Prof. Riley's published works, those 
which first gave him prominence are his nine 
annual reports on the insects of Missouri. In 
these reports the noxious, beneficial and innox- 
ioas insects are treated of in separate divisions. 
They owe their value in no small degree to the 
fact that they are replete with the results of 
original research, and of newly discovered facts 
in the life histories of most of our common in- 
sects, together with practical information for 
controlling them. Accuracy and popularity 
are combined in these works, which have come 
to be looked upon as authoritative text-books, 
and which are all the more remarkable from the 
fact that the author had none of the accumu- 
lated experience and library facilities to be 
found in Extern scientific centers, and had to 
contend with very inferior State printing and 

Of these Missouri reports, the late Charles 
Darwin wrote that they contained a vast 
number of facts and generalizations valuable 
to him, and that he was struck with admira- 
tion at tbe author's powers of observation; 
while that high authority, the KntomologinliC 
Monthly Magazine of London, in noticing the 
ninth or last report issued, says: " The 
author, in giving full scope to bis keen powers 
of observation, minuteness of detail, and the 
skill with which be uses his pencil, and, at the 
same time, in showing a regard for that scien- 
tific accuracy, unfortunately too otten neg- 
lected in works on economic natural history, 
maintains bis right to be termed the foremost 
economic entomologist of the day." 

BeBlnning of National Effort. 
We all remember the sad experience which 
our Western States and Territories passed 
through from 1873 to 1877, from locust or 
grasshopper ravages, which resulted In destitu- 
tion and precipitated a financial crisis. These 
ravages seriously affected the western portion 
of his own State, and Prof. Riley took hold of 
the problem with that originality and vieor 
which have characterized all his work. His 
last three reports to the State contain the first 
positive and accurate knowledge on the subject 
that had been pnblished. But he early saw 
that the subject was one of national importance, 
and could not be fully dealt with by work in 
any one State. To feel a necessity was suffi- 
cient for him to act, and consequently we find 
him, in public lectures, in leading articles, 
through resolutions offered at society meetings, 
memorials to Congress, and in every other way, 
urging the creation of a national entomological 
commission. After various bills had been in- 
troduced and discussed. Congress finally cre- 
ated the Entomological Commiesion, with a 
special view to investigate the Rocky mountain 
locust, or so-called grasshopper; and Prof. Riley 
was tendered the position of chief of the com. 

mission, a distinction which his investigations 
into this insect had justly earned, for he had 
already not only made most important discov- 
eries as to its habits and the best means of snb- 
duing it, but had ascertained sundry laws that 
govern it, so as to be able to predict the time of 
its coming and going and the limits of its 
spread. Consulted by Secretary Schurz as to 
the other appointments, it is no woniler that 
the members chosen were Dr. A. S. Packard, 
Jr., a naturalist of eminence, one of the first 
entomologists of the world, and a prominent 
author and editor, and Prof. Cyrus Thomas, 
who had likewise labored for the creation of 
the commission and who was the authority on 
the family of insects to which the locunt be- 
longs. Both of the gentlemen, like Prof. Riley, 
had been chosen by their respective States as 
official entomologints, and had a large personal 
experience in the West. Accepting charge of 
the commission thus constituted, in March, 
1877, we find Riley traveling that year over 
most of the Western country, from the Gulf to 
the South Saskatchawan, in British America, 
now in company with the Governor of a State, 
again with other special officials, but every- 
where exhort-ng the farmers to action, making 
careful observations and experiments, and in- 
spiring confidence. 

In the spring of 1878, while superintending 
tbe publication of the first report of this com- 
mission, Prof. Riley was tendered the position 
of eatomologist to the Department of Agri- 
culture by the then Commissioner LeDuc. 
There was at that time an entomologist pro- 
vided for at ?l!IOO per annum, with no assist 
ants or means for efficient work, and little ex- 
perimental work or original research had for 
many years been attempted. It was not an 
inviting position to an ambitious man; but, 
seeing possibilities for future good work. Prof. 
Riley accepted it, and Congress gave him SIOOO 
additional compensation and appropriated 
§10,000 for special entomological investigations. 

Having already given much attention to the 
chief insect depredators on grain and fruits, he 
now turned his attention more particularly to 
those affecting the cotton crop and other 
Southern staples. But there was lack of har- 
mony in the Department and Prof. Riley re- 
signed his position. Upon his withdrawal. 
Congress complimented him by transferring the 
cotton-worm invistigation to the Entomological 
Commission, which acted under the Interior 
Department. During tbe next two years — 
1879 and 1880 — he pursued bis investigations 
in the Southern States, during tbe hottest parts 
of the year, visiiing one State after another 
and directing and co-operating with his assist 
ants. During this period the commission had 
its headquarters at his residence, and the bulk 
of the correspondence fell to his lot. Its suc- 
cess and the increasing support given to it by 
Congress was due as much to the dignity, tact 
and couraee, as to the efficiency which char- 
acterized Riley's management. When LeDuc's 
administration of the Department of Agricult- 
ure came to a close, Riley was again tendered 
the position of entomologist by Dr. Loring, 
who knew and ap